Source Charge, Van Flandern Waterfall, and Leyton Geometry icon

Source Charge, Van Flandern Waterfall, and Leyton Geometry


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Source Charge, Van Flandern Waterfall, and Leyton Geometry


T. E. Bearden (Dec. 2, 2003)

Introduction


In electrodynamics, some scientists do recognize a grave foundations problem: That of the "source charge" and how it produces its associated fields. We published a first proposed solution to that problem in 2000 {1}, refining it in 2002 {2,3} and later.

In 2003 we finally found the exact mechanism by which the source charge continuously consumes virtual state entropy of the vacuum and produces observable state negative entropy via its observable EM fields, potentials, and their energy. Van Flandern’s waterfall analogy is very appropriate as an analogy for the mechanism discovered.

The findings strongly impact thermodynamics, falsifying the present second law and correcting a minor error in the first law. The Leyton object-oriented geometry and advanced group theoretic methods furnish the dramatic difference required to Klein geometry and Klein’s methods. The results show that continuous processes producing negative entropy are not only possible but also ubiquitous.

Some implications for electrical power engineering are pointed out.
^

The Source Charge Problem


Electrodynamicists generally agree that the fields and potentials are created and established by their associated source charges. However, many assume that the static fields and their potentials just "suddenly are there", all at once, and that there is no motion or energy flow whatsoever, with respect to static fields.

Suppose we do a gedanken experiment. If one merely separates a charge anew, one can measure its fields and potentials being established outward at the speed of light. That is a flow of energy steadily outward, from the charge. So, experimentally an energy flow is outgoing in all directions. It is observable, real EM energy since it can be detected and measured. Further, once the forward edge of the energy flow reaches any distant radial point and passes beyond, the intensity of the fields and potentials that are measured there at that point continuously remain from then on. This proves that a "transient pulse" was not what was emitted, but a steady energy flow is continuously being emitted. In other words, the static field is a steady state outflow of energy from its associated source charge.

However, our instruments cannot measure any input of energy to the charge. Thus we are faced with a dilemma: Either the charge freely and continuously creates observable EM field energy and EM potential energy out of nothing at all, or else there must be a corresponding input of energy to the charge from its active environment, but in nonobservable (virtual state) form.

Either we must totally surrender the conservation of energy law itself—as being falsified by every EM charge, field, potential and joule of EM energy in the universe—or else we must find, model, and account for that nonobservable EM energy input to the charge from its active ambient environment. The problem has not been resolved in more than a century. It has, however, largely been scrubbed out of the textbooks and hidden from the students.

This problem is especially critical in electrical engineering. In the Maxwell-Heaviside classical EM model, there is no active vacuum interaction. ^ In that model, there is no “input” to the charge from its ambient environment. So the model implicitly assumes all EM energy is freely created from nothing at all, completely violating conservation of energy and contradicting most of present physics.

Background


Sen {4} refers to the source charge problem in these words:

"The connection between the field and its source has always been and still is the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics."

Bunge {5} referred to it in this more subtle way:

"In order to keep Maxwell's second order equations and at the same time discard its advanced solutions in a consistent way one must add the hypothesis that the charged bodies are the sources of the e.m. field—a hypothesis that is taken so much for granted that it is hardly stated explicitly. ...fields and currents are conjoined but not causally associated: only field changes are causally associated with charged bodies in case there are any in the region considered."

One notes that Bunge actually refers to field changes as due to currents. There are no overall field changes due to static charges, but only the “static” fields themselves.

Bunge {6} also pointed out that:

"...it is not usually acknowledged that electrodynamics, both classical and quantal, are in a sad state."

Kosyakov (7) states it very bluntly, pointing out that the theory of radiation is incomplete. He stated:

"A generally acceptable, rigorous definition of radiation has not as yet been formulated. …"The recurring question has been: Why is it that an electric charge radiates but does not absorb light waves despite the fact that the Maxwell equations are invariant under time reversal? "

If an observable photon is absorbed by a charged mass and the charge is thereby "excited", the charge usually does indeed decay and re-emit an observable charge. But in the absence of any bombardment by external observable radiation—i.e., in the ambient vacuum environment—the “isolated” charge itself is continuously emitting real, detectable, measurable EM field energy and EM potential energy.
^

Original Charges in the Universe and Their Fields


First, we address Bunge's point that changes to fields are involved with charge currents (i.e., as compared to the static field from a static charge): In the original formation of the universe (by whatever model one wishes), at some point each original charge appeared. That was indeed a "change" or special kind of initial momentary current. So the fields that appeared from that charge (and that now—for the original charges—still appear from it and reach across the universe) may be regarded as original "changes" to the zero field that existed before the formation of the charge.

Even so, the appearing "change" fields—subsequently known as the "static fields"—do not just instantly appear "everywhere in the universe at once". The static fields must appear (as "changes occurring" to the basic background zero field) at light speed, spreading radially outward in all directions. Else the conservation law, relativity, and communication theory are dead along with much of present physics.

These “appearing” radial EM fields are comprised of observable photons, because they can be detected. A free observable photon in space must be moving at light speed. So from the charge—from the moment of its appearance—there must be an outpouring of a continuous stream of observable photons in all directions, continuously establishing and replenishing the presence of the associated "static fields". Thermodynamically the fields are not actually static entities at all; they are nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) systems because they consist of photons and photon energy flowing outward in all directions.




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