Panel 5: Mobility and spatial behaviour
Jakub Isanski (Adam Mickiewicz University), Networks and migrants’ communities. Case of Polish migration after 2004
In the recent years, international migration is rising in range of destinations and its impact on social processes. In my paper, I want focus on migration from Poland. In 2004, when Poland became a European Union member, new opportunities approached in the field of international mobility for individuals. International travels for work, education and leisure purposes are far more common these years. Upward social mobility based on international travels is more and more often perceived as a key tool for a successful life. As many academics prove, the contemporary spatial mobility is a common strategy not only for survive, but also to improve one's life chances to climb up the social ladder. In the research conducted in 2011 of Poles returning from emigration, a two interesting strategies can be identified: the one, with the co-migration behaviour of people involved in preparing their stay abroad, and the second one with more individual-oriented strategy of personal career run during the stay abroad. The point is, if it is accessible to migrate, and successfully get by as a member of self-support ethnic community, or it is much more reasonable to go up only as an individual? I will try to answer this comparing the research data with the patterns of contemporary migration flows worldwide.
^ & Rein Ahas (University of Tartu), Differences in spatial behaviour between Estonians and Russians: case study on the residents of Tallinn
Ethnic segregation is one of the most topical issues in European cities. Estonian society is segregated both socially and spatially – majority and minority nationalities speak different languages, work in different economic sectors, go to different schools and live in different regions. The main studies of ethnical differences on spatial behaviour and the corresponding planning policies so far have been developed based on residential segregation. The residential area is only one part of people’s activity space. With the increasing spatial and social mobility a gaining importance of people’s activities and communication and contacts with others takes place outside their place of residence. Spatial behaviour that is outside the residential area and everyday routine is less limited, this is why it reflects people’s individual and social identity better, bringing out their cultural preferences and, also the differences. The aim of this study is to investigate ethnical differences in people’s spatial behaviour. Are the extent and destinations of spatial use of the majority and minority groups different? The studied areas are divided into the city of Tallinn as the region of the place of residence and the territory outside Tallinn. In addition to the differences in spatial behaviour we also study which characteristics besides ethnicity influence people’s spatial behaviour, especially the impact of ethnical composition in the residential area. We analyse people’s spatial behaviour based on the data of passive mobile positioning of 6,250 mobile users that speak Estonian and 6,250 mobile users that speak Russian living in Tallinn in 2010. Knowledge about how different nationality groups use space enables to make conclusions about the processes and problems in society and thereafter find solutions to them.
^ (Centre for Quality Assessment in Higher Education), Reciprocal interest: East European migration patterns and higher education policy in Lithuania after 2004
After joining European Union in 2004, because of the enormous emigration, Lithuania experienced noticeable decrease of population. The article analyses migration patterns and how they influence the development of higher education policy changes in Lithuania. First, it is important to note, that the right of the free movement of people opened new possibilities for Lithuanian school graduates to study abroad. The data shows that the numbers of Lithuanian graduates studying in UK and other Western universities are constantly growing. However in addition to these changes, other migration aspect could be observed. Starting from 2004, numbers of the applicants from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) for the recognition of higher education qualifications noticeable increased in Lithuania. On the other hand the demographic and economical situation in Lithuania influenced recent shift in higher education policy implementation with more attention paid to the recruitment of students from third countries and from CEE in particular. The article will presents findings of the statistical data analysis of the migration flows in higher education system from CEE countries in Lithuania after EU enlargement. In addition, article will present analysis of the coherence of the Lithuanian education policy changes in the context of EU education policy measures regarding third country nationals.
^ (Northumbria University), European mobility and the question of new minorities: the case of Romanians in Spain
This paper focuses on the experiences of Romanian migrants in Spain. Since the end of the 1990s the number of Romanian citizens living in Spain has been in constant rise, and they have become a significant immigrant community well before Romania’s EU accession in 2007. After becoming EU citizens, however, their status has suddenly changed. In the new European context, classical theories and outcomes of migration phenomena need to be reconceptualised. Is migration within the EU creating new minorities within nation-states? What is the effect of the freedom of movement policy on the new member states’ ethnic and national minorities? Can theories of international migration still be useful in this new context? Based on data from a fieldwork undertaken in 2009, the paper explores the possible results of intra-European mobility. Through the analysis of the social differentiation patterns within a Romanian community in Alcala de Henares, Spain, the author argues that a new process of ethnic minority formation is undergoing. This unfinished process may or may not lead to the creation of a strong Romanian Diaspora in Spain, due to the lack of a sense of community. The paper also discusses these problems by arguing that an active group self-identification on the part of Romanians only occurs in contrast with members of the Roma community.