The Applied Sciences class is a senior-level, honors course that has been developed for the top science students at our school. In this year-long, project-based icon

The Applied Sciences class is a senior-level, honors course that has been developed for the top science students at our school. In this year-long, project-based


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18. Brief Course Description


The Applied Sciences class is a senior-level, honors course that has been developed for the top science students at our school. In this year-long, project-based course, students are required to use the information that they have learned in their previous science and math classes (see Pre-Requisites and Co-Requisites) to solve "real world" problems. They will also learn new material when they find out that they need to know more during the process of solving problems. Students will do a number of chemistry, biology, and physics related labs, initiate and work on long term projects to develop working prototypes that address “real world” needs, make outside contacts with people who can provide more information and insight towards their projects, go on field trips, write technical reports, and make formal technical presentations.


^ 19. Course Goals and/or Major Student Outcomes


Scientific principles are usually the focus of most science courses in high school and college. The use of these principles to understand our experiences in the world, or to develop solutions to "real-world" problems are usually a small part of these courses. The focus of this applied sciences course will be the application of scientific principles toward "real world" situations, which can be a most rewarding aspect of scientific learning. This year-long course will be a project-based class which will require the students to use the information that they have learned in their previous science and math classes. They will also learn new material when they find out that they need to know more during the process of solving problems. Students will do a number of chemistry, biology, and physics related labs, initiate and work on long term projects to develop working prototypes that address “real world” needs, make outside contacts with people who can provide more information and insight towards their projects, go on field trips, write technical reports, and make formal technical presentations. This course will not be taught in the conventional sense, as the instructor will act more as a mentor than a teacher. The lab exercises will cover subjects such as chemical analyses and development of analytical instrumentation, techniques in biotechnology, design engineering and fabrication of devices for individuals with disabilities, electronics, environmental monitoring, and product development. The students will find that the depth of their understanding and work in this class will depend on the level of their formal education in science and math. Because of the nature of the course, enrollment will be limited to 8-10 students of exceptional maturity, focus, and drive who have fulfilled the course prerequisite.


The communication of ideas and results will be strongly emphasized. Each student will be taught how to properly record/write up their work and how to make formal presentations during the course of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the results of their work, the quality of their reports and formal presentations, and their ability to use the science that they have learned in the classroom toward real world problems.


^ 20. Course Objectives


In this year-long, project-based course, students are required to use the information that they have learned in their previous science and math classes (see Pre-Requisites and Co-Requisites) to solve "real world" problems. They will also learn new material when they find out that they need to know more during the process of solving problems. Students will examine the creative process in science and math, do five to eight chemistry, biology, and physics related labs, initiate and work on long term projects to develop working prototypes that address “real world” needs, make outside contacts with people who can provide more information and insight towards their projects, go on field trips, write technical reports, and make formal technical presentations. The science and math skills that the students are expected to incorporate into their projects are listed below.


^ Science Skills Used


• laboratory safety

• interpretation of the Periodic Table

• metric system

• unit analysis

• unit conversion

• estimating significant figures

• uncertainty and error analysis

• sensitivity

• accuracy and precision

• mass/mole conversions

• solution preparations

• stoichiometry

• distillation

• paper chromatography

• titration

• identification of unknown elements/compounds

• water quality chemical analysis

• advanced glass bending

• wet mounting slides

• staining techniques

• dissecting techniques (scalpel/forceps/teasing needle)

• ability to understand lab procedures from reading instructions

• ability to perform nonstandard scientific procedures

• ability to create experimental designs

• use of computer spread sheet programs for writing lab reports

• ability to make formal scientific presentations

• ability to use the Internet as a reference resource


^ Tools Used


• Vernier sensors

• micrometer

• electronic balance

• standard chemical glassware

• multimeter

• thermometer

• Bunsen burner

• centrifuge

• Buchner funnel/vacuum flask

• pipette

• burette

• micropipette

• compound and dissection microscopes

• spectrophotometer

• chromatography and electrophoresis equipment

• nonstandard chemical glassware

• organic chemistry glassware


Math Skills Used




  • algebraic equations

  • algebraic manipulations

  • graphing

  • ratios

  • exponential

  • scientific notation

  • inverse variations

  • area and volume calculations

  • slopes

  • percentages

  • logarithms

  • probability

  • statistics

  • quadratic equations

  • velocity and acceleration

  • derivatives (slope)

  • trigonometry

  • complex numbers




Computer Programming Skills Used




  • P Basic and C++ Programming

  • Use of 3DS MAX Animation Software

  • Use of CAD Software (SolidWorks)




21. Course Outline


Major Activities


A) Exercises and Discussions to Understand the Creative Process in Science

B) Chemistry, Biology, and Physics Related Labs

C) Field Trips

D) Initiate and Develop Long Term Projects

E) Work on Long Term Projects Incorporating Science and Math Skills

F) Develop Project Prototypes

G) Learn About the Patent Process for New Scientific Developments

H) Learn How to Contact People Who Can Provide Additional Project Information

I) Learn How to Write Formal Technical Reports

J) Learn How to make Formal Technical Presentations


(Because the Chemistry and Advanced Chemistry courses are major pre-requisites for this class, students will be expected to use their understanding of the chemical concepts that are listed below in their work whenever possible.)


^ Matter, Change and Energy

Scientific Method; Properties of Matter; States of Matter; Physical Changes; Mixtures; Elements and Compounds; Chemical Symbols; Energy; Conservation of Energy; Chemical Reactions; Conservation of Mass


Scientific Measurement

Accuracy and Precision; Significant Figures; Metric System; Measuring Density; Specific Gravity; Temperature; Heat; Specific Heat Capacity


^ Problem Solving

Word Problems; Conversion Factors; Dimensional Analysis; Converting Between Units; Multi-step Problems; Converting Complex Units


Chromatography Lab


Atomic Structure

Atoms; Electrons, Protons and Neutrons; Structure of the Atom; Atomic Number; Mass Number; Isotopes; Atomic Mass


^ Electrons in Atoms

Development of Atomic Models; Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom; Atomic Orbitals; Electron Configuration; Light and Atomic Spectra; Quantum Concept; Photoelectric Effect


Identification of Metals


Chemical Periodicity

Periodic Table; Electron Configuration and Periodicity; Atomic Size; Ionization Energy; Electron Affinity; Ionic Size; Electronegativity


Identification of Anions and Cations in Solution Lab


^ Ionic Bonds

Valence Electrons; Cations; Anions; Ionic Compounds; Metallic Bonds


Covalent Bonds

Single Covalent Bonds; Double and Triple Covalent Bonds; Covalent Compounds; Resonance; Exceptions to the Octet Rule; Molecular Orbitals; Polar Bonds; Polar Molecules


^ Chemical Names and Formulas

Atoms and Ions; Compounds; Chemical Formulas; Law of Multiple Proportions; Ionic Charges of the Elements; Polyatomic Ions; Common and Systematic Names: Writing Formulas; Naming Ionic Compounds; Binary Molecular Compounds; Acids


Chemical Quantities

Measuring Matter; Mole; Gram Formula Mass; Molar Mass; Mole-Mass Conversions; Molar Volume; Percent Composition; Empirical Formulas; Molecular Formulas


Quantitative Analysis Lab


^ Chemical Reactions

Chemical Equations; Balancing Chemical Equations; Combination Reactions; Decomposition Reactions; Single-Replacement Reactions; Double-Replacement Reactions; Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis; Combustion Reactions


Stoichiometry

Interpreting Chemical Reactions; Mole-Mole Calculations; Mass-Mass Calculations; Limiting Reagents; Percent Yields; Energy Changes in a Chemical Reaction; Heat of Reaction


^ The States of Matter

Kinetic Theory and the Nature of Gasses; Kinetic Energy and Temperature; Pressure; Liquids; Vaporization; Boiling Point; Solids; Phase Changes


Crystal Structures Lab

Distillation Lab


The Behavior of Gases

Real vs Ideal Gasses; Dalton's Law; Charles Law; Boyle's Law; Gay-Lussac's Law; Combined Gas Law; Ideal Gas Law; Departures From the Gas Laws; Diffusion and Graham's Law


^ Water and Aqueous Systems

Water Molecule; Heat Capacity; Vaporization; Aqueous Solutions; Solvation; Water of Hydration; Electrolytes


Properties of Solutions

Solubility; Chromatography; Molarity; Making Dilutions; Percent Solutions; Colligative Properties; Molalaity and Mole Fraction


^ Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases; Hydrogen Ions From Water; Hydronium Ion and Auto-ionization; pH; Arrhenius Acids and Bases; Brontsted-Lowry Acids and Bases; Lewis Acids and Bases; Measuring pH; Strengths of Acids and Bases; Dissociation Constants


Acids and Bases - Determination of pH Lab

Characteristic Reactions of Acids and Bases Lab

Acid/Base Titration Lab


^ Neutralization and Salts

Neutralization Reactions; Titrations; Equivalents; Normality; Salt Hydrolysis; Buffers; Common Ion Effect


Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Properties of Aqueous Solutions; Net Ionic Equations; Exchange Reactions; Oxidation-Reduction Reactions


Some Reactions of Metal Ions Lab


^ Gasses and Their Behavior

Properties of Gasses; Gas Laws; Ideal Gas Law; Gas Laws and Chemical Reactions; Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures; Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gasses; Graham's Law of Diffusion and Effusion; Nonideal Gasses


Indirect Determination of the Masses of Pieces of Magnesium Lab

Determination of the Molecular Weight of a Volatile Compound Lab


^ Intermolecular Forces, Liquids and Solids

Phases of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory; Intermolecular Forces; Properties of Liquids; Solids; Special Properties of Liquid and Solid Water; Phase Changes


Indirect Gravimetric Determinations Lab


^ Solutions and Their Behavior

Units of Concentration; Solution Process; Colligative Properties


Paper Chromatography Lab

Percent Copper and Formula Weight of a Copper Compound Lab


Atomic Structure

Electromagnetic Radiation; Quantization of Energy; Photoelectric Effect; Atomic Line Spectra; Wave Properties of the Electron; Quantum Mechanics


^ Atomic Electron Configuration and Periodicity

Electron Spin; Pauli Exclusion Principle; Atomic Orbital Energies and Electron Assignments; Atom Electron Configurations; Ion Orbital Energies; Atomic Properties and Periodic Trends


Relative Reactivity of Metals and the Activity Series Lab


^ Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence Electrons; Chemical Bond Formation; Ionic Bonding; Covalent Bonding; Bond Properties; Molecular Shape; Molecular Polarity


Visit to an Environmental and Forensics Laboratory Field Trip


^ Chemical Reactions

Chemical Equations; Balancing Chemical Equations; Common Types of Chemical Reactions; Stoichiometry; Limiting Reagents; Percent Yield


The Preparation of Common Alum From Scrap Aluminum Lab

A Sequence of Chemical Reactions Lab


Thermochemistry

Units of Energy; Heat Capacity and Specific Heat; Enthalpy; Hess's Law; Calorimetry


^ Nuclear Chemistry

Radioactivity; Nuclear Reactions; Stability of Atomic Nuclei; Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Fusion; Disintegration Rates


Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Reaction Rates; Rate Expressions; Reaction Mechanisms


Chemical Equilibria

Equilibrium Constant; Equilibrium, Kinetics and Mechanisms


^ Precipitation Reactions

Solubility of Salts; Solubility Product; Precipitation of Insoluble Salts; Common Ion Effect


Qualitative Analysis for Cations Lab


Chemical Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Versus Kinetics; Energy and Spontaneity; Entropy


Electrochemistry

Electrochemical Cells and Potentials; Voltaic Cells; Common Batteries and Storage Cells; Electrolysis; Corrosion


Oxidation-Reduction Titrations Lab


^ Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Alkanes; Functional Groups and Common Classes of Organic Compounds


Preparation of Common Esters Lab


22. Texts and Supplemental Instructional Materials


Conceptual Blockbusting, A Guide to Better Ideas, by James L. Adams (Addison Wesley, 1986)


Applied Chemistry, 2nd Ed. (William R. Stine)


Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, 2nd Ed. (J.C. Kotz and K.F. Purcell)


Assistive Technology for Persons with Disabilities, 2nd Ed. (The American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.)


A variety of resources and manuals are be used for the laboratory work of this class.


Every year that this class has been offered, individuals in academia, from the private sector, and at related organizations and agencies have been contacted and have agreed to be resources for the students. These individuals include Professor Sherry Sheppard from the Center for Design Research in the Department of Engineering at Stanford University, Professor Larry Udell from the School of Business and Economics at California State University at Hayward, a corporate patent attorney, scientists, engineers, and a contact at the Tetra Society of North America, which is an organization whose charter it is to identify needs of the disabled. The Sunnyvale Center for Innovation, Invention and Ideas (SCI3) is also an important resource for the students, as it contains a patent library with full patent search capabilities.


^ 23. Key Assignments


Labs, development of individual projects, project results and prototypes, project reports and presentations, lab notebook evaluation, and class participation will account for the class grade in the following way:


Labs 10%

Project Development 20%

Project Results and Prototypes 30%

Project Reports 10%

Project Presentations 10%

Lab Notebook Evaluation 10%

^ Class Participation 10%

Total 100%.


24. Instructional Methods and/or Strategies


Students will do a number of chemistry, biology, and physics related labs, initiate and work on long term projects to develop working prototypes that address “real world” needs, make outside contacts with people who can provide more information and insight towards their projects, go on field trips, write technical reports, and make formal technical presentations. This course will not be taught in the conventional sense, as the instructor will act more as a mentor than a teacher. The lab exercises will cover subjects such as chemical analyses and development of analytical instrumentation, techniques in biotechnology, design engineering and fabrication of devices for individuals with disabilities, electronics, environmental monitoring, and product development. The communication of ideas and results will be strongly emphasized. Each student will be taught how to properly record/write up their work and how to make formal presentations during the course of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the results of their work, the quality of their reports and formal presentations, and their ability to use the science that they have learned in the classroom toward real world problems.


^ Class Activities


A) Lectures

B) Discussions

C) Teacher Supervised Labs

D) Major Projects Initiated, Designed, and Executed by Student

E) Prototype Development

F) Field Trips

G) Guest Speakers

H) Technical Reports

I) Formal Presentations by Students


^ 25. Assessment Methods and/or Tools


Labs: The lab grade will be based on the student’s preparedness for lab, ability to follow directions, safe conduct, and demonstration of understanding the lab material.


Project Development: Students will be required to initiate, develop, and work on long term projects to produce working prototypes that address “real world” needs. The student’s technical approach will be evaluated for both validity and completeness.


Project Results and Prototypes: Student learning, new discoveries, and prototypes designed/built will be evaluated by the teacher.


Project Reports: Students will learn how to write technical reports that are typically produced by working scientists and engineers.


Project Presentations: Formal PowerPoint presentations will be developed and made by the students.


Lab Notebook Evaluation: Each student’s lab notebook will be evaluated throughout the year for content and organization.


Class Participation: Classroom participation will be evaluated on the student’s contribution to class discussions, performance on in-class work and willingness to work (i.e. behavior and attitude).




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