Professor Emeritus of Biology icon

Professor Emeritus of Biology


Estella B. Leopold September 2005

Professor Emeritus of Biology

University of Washington

Seattle, Washington 98195


Late Cenozoic paleobotany, pollen and seed analysis, paleoecology, paleoclimate

History of Pacific NW forest associations and western grasslands

Climate and vegetation patterns since glaciation, Pacific NW

Ecosystem management and restoration ecology


1944-48 Ph.B. University of Wisconsin at Madison, Botany

1948-50 M.S. University of California at Berkeley, Botany

1953-55 Ph.D. Yale University, Botany


1951 Assistant Research Hydrologist, Laboratory of Tree Ring Research,

University of Arizona

1952 Research Assistant, Smith College, Genetics Experiment Station

1952 Mycologist, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

1952-53 Teaching Assistant, Department of Plant Science, Yale University

1954 Teaching Assistant, Department of Zoology, Yale University

1955-76 Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch, U.S. Geological Survey,

Denver, Colorado, Research Botanist

1967-76 Adjoint Professor, Department of Biology, University of Colorado

1971-72 Visiting Professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Department of Botany and Institute for Environmental Studies

1976-82 Director, Quaternary Research Center, Professor of Botany and Forest

Resources, University of Washington, Seattle

1982-89 Professor, Department of Botany and College of Forest Resources,

University of Washington

1989-95 Professor, Botany and Environmental Studies, University of Washington

1995-99 Professor of Botany, University of Washington

2000 Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, University of Washington


Recipient, Jr. Sterling Scholarship, 1953-54, Yale University

Recipient, Sheffield Scientific School Scholarship, 1954-55, Yale University

Co-recipient, Conservationist-of-the-Year Award, with Bettie Willard, 1969,

Colorado Wildlife Federation

National Academy of Sciences, elected 1974

Keep Colorado Beautiful; annual award, 1976

Fellow, Geological Society of America, 1984

Fellow, American Association for Advancement of Science, 1980, 1986

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, elected 1992

Wilbur Cross Medal, Yale University, 1993

Zucker Fellow, for outstanding contributions in Paleobotany, Yale University, 1993

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA, elected 2000


Recipient, National Science Foundation Travel Grant: 1957 to Spain; 1961 to Poland; 1976 to England; 1982 to USSR; 1988 to Ottawa Canada.

1968-69 National Science Foundation Grant No. GB-7890
To support graduate student Richard G. Baker, Department of Biology, University of Colorado. $7800

1978 Graduate School Research Fund. $6000

1979 Graduate School Research Fund. $6000

1979-81 National Science Foundation Grant DEB79-12241A01
Vegetation History and Tephra Chronology of the Puget Lowland. $124,000

1981 Contract: Golder Associates, Palynology of Miocene Sediments at the Hanford Reservation, Washington. $8500

1982-83 National Science Foundation Grant DEB 81-10470
Pollen Analysis in the Southern Puget Lowland. $8000

1982-83 National Science Foundation Grant DEB 81-07491
Macrofossil studies on Mount Rainier. $6771

1982-83 Graduate School Research Fund
History of Prairie in the Southern Puget Lowland. $4000

1985 Mountaineer Foundation
Forest History of Tiger Mt., King Co., Wash. $1500

1986-87 Greenspring Ltd., Denver, Colo. Paleoecological Research in King Co., WA. $5,000

1986 Heart of America Foundation, Seattle.
IES, Environments past and present at Hanford, WA. $2000

1987 Washington Dept. of Nat. Res., Forest History in Relation to Historical Surface
Fires in the Tiger Mt. Area, King Co., WA. $3,000

1990 EPA, Recycling Education on campus, University of Washington, 2 years, $30,000

1991-92 NSF, A long-term cooling near the Arctic Circle in Alaska, 18 months, $50,000

1991-92 U.S. Geological Survey contract for seed analysis and paleo earthquake
research in estuaries of King Co., Wash. $12,000 in 1991; $17,000 in 1992.

1993 U.S. Geological Survey contract for seed analysis and paleo earthquake
research in estuaries of King Co., Wash. $23,000

1996-98 National Geographic Society (with Gengwu Liu). The Pliocene Gaus Interval in NE China – Latitudinal Temperature Gradients. $32,400 for two years.

1997-98 U.S. Geological Survey contract; Paleoecology and History of Estuary Marshes, Puget Sound. (Work on the Seattle fault.) $14,000 for two years.

1998-99 J. David Love, Laramie, WY. Pollen Stratigraphy and Ecology of the Miocene Teewinot Lake Beds, Jackson Hole, WY. $13,000


American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division

Committee on Climate, 1983 to 1984; Pacific Division, Executive Committee, 1985-89; President Elect (Pacific Division)1993; President, 1994-95; Past President Executive Committee Member 1996-97

American Quaternary Association, 1982-88

Council Member, 1970-74; Program Committee, 1974; President-Elect, 1980-82; President, 1982-84

Botanical Society of America

Palynology Committee on proposals for Amending International Rules Botanical Nomen­clature, 1958; U.S.G.S. Delegate to Nomenclature Section, Int. Bot. Congress, Montreal, 1959

Ecological Society of America 1954-80; Leopold Leadership Fellows Program, Advisory Council 1998-

Geological Society of America 1976-present; Fellow 1984

The Paleontological Association, London 1959-64

National Academy of Sciences 1974-

Environmental Quality Award Committee, member 1976; Chairman 1977-79; Executive Committee for Assembly of Life Sciences, 1974-77; Environmental Studies Board, member 1977-80; Ad Hoc Committee on Geology and Climate, 1977; Climate Research Board, 1983; Committee on Global Change, 1991-92; Board on Global Change, 1992-94; Committee on Human Dimensions of Global Change, 1992-95

Sigma Xi 1950-

President, Washington Chapter 1994-95

International Union for Quaternary Research, U.S. National Committee

Member, 1976-78; Vice Chairman, 1978-82; U.S. Delegate to INQUA Congress, Birming­ham, 1977; Moscow, 1983; Chairman, 1982-87; Chief delegate to INQUA Congress, Ottawa, 1987

National Science Foundation, Earth System History, Scientific Steering Committee, 1994-97

National Endowment for the Humanities, Panel member, 1994

Environmental Review, Board 1998-present


4 semesters of Russian, Government courses, ca 1964-65

1 semester of Greek, S. Dimitrios, Seattle, 1980


Associate Editor, Quaternary Research 1980-83

Editorial Board, Quaternary Research 1976-present

Editorial Board, Quaternary International 1990-present


Colorado Open Space Council, co-founder and Board 1965-73

Denver Audubon Society, Conservation Chairman 1970-73

Environmental Defense Fund, National Board 1975-77

Governor's Oil Shale Committee on Environmental Protection, (Colorado) 1971-72

The Institute of Ecology, Chair of Founders; University of Wisconsin 1972-82

McIntyre Stennis Cooperative Forestry Research Advisory Committee 1974-82

Rocky Mountain Center on Environment, Board, Denver. 1971-73

National Audubon Board 1979-83

The Nature Conservancy, National Board 1970-72; Washington Board 1982-84

Governor's Advisory Council, High-Level Nuclear Waste Management, (Washington) 1982-87

SCIENCE Magazine, Newcomb Cleveland Prize Selection Committee 1977-78

Mount. St. Helens Science Advisory Board, U.S. Forest Service 1986-89

Friends of the Earth Foundation, Board 1987-89
Seattle Chapter, Audubon Society; Science Advisor and Board Member 1996-99

Aldo Leopold Foundation, President 1996-98; Chairman of the Board 1998-2003; President 2004

TEACHING: University of Washington:


Bot 501 Pollen Morphology (3 credits) Spring 1981

For B 520 Problems in Cenozoic Plant Ecology (3 credits)

Winter 1978-81

Bot 443 Origins of our Modern Floras (4 credits)

Winter 1983, 84, 86, 88, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 2000, 02

For B 590 Paleoecology Seminar (1 credit)

Fall 1982; Winter 1983

Bot 439 Forest History (4 credits)

Spring 1983, 84, 85, 86, 88 (cross-listed with Forest Resources)

Bot 453 Concepts and Methods in Paleoecology (4 credits)

Fall 1984, 1986; (cross-listed with Forest Resources and QRC);

organizer of course taught with L. Brubaker and M. Tsukada.

Envs 206 Laboratory in Environmental Problems (5 credits)

Spring 1990, 1991, 1992, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98

Envs 498 Seminar; "Wetlands, No Net Loss?" (1 credit)

Bot 526/599 Topics in Botany Seminar

Winter 1993 (5 credits); Winter 1994 (3 credits)

Bot 333 Plant Communities – Restoration and Resilience (5 credits) Fall 1996-99


Bio 102 General Biology, 1/2 Winter 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991


Quat 417 Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages (3 credits), with Stephen Porter,

Fall 1977-82; Spring 1987

Quat 501 Quaternary Environments Seminar (1 credit)

Winter and Spring 1977-82


HA & S 202 Science: Its Nature and Role in Society (3 credits)

HA & S 203 Winter and Spring 1977-78, team taught with 4 others


Spectrum History of the Pacific Northwest since the Ice Age, Autumn 1980

Spectrum History of Pacific Northwest Environments, Summer 1979,

Acted as organizer for seminar series

Northern Cascades Institute, Sedro-Woolley

Seminar, field trips for graduate students

September 11-12, 2004 “Reading the Land”, Shaw Island, WA


Committee Chair:

University of Colorado, Boulder

Richard Baker Ph.D. 1969 Geology (now Prof. of Geology, Univ. Iowa)

University of Washington

Cathy Barnosky M.S. 1980 Geological Sciences (now chair, Geog. Dept, Univ.

Oregon, Eugene.)

Deborah Newman M.S. 1982 Forest Resources

(now Research Assoc., Brigham Young Univ.)

Jeannie Barnett M.S. 1982 Geological Sciences

(now Research geologist, Chevron Oil Co)

Peter Dunwiddie Ph.D. 1982 Botany (now Plant Ecologist,

Nature Conservancy Science Staff, Seattle)

Cathy Barnosky Ph.D. 1983 Geological Sciences

(now Prof. at University of Oregon)

Robyn Burnham Ph.D. 1987 Botany (co-chair)

(now faculty at University of Michigan)

Susan Calder M.S. 1990 Geology

(now employed Washington Division Geology)

Sheila Turner M.S. 1990 Fisheries

Sally Abella M.S. 1992 Botany (now Zoology Staff, UW)

Devra Jarvis Ph.D. 1993 Botany (now United Nations Staff, Rome)

Daniel Ekbaw M.S. 1994 Botany

Craig Henry Ph.D. candidate, Botany (on leave, now at Microsoft, Seattle)

Brian Sherrod Ph.D. 1998 Geological Sciences

Danika Gilbert M.S. 1998

Marietta Sharp M.S. 2000 Botany

Paul Kester Ph.D. Geological Sciences candidate, in progress

Ciindy Updegrave M.S. Biology teachers program

^ Committee member:

Robert Thorson Ph.D. 1979 Geological Sciences

Virginia Adams Ph.D. 1980 Interdisciplinary Studies

Daniel Mann Ph.D. 1981 Forest Resources

Anthony Barnosky Ph.D. 1982 Geological Sciences

Louise Jackson Ph.D. 1982 Botany

Robert Nelson Ph.D. 1982 Interdisciplinary Studies

Lisa Graumlich Ph.D. 1984 Forest Resources

Rudy Nickmann M.S. 1978 Geology, Central Wash. Univ. (research advisor)

Lee Porter M.S. 1979 Geological Sciences

Elizabeth Taylor M.S. 1979 Botany

Cynthia Burdick M.S. 1981 Forest Resources

Janet Kearsley M.S. 1987 Forest Resources

Janet Ebaugh M.S. 1989 Botany

Sheenya Sugita Ph.D. 1990 Botany

Andrew Gray M.S. 1990 Forest Resources

Allen Yen M.S. 1993 Botany

Les Kniffen M.S. Forest Resources (pending)

Terry Swanson Ph.D. 1993 Geological Sciences

Chris Earle Ph.D. 1993 Forest Resources

Susan Calder Ph.D. 1994 Geological Sciences

Lisa Carlson Ph.D. Candidate, Forest Resources

Deanne Drake Ph.D. 1998 Fisheries

Alan Yen Ph.D. 1999 Botany

Ed Doran Ph.D. Botany, in progress

Richey Harrod Ph.D. 2004 Forestry


1981- Academic Program Committee

1976-81 John Danz Lectureship Committee

1983-85 Honors Council

1982-83 Nutrition Termination Review

1990 Recycling Committee

1990-92 Facilities Council of Senate
Search Committees

1977 Chairmanship of Oceanography

1978 Chairmanship of Electrical Engineering

1980 Deanship of Engineering

1991 Directorship, Institute of Environmental Studies

1997 Certificate Program Environmental Manager; Advisory Board 1995-99


Chair Dee Boersma

Member Jeff Richey

Chair Joseph Ammirati

Member Thomas Mitchell-Olds

Chair Liz Van Volkenberg; member 1999

Member Luca Comai

Member Hanna Skubatz (Res. Prof.)

^ INVITED PAPERS: since 1980 smaller print requested

California Academy of Science, 1980, Annual Meeting Keynote Speaker, Vegetation development in the late Tertiary of Idaho.

Western Washington University, May, 1981, Sigma Xi speaker; History of the Lake Washington Basin.

University of British Columbia, Department of Botany seminar, Oct. 1982; Postglacial History of Douglas Fir in relation to fire in the Puget Lowland.

American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, annual meeting, San Francisco, Oct. 1983; Symposium Co-Organizer, Palynology of Tertiary Floras of Western North America; Speaker: Pollen identifications from the Eocene Chalk Bluffs Flora, California.

6th International Palynological Conference, Calgary, Aug. 27, 1984, Symposium Organizer: Paleogeography and Provincialism in Post-Eocene Floras and Marine Assemblages. Speaker: Comparative Age of Steppe and Grassland East and West of the Rocky Mountains, USA.

Universite de Luminy, Laboratoire de Geologie du Quaternaire, Marseille, France,: Late Tertiary forests of the Rocky Mountain region. 1984

Yale University, School of Forestry, April, 1985; Departmental Seminar Reconstruction of virgin forest types in King Co., WA, using archival data.

AAAS Pacific Division, Symposium on Origin of the northern Rocky Mts. Flora, June, 1985, Miocene-Pliocene vegetation development in the northern Rocky Mountains (with Melinda Denton).

AAAS Pacific Division, Symposium Co-organizer and Speaker. June 1986, Vancouver, B.C.; Disposal of High level Nuclear Waste -- the Hanford Site.

Iowa State Univ., Dept. of Botany. Invited lecture. Historical role of fire in Douglas Fir forest, King Co., WA. October 1986.

XII International Congress, Internat. Union of Quaternary Research. Symposium Co-organizer: Long term restructuring in Late Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems, Ottawa, Canada, July, 1987.

University of Wisconsin, Center for Climatic Research. Invited Symposium lecture. Cultural change and ecosystem productivity: climatic ties. May, 1987.

Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA. Summer Institute lecture: Plant succession and Chaos Theory. July 1988.

American Society for Environmental History & Northwest Association for Environmental Studies. Olympia, WA. April 27-30, 1989. Symposium Organizer "Puget Sound Lowland Forest Vegetation: Past and Present".

Using Timber Tax Assessment Data to Reconstruct Early Settlement Forest Conditions, King Co., WA 1906-1908.

Holocene Prairie History in SW Washington State, by Leopold, E., S. Langdon, and D. Newman.

Quaternary Research Center Symposium: "Quaternary Vegetation and Climate of the Pacific Northwest (in honor of Henry Hansen). May 4-5, 1989. University of Wash. "Late Tertiary Vegetation Trends in the Columbia Basin".

Land/Water Stewardship Conference, King Co., Kent, WA. April 1990. Keynote address.

Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia: "Coevolution of grassy savanna and grazing ungulates". December 19, 1990. Seminar.

U.S. Geol. Survey/Canada Workshop on Global Change and Climate History program, Whitehorse, Yukon. April, 1992. "Long term Neogene Cooling - a pollen sequence from the Alaska Range, AK".

Cordilleran Sect., Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Eugene, Oregon, May 1992. Pacific N.W. Symposium speaker.

C-2 Symposium, 8th International Pollen Congress. September 8, 1992. "Neogene Vegetation History and Cooling Patterns in South Central Alaska, U.S.A." Aix En Provence, France (Leopold & Liu)

National Park Service, Keynote Address, 25th Anniversary, Floressant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado. August 20, 1994

Zucker Fellow Lecture, Yale University. October 7, 1993. "A Land Ethic Revisited."

Yale University, Geological Sciences Dept. lecture: "Uplift and History of the Alaska Range. " 1993.

Geological Society of America, Florissant Fossil Beds Symposium, Gunnison, Colorado, October 1994.

Geological Society of America, Wahrhaftig Symposium, Fairbanks, Alaska, May 1995.

Society for Restoration Ecology, Annual Meeting: "Control of Scot’s Broom on San Juan Island prairies, Washington." September 1995

Academia Sinica, Beijing Botanical Institute, “Latitudinal Temperature Gradients during the Miocene.” June 10, 1997.

Friends of Discovery Park: “The Importance of Restoration Ecology in Our City Parks.” Oct 14 , 1998.

Leopold Education Project of Minnesota; Workshop for High school Teachers, Baraboo, Wisc.: “Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic and Education.” July 14, 1998.

The Land Institute, Salinas, Kansas: invited lecture, May 1998.

Defenders of Wildlife, Annual Meeting, Seattle, Keynote address: “A Balancing Act-- Wolves in the Ecosystem.” November 13, 1998.

Oregon State University, Corvallis; Symposium series: “Leopold's Legacy in Education.” Nov. 19, 1998.

University of Wisconsin, Fox Valley; Lecture series: “Restoration Ecology on a farm in Central Wisconsin.” March 17.1999.

National Association of Conservation Districts, Annual Meeting, Keynote address. Broadmoor, Colorado Springs, CO. January (year?)

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Invited lecture: “Sustainable Agriculture and the Land Ethic.” Earth Day Week, UW campus April 21, 1998.

Ecological Society of America, Leopold Leadership Fellows Program, keynote address: “A. Leopold, The Man and His Legacy.”June 1999. Warm Springs, Oregon.

Ecological Society of America, Leopold Leadership Fellows Program, keynote address: “A. Leopold, The Man and His Legacy.”June 2000. Tucson, Arizona.

The Land Institute, Salinas, Kansas. Speaker,. Leopold's Vision in Applied Ecology. (Manuscript.)

North Cascades Institute, “Leopold’s Legacy”. EBL and A. Carl Leopold, Seattle, September 2002

Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellows Program. 2002, Tucson. “Ecology and Natural History—Are They Cool?”

Washington Association, Conservation Districts Annual Meeting, Keynote address: “Leopold’s Brand of Ecology”, Spokane, WA, December 2, 2003.

Othello Sandhill Crane Festival, keynote speaker March, 2005




Reinink-Smith, L.M., and Leopold, E.B.  (in press). Warm Climate in the Late Miocene of the South Coast of Alaska and the Occurrence of Podocarpaceae Pollen.Palynology, 29, 59 pp.

Dilhoff, R.M., Leopold, E.B., and Manchester, S.R. (2005)  The McAbee flora of British Columbia and its relation to the Early-Middle Eocene Okanagan Highlands flora of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 42 (2), 151-156.

Leopold, E.B. Love, J.D., Liu. G.W. and Love D.W. (submitted) Gradual Plio-Pleistocene climatic transition and the lifting of the Teton Range. Quaternary Research).

Leopold, E.B., A.C. Yen, C Updegrave, T. Fuentes K. Maier and M. McMasters. Is Chaney’s Arcto-Tertiary geoflora theory valid? 26 pp. (in review).




Reinink-Smith, L.M. and Leopold E.B. (2003). Miocene pollen from the Warm Temperate Homerian type section near Homer, Alaska—an in depth study. Geological Society of America Abstracats with Program Session 224, paper 224-8.

Liu, G. and E.B. Leopold. (2003) Pliocene cooling before the Ice ages in North China. In Liu Gengwu et al (eds.), Proceedings of 10th International Palynological Congress (II), Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 42 (1), 31-38. (In English with Chinese abstract.)




Liu, G., E.B. Leopold, Liu Yun, Wang Weiming, Yu Ziye, Tong Guobang. (2002) Palynological record of Pliocene climate events in North China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 119, 334-340.



Leopold, E.B. and Clay-Poole, S. (2001) Florissant leaf and pollen floras of Colorado compared: climatic implications. In: E. Evanoff, K. Gregory, K. Wodziski and K. Johnson (eds), ^ Fossil Flora and Stratigraphy of the Florissant Formation, Colorado. Proc. Denver Museum of Nature and Science Series 4 No. 1. Symposium Volume, 25 pp, 9 plates.




Leopold, E.B. (1999) Remembering Good Oaks; Strides, Leopold Education Project Proceedings, Feb. 1999 p. 10-12.

Leopold, E. and R. Boyd (1999) An Ecological History of Old Prairie Areas in Southwestern Washington. p. 139-163. In: R. Boyd (ed), ^ Indians, Fire and the Land in the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis.

White, J.M., T.A. Ager, D.P. Adam, E.B. Leopold, G. Liu, H. Jetti and C.E. Schweger (1999). Neogene and Quaternary Quantitative Palynostratigraphy and Paleoclimatology from Sections in Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories and Alaska. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 543, 30 pp.

Leopold, E.B. (1999) Leopold's Vision in Applied Ecology. The Land Institute, Salinas, Kansas. (In press.)




Leopold, E. (1998) Why We Need the Wolf. (Guest Opinion) Defenders of Wildlife, Fall 1998, p. 41.

Leopold, E.B. (1998) Teaching the Land Ethic. Environmental Review vol. 5 no 8 p11-14.

Leopold, E.B. (1998). Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic and Education. Leopold Education Project, 3rd Annual Workshop Proceedings, Aug. 12-14, 1998, Baraboo,WI., 4 pp.

Leopold, E.B. (1998) History of Olney Lake, Yakima River Basin, Washington. Report for Yakima Indian Nation. 12 pages.




White, J.M., T.A. Ager, D.P. Adam, E.B. Leopold, G. Liu, H. Jetti and C.E. Schweger (1997) Neogene and Quaternary Vegetation Change in Northwestern Canada and Alaska: tectonic and climatic aspects. Paleoecology, Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, V. 11.




Leopold, E.B. and V.C. Wright (1995) Scotch Broom Eradicated on Shaw Island Prairies. Restoration and Management Notes 13:228-229.

Leopold, E.B. (1995) A Mid-Miocene Thermal Optimum, Alaska Range (abstract). Geological Soc. Am. Sect. Fairbanks, AK. May 1995.




Leopold, E.B.. Tu, Mandy, and Stephenson, J. (1994). Did the grasses coevolve with the large grazing ungulates? Proc. Of the Pacific Ddivision, Am. Assoc. Addvancement of Science, Program with Abstracts. Vo. 13, Part 1 p. 79.

Liu, G. and E. Leopold (1994) Climatic comparison of Miocene pollen floras from northern East-China and south-central Alaska. ^ Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology and Paleobotany 108:217-228.

Leopold, E. and G. Liu. (1994) A long pollen sequence of Neogene age, Alaska Range. Quaternary International 22/23:103-140; 2 plates.

Bucknam, B.F., E.B. Leopold, E. Hemphill-Haley, D. Ekblaw, B.F. Atwater, B. Benson and J.B. Phipps (1994) Holocene Tectonics in Western Washington. Geological Soc. America Field Guide Book. Geologic field trips in the Pacific Northwest, pages 2C1-15.

Anundsen, K., S. Abella, E.B. Leopold, M. Stuiver and S. Turner (1994) Late-Glacial and early Holocene sea-level fluctuations in the central Puget Sound lowland, Washington. Quaternary Research 41(3).




Ekblaw, D. and E.B. Leopold (1993) Evidence of earthquakes: late Holocene macrofossil sequences and paleoecology of wetlands in Central Puget Sound. Abstracts, AAAS Pacific Division, Missoula, Montana. p. 42.




Leopold, E.B., G. Liu and S. Clay-Poole (1992) Low-Biomass Vegetation in the Oligocene? p. 399-420. In: ^ Eocene - Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution, D. Prothero and W.A. Berggren (eds). Princeton Univ. Press.

Liu, G. and E. Leopold (1992) Paleoecology of a Miocene flora from the Shanwang Formation, Shandong Province, Northern East China. Palynology 16:187-212, 7 plates.

Jarvis, D., E. Leopold and G. Liu. (1992) Distinguishing pollen of deciduous oaks, evergreen oaks and certain rosaceous spp. of S.W. Sichuan Province, China. Review of Palaeobot. and Palynology 75:259-271, 4 plates.

Bucknam, R.C., E. Hemphill-Haley and E.B. Leopold (1992) Abrupt uplift within the past 1700 years at Southern Puget Sound, Washington. Science 258:1611-1623.

Leopold, E. and G. Liu (1992) Usibelli Group Pollen Floras: Miocene Hardwood Forests of the Alaskan Range. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstracts with programs, Cordilleran Meeting, Eugene Oregon.

Leopold, E.B. and D. Ekblaw (1992) Report on lithology and fossil seeds from Winslow Marsh, Wash. Report for U.S. Geological Survey, Risk Assessment Branch, Golden, Colorado, 10 pages.




Jarvis, D. and E. Leopold (1991) Postglacial vegetation history of S.W. Sichuan Province, China. INQUA Abst.

Leopold, E.B. and G. Liu (1991) A warm-temperate pollen flora from the Suntrana Formation (mid to late Miocene), Alaskan Range (Abstract; poster session) Palynology. Amer. Assoc. Strat. Palynologists, San Diego, CA Meeting Oct. 20-23.

Lau, K. and E. Leopold. 1991. Purple Loosestrife, a threat to wetlands of Washington. U.W. Arboretum Bull. 4 pp.




Leopold, A.C., E.B. Leopold et al. (1987) chapt. 13 p. 165-175. In: Aldo Leopold - The Man and His Legacy, T. Tanner (ed). Soil Conserv. Soc. of Am.

Leopold, E.B. (1987) An Ecological History of Old Prairie Areas in Southwestern Washington. Arboretum Bull. 50(3): 14-17

Leopold, E.B. (1987) Past and Future Climatic and Hydrologic Patterns at Hanford, Wash., Northwest Env. Journal, 3(2): 75-96.

Leopold, E.B. and M. Denton (1987) Comparative age of grassland and steppe east and west of the Northern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. Annals of the Mo. Bot. Garden. 74: 841-867.

Leopold, E.B. (1987) Late Cenozoic savanna and grassland in western U.S.A. Abst., INQUA XII Internat. Congress, Ottawa.




Leopold, E.B. (1986) Climate patterns projected from the past at Hanford, WA. Abst., Pac. Div. AAAS, Vancouver, B.C. June 1986.

Leopold, E.B. (1986) Pertinence of Lake Washington (Seattle, WA) to postglacial rise in sea level. Abstracts, Geological Soc. Am., San Antonio, TX.




Leopold, E. and V.C. Wright (1985) Pollen profiles of the Plio-Pleistocene transition in the Snake River Plains, Idaho. p. 323-48. In: ^ Late Cenozoic History of the Pacific Northwest, C. Smiley (ed). AAAS & California Acad. Sci., San Francisco.




Nickmann, R. and E.B. Leopold (1984) A Postglacial Pollen Record from Goose Lake, Okanagan County, Wash.: evidence of or an early Holocene cooling. Chief Joseph Summary Report, Office of Public Archeology, University of Wash., Seattle. Chapt. 4, p. 131-145.

Leopold, E., C. Bortz, D. Jones, F. Old, C. Richmond, P. Sanborn and S. Sugita (1984) Virgin Forests of Tiger Mt. in 1907--A Forest Type Map in King Co., Washington, p. B15-B19. In: Tiger Mountain State Forest--Recommended Management Guidelines, Wash. Dept. Nat. Resources.

Leopold, E.B. (1984) Comparative age of steppe and grassland east and west of the Rocky Mountains, USA. 6th Internat. Palynological Conference, Calgary, p. 88. Abst.

Leopold, E.B. and M. Denton (1984) Miocene-Pliocene patterns of vegetation in the northern Rocky Mountains. AAAS Pacific Division, Abstracts, p. 34.




Olfield, F., C. Barnosky and E.B. Leopold (1983) Mineral magnetic studies of lake sediments - a brief review, p. 37-44. In: Paleolimnology: The Hague, J. Merlin, R.W. Battarbee and P. Huttunen (eds). W. Junk, Publishers.

Spaulding, W.G., E.B. Leopold and T.R. VanDevender (1983) Late Wisconsin Paleoecology of the American Southwest, p. 259-293. In: ^ Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States, Vol. 1 The Late Pleistocene, S.C. Porter, (ed). Univ. Minnesota Press.

Leopold, E.B. (1983) Pollen identifications from the Eocene Chalk Bluffs flora, California Symposium "Palynology of Tertiary Teras of Western North America": Abstracts, Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists.




Hedges, J.I., J.R. Ertel and E.B. Leopold (1982) Lignin geochemistry of a Late Quaternary Holocene sediment core from Lake Washington, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46: 1869-1877.

Leopold, E.B., R. Nickmann, J.I. Hedges and J.R. Ertel (1982) Pollen and lignin records of Late Quaternary vegetation, Lake Washington. Science 218: 1305-1307.

Leopold, E.B. (1982) Ecology Forum: Palynology, a key to lost landscapes. The Nature Conservancy News, 32(6): 22-23.

Wright, V.C. and E.B. Leopold (1982) An early record of Artemisia steppe in the Snake River Plains, Idaho. Am. Quat. Assoc. Abst. 7 p. 182.

Leopold, E.B., R. Nickman and M. Stuiver (1982) An early marine phase of Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington. Am. Quat. Assoc. Abstracts 7, 121.

Leopold, E.B. (1982) Book review of Etudes Palynologiques dans le Bassin du Tchad et Paleoclimatique de l'Afrique Nord-Tropicale de 30,000 Ans a l'Epoque Actuelle, by J. Maley. Quat. Res. 17(3): 420-421.




Leopold, E.B. and R. Nickmann (1981) Late Miocene pollen profiles from the Hanford Reservation, Eastern Washington. Mimeo. Report for Golder Associates, 20 pages.




Leopold, E.B. and R. Nickmann (1980) Late-glacial vegetation of the northern Columbia Basin, Washington. Abs. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 60(2).




Leopold, E.B. (1979) Neogene palynology in the Pacific Northwest--documentary work badly needed (abs.). AAAS Pacific Division, 60th Annual Meeting, p. 21.

Leopold, E.B. (1979) Late Tertiary Palynology, p. 603-607. In: ^ The Encyclopedia of Paleontology, R.W. Fairbridge and D. Sablonski, (eds.) Dowden Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, Penn.




Love, J.D., E.B. Leopold and D.W. Love (1978) Eocene rocks, fossils, and geologic history, Teton Range, northwestern Wyoming. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper, 932-B, 40 pages.




Leopold, E.B. (1977) Paleobotanical and palynological research in China, p. 5- 17. In: Paleoan­thropology in the People's Republic of China, W.W. Howells and Patricia Tsuchitani, (eds). National Academy of Sciences CSC PRC Report, no. 4.

Leopold, E.B. and A.D. Every (1977) Differential representation of desert and montane pollen during wet and dry years, Mojave Desert, California (abs.). American Assoc. Adv. of Sci., Pacific Div., 59th Ann. Mtg., p. 21.




Leopold, E.B. (1974) Pollen and Spores of the Kisinger Lakes Fossil Leaf locality, p. 49-103. In: An Early Middle Eocene Flora from the Yellowstone-Absaroka Volcanic Province, Northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming, by H.D. MacGinitie. Univ. Calif. Pubs. Geol. Sci. 108.

Leopold, E.B. and N.L. Bradley (1974) Fire and Productivity, p. 27-37. In: Let the Forest Burn, M.E. Alexander, (ed). Technical Session Proceedings, Colorado State University Society of American Foresters.

Leopold, E.B. (1974) Short term climatic change and movement of an ecotonal boundary, Western Mojave Desert, California (abs.). American Quaternary Assoc. Biennial Meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, p. 117.




Leopold, E.B. (Ed.) (1973) First Summit Conference, Statewide Coordinating Councils (Proceedings), Apr. 13-15, Arapahoe Basin, Colorado, 63 pages. unpubliished




Leopold, E.B. and H.D. MacGinitie (1972) Development and Affinities of Tertiary Floras in the Rocky Mountains, p. 147-200. In: ^ Floristics and Paleofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America, A. Graham, (ed). Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam.




Tschudy, B.D. and E.B. Leopold (1971) Aquilapollenites (Rouse) Funkhouser--selected Rocky Mountain taxa and their stratigraphic ranges. In: "Symposium on palynology of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary," T.M. Kosanke and A.T. Cross, (eds). Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper 127, p. 113-167, pls. 1-4, figs. 1, 2.

Leopold, E.B. (1971) Natural Scientists: Observers or participants? Am. Nature Soc. Symposium. Nature, Law and Environmental Activism, Dec. 29, 1971; Nature Study, Winter, 1971-72, p. 3-4.

Leopold, E.B. (1971) Ecological geology--relevance gets an X rating (abs.). Geol. Soc. America, Northeastern Sec. Mtg., Hartford, Conn., Abstracts with Programs 3(1): 42.




Leopold, E.B. (1970) Plant Microfossils In: Smaller Foraminifera of Late Eocene Age From Eua, Tonga, by Todd, R. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 640-A, A19.

Leopold, E.B. (1970) Late Wisconsin and modern pollen rain at Searles Lake, California. Ameri­can Quaternary Association, 1st Meeting, Bozeman, Montana, in Abstract of Papers, Supplement.




Wahrhaftig, C., J.A. Wolfe, E.B. Leopold and M.A. Lanphere (1969) The Coal-Bearing Group in the Nenana Coal Field, Alaska. U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1274-D, 30 p., 6 figs., 2 tables.

Leopold, E.B. (1969) Ecological requirements of the Wilderness Act, pp. 188-217. In: ^ Wilderness and the Quality of Life, M.E. McCloskey and J.P. Gilligan (eds.). Sierra Club Books, San Francisco.

Leopold, E.B. (1969) Miocene Pollen and Spore Flora of Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 260-II, 1133-1185, pls. 304-311, figs. 332-342.

Leopold, E.B. and H.D. MacGinitie (1969) Some Asiatic affinities of Tertiary floras in the Rocky Mountain (abs.). Internat. Bot. Cong., 11th, Seattle, Wash., 1969, Abs., p. 127.

Leopold, E.B. (1969) Late Cenozoic Palynology, p. 377-438, 2 pls., 21 figs., 8 tables. In: Aspects of Palynology: An introduction to Plant Microfossils in Time, R.H. Tschudy and R.A. Scott, (eds). New York, Wiley-Interscience.




Dickinson, R.G., E.B. Leopold and R.F. Marvin (1968) Late Cretaceous Uplift and Volcanism on the North Flank of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, p. 125-148. In: ^ Cenozoic Volcanism in the Southern Rocky Mountains, R.C. Epis (ed). Quarterly of the Colorado School of Mines 63(3): 287 p.

Leopold, E.B. (1968) Book review of Quaternary Paleoecology by E.J. Cushing and H.E. Wright, Jr., Eds., Science 160: 670-672.

Leopold, E.B. (1968) Quality of plant ecosystems on natural areas (abs.). Jour. Range Management Abstracts of Papers, 21st ann. meeting, Albuquerque, Feb. 12-15, 1968, p. 31-32.




Easterbrook, D.J., D.R. Crandell and E.B. Leopold (1967) Pre-Olympia Pleistocene Stra­tigraphy and Chronology in the Central Puget Lowland, Washington. Geol. Soc. America Bull. 78: 13-20.

Wolfe, J.A. and E.B. Leopold (1967) Neogene and Early Quaternary Vegetation of Northwestern North America and Northeastern Asia, p. 193-206. In: The Bering Land Bridge, D.M. Hopkins (ed). Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California.

Leopold, E.B. (1967) Late-Cenozoic Patterns of Plant Extinctions, p. 203-246. In: Pleistocene Extinctions, the Search For a Cause, P.S. Martin and H.E. Wright, Jr. (eds). Yale Press, New Haven.

Leopold, E.B. (1967) Summary of palynological data from Searles Lake, p. 52-66. In: ^ Pleistocene Geology and Palynology, Searles Valley, California, by G.I. Smith and E.B. Leopold, Guidebook for Friends of the Pleistocene Pacific Coast Section, Sept. 23-24, 1967, 66 p.

Dickinson, R.G., E.B. Leopold and R.F. Marvin (1967) Late Cretaceous Uplift and Volcanism on the North Flank of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (abs.). Rocky Mountain Section G.S.A. Abstracts, p. 31.




Wolfe, J.A., D. Hopkins and E.B. Leopold (1966) Tertiary stratigraphy and paleobotany of the Cook Inlet region, Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 389-A, p. A1-A29, pls. 1, 2, figs. 1-3, tables 1-6.

Leopold, E.B. (1966) Book review, Morphological Encyclopedia of Palynology by Gerhard O.W. Kremp. Am. Jour. Sci. 264: 671-672.




Leopold, E.B. (1965) Late Tertiary Flora of Colorado, p. 455-457. In: Weber, W.A., Plant Geography in the Southern Rocky Mountains, p. 453-468. In: H. Wright and D. Frey, 1965, The Quaternary of the United States, 922 p., Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.

Leopold, E.B. (1965) Aspects of floristic change in the late Cenozoic. Internat. Assoc. Quaternary Research, 7th Gen. Sess., Boulder and Denver, Colorado, INQUA abs., p. 288.

Leopold, E.B. (1965) Late Quaternary and modern pollen rain at Searles Lake, California. Internat. Assoc. Quaternary Research, 7th Gen. Sess., Boulder and Denver, Colorado, INQUA abs., p. 289.




Reed, J.C., Jr., B. Bryant, E.B. Leopold and L. Weiler (1964) A Pleistocene section at Leonards Cut, Burke County, North Carolina. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 475-D, art. 129, p. D38-D42, 4 figs., 2 tables.

Upson, J.E., E.B. Leopold and M. Rubin (1964) Postglacial change of sealevel in New Haven Harbor, Connecticut. Am. Jour. Sci. 262(1): 121-132, figs. 1-4, tables 1-4.

Leopold, E.B. and H.M. Pakiser (1964) A preliminary report on the pollen and spores of the pre-Selma Upper Cretaceous strata of western Alabama. U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1160-E, p. 71-95, pls. 3-9, tables 14-18.

Leopold, E.B. (1964) Reconstruction of Quaternary environments using palynology, p. 43-52. In: The Reconstruction of Past Environments, assembled by J.J. Hester and J. Schoenwetter. Santa Fe, Fort Burgwin Conf. Paleoecology Proc., 1962, no. 3, 89 p., figs. 11-18, table 2.

Leopold, E.B. (1964) Book review of The Spores and Pollen of the Potomac Group of Maryland, by G.J. Brenner, in Science 143(3608): 795.

Leopold, E.B. (1964) Book review of Alaska's Good Friday Earthquake, March 27, 1964, USGS Circ. 491, in Trail and Timberline, Nov. 1964, no. 551, p. 175.




Leopold, L.B., E.B. Leopold and F. Wendorf (1963) Some climatic indicators in the period A.D. 1200-1400 in New Mexico. UNESCO and World Meterological Organization Symposium on Changes of Climate with Special Reference to Arid Zones, Rome, 2-7 Oct. 1961, p. 265-270, 2 figs.

Roher, W.L. and E.B. Leopold (1963) Fenton Pass Formation (Pleistocene), Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 475-C, art. 71, p. C45-C48, 3 figs.

Leopold, E.B. (1963) Miocene pollen and spore flora of Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands (abs.). Am. Jour. Botany 50(6), pt. 2: 628.




Hamilton, W. and E.B. Leopold (1962) Volcanic rocks of Oligocene age in the southern part of the Madison Range, Montana and Idaho. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 450- B, art. 10, p. B26-B29, 1 fig.




Leopold, E.B. (1961) Some factors effecting regional extinction of Late Tertiary relict plants in North American late Cenozoic. INQUA VI Congress, Abstracts of papers, p. 118-119.




Scott, R.A., E.S. Barghoorn and E.B. Leopold (1960) How old are the Angiosperms? Am. Jour. Sci. 258-A (Bradley Vol.): 284-299.

Hail, W.J., Jr. and E.B. Leopold (1960) Paleocene and Eocene age of the Coalmont formation, North Park, Colorado. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 400-B, p. B260-261.

Hopkins, D.M., F.S. MacNeil and E.B. Leopold (1960) The coastal plain at Nome, Alaska: A late Cenozoic type section for the Bering Strait region. Internat. Geol. Cong., 21st Copenhagen, 1960, Proc., pt. 4: 46-57, figs. 1-4.

Hopkins, D.M., F.S. MacNeil and E.B. Leopold (1960) The coastal plain at Nome, Alaska: a Late Cenozoic type section for the Bering Strait region: Report of the 21st Session, Internat. Geol. Cong., vol. of abstracts, p. 31-32.




Leopold, E.B. (1959) Palynology – the science of fossil pollen. Discovery Magazine.




Leopold, E.B. and R.A. Scott (1958) Pollen and spores and their use in geology. Smithsonian Ann. Rep. 1957, Gen. Appendix, p. 303-323, figs. 1-6.

Leopold, E.B. (1958) Some aspects of late-glacial climate in eastern United States. Internat. Tagung Quarterbotaniker 1957, Geobot. Inst. Rubel Zurich 34: 80-85, figs. 1-4.

Leopold, E.B. and D.A. Crandell (1958) Pre-Wisconsin inter-glacial pollen spectra from Washington State, U.S.A. Internat. Tagung Quartar-botaniker 1957, Geobot. Inst. Rubel Zurich 34: 76-79, figs. 1, 2.

McKee, E.D., J. Chronic and E.B. Leopold (1958) Sedimentary belts in lagoon of Kapingamarangi Atoll. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 43(3) pt. 1, p. 501-562, pl. 1, figs. 1-21.

Leopold, E.B. (1958) Pollen, spores, and marine microfossils of the Cooper Marl, in H.E. Malde, Geology of the Charleston Phosphate Area, South Carolina. U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1079, p. 22-25, 49-53, 2 figs.




Leopold, E.B. (1957) Comparisons by pollen chronology of late-glacial climate in eastern USA with the Allerod of Europe. Resumes des communication 5: 105-106 (abs.).




Leopold, E.B. (1956) Pollen size-frequency in New England species of the Betula. Grana Palynologica 2(1): 110-116.

Leopold, E.B. (1956) Two late-glacial deposits in southern Connecticut. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 52(11): 863-867, 1 fig.




Leopold, E.B. (1955) Climate and vegetation changes during the Two Creeks Interstadial in southern Connecticut. Ecol. Soc. America Bull. 36(3): 82-83 (abs.).




Leopold, E.B. (1954) Pollen studies in certain alluvial terraces in northeastern Wyoming. Pollen and Spore Circ. 18: 5 (abs.).

Leopold, E.B. (1954) Lake Durham, a Cary-Mankato record of deposition in southern Connecticut. Ecol. Soc. America Bull. 35(3): 57-58 (abs.).

Leopold, E.B. (1954) Climate and erosion in the southwest. Yale Conservation Studies 3(1): 18-20.




Leopold, E.B. (1953) Timberline growth rates and climatic correlation on Pike's Peak, Colorado (abs.). Ecol. Soc. America Bull. 34(3): 90.




Leopold, E.B. (1950) The new Gray's Manual, a review

Estella B. Leopold

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