The courses and distribution of marks are as follows: Course Number Course Title Unit Credit Marks Chem 311F Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy icon

The courses and distribution of marks are as follows: Course Number Course Title Unit Credit Marks Chem 311F Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy


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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

B. Sc. Honours Part-III Examination, 2010

Session: 2009 - 2010


The courses and distribution of marks are as follows:
Course Number

Course Title

Unit

Credit

Marks

Chem 311F

Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy

1.0

4

100

Chem 312F

Electrochemistry & Chemical Kinetics

1.0

4

100

Chem 313H

Statistical Thermodynamics and Surface Chemistry

0.5

2

50

Chem 321F

Reaction Mechanism & Stereochemistry

1.0

4

100

Chem 322F

Natural Products & Medicinal Chemistry

1.0

4

100

Chem 323H

Industrial Chemistry – I

0.5

2

50

Chem 331F

Inorganic Chemistry – III

1.0

4

100

Chem 332F

Nuclear Chemistry

1.0

4

100

Chem 333 H

Analytical Chemistry-I

0.5

2

50

Chem 301AH

Class Assessment-III

0.5

2

50

Chem 301VH

Viva-voce in Chemistry-III

0.5

2

50

Chem 301LF

Physical, Organic and Inorganic Chemistry Practical- III

2.0

8

200

Total Credit Courses

10.5

42

1050

Examination of the theory courses of 100 marks (1.0 unit, 4 credit) shall be of 4 (four) hours' duration, and those of 50 marks (0.5 unit, 2 credit) shall be of 3 (three) hours' duration. The practical courses of 50 marks (0.5 unit, 2 credit) shall be of 12 (twelve) hours duration (2 days). Marks of the practical course (Chem 301LF) include 30% marks for continuous lab. assessment. The students are required to submit a report after each Lab. class to the class teacher(s) for evaluation. After evaluation the report shall be returned to the students. The class teacher(s) shall submit the average marks of all lab. evaluation in sealed envelopes to the Chairman of the relevant examination committee within three weeks from the last class held. The examination committee shall send a copy of each of the consolidated practical and lab. Evaluation marks to the controller of examinations.

Course Chem 301AH (class assessment) includes tutorial, terminal, home assignment and /or class examinations on theoretical courses by the relevant course teacher(s) and attendance* of the students in the classes during the academic year. Class assessment comprises (a) 80% marks in tutorial, terminal, home assignment and /or class examinations and (b) 20% marks for attendance in the class. The class teacher of each course shall submit the average consolidated marks of class assessments and attendance in sealed envelope to the Chairman of the relevant examination committee within three weeks from the last lab. class held. The relevant examination committee shall prepare the result by taking the average marks of class assessments as submitted by the class teachers of all the courses, and send a copy of the average consolidated marks to the controller of examinations.

Viva-voce examination (Chem-301VH) includes the assessment of the students through oral examination (of all the courses) by the members of the relevant examination committee. The examination committee shall send a copy of the marks to the controller of examinations.

^ No student having less than 60% class attendance shall be allowed to sit for the examination.


Course : Chem 311F

Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy

Examination : 4 hours

Full Marks : 100 ( 1 unit, 4 credits)

( 75 lectures, 4 lectures per week)

  1. Foundation of Quantum Mechanics (15 lectures): Experimental foundation of the old quantum theory, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, heat capacity of solids, Compton effect, Spectrum of atomic hydrogen, Bohr-Sommerfield theory, correspondence principle, dual nature of light, particle wave, de Broglie equation, experimental evidence of wave nature of electron, Heigenburg’s uncertainty principle.

  2. ^ Wave mechanics (15 lectures): The time dependent and time independent Schrödinger wave equation, physical significance of Ψ, free particle in one and three dimensions, particle in one-dimensional and three-dimensional boxes, quantum mechanics of rigid rotators, simple harmonic oscillators and hydrogen like atoms, normalization and orthogonalization of wave functions, orbitals and their shapes, meaning of quantum numbers.

  3. ^ Atomic spectra (12 lectures): Spectral lines of hydrogen, wave mechanics of spectral lines, quantum numbers, electron spins, L-S and J-J coupling, term symbols and selection rules, spectra of alkali and alkaline earth elements, the Zeeman and Stark effects.

  4. Molecular symmetry and group theory (18 lectures): Properties of a mathematical group, examples of groups, sub-groups and classes, symmetry elements and symmetry operations, product of symmetry operations, point groups, reducible and irreducible representation of groups, character tables and their applications to spectroscopy.

  5. Rotational Spectroscopy (15 lectures): Characterization of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, absorption and emission of EM radiation, quantization of energy, regions of the spectrum, molecular energy states, population of energy states, width and intensity of spectral lines. The rotation of molecules, linear, spherical, symmetric and asymmetric top rotators, rotational energy of diatomic molecule, rotational energy transition and rotational spectra, instrumental process, bond length from rotational spectra, isotope effect, Stark effect, qualitative and quantitative applications of microwave (rotational) spectroscopy.

Recommended Books:

  1. Ira N. Levine : Quantum Chemistry

  2. R. Anantharaman : Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

  3. A.K. Chandra : Introductory Quantum Chemistry

  4. Donald A. McQuarrie : Physical Chemistry, A Molecular Approach

  5. P.W. Atkins : Physical Chemistry

  6. W.J. More : Physical Chemistry

  7. Gurdeep Raj : Advanced Physical Chemistry

  8. Rajkumar : Atomic and molecular Spectros copy



^

Course : Chem 312F


Electrochemistry and Chemical Kinetics

Examination : 4 Hours

Full Marks : 100 ( 1 unit, 4 credits)

(75 lectures, 4 lectures per week)

  1. Conductance of electrolytic solutions (20 lectures): Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, electrochemical equivalents, determination of the faraday (F) by silver coulometer, significance of Faraday’s laws, measurements of electrolytic conductivity, equivalent and molar conductances, molar conductance at infinite dilution, law of independent migration of ions, solvation of ions, transport numbers and mobilities of ions, measurements of transport numbers, results of transference measurements, abnormal conductance of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in water and other hydroxylic solvents, diffusion and ionic mobility, theories of electrolytic conductance: Debye-Hűckel-Onsagar theory, validity of Debye-Hűckel-Onsagar equation, ion association, conductances at high frequency and at high fields: the Debye-Falkenhagen and Wien effects, conductometric titrations. Activities and standard states, ion activities, activity coefficients from freezing points, the ionic strength, experimental activity coefficients, theory of strong electrolytes: the Debye-Hűckel theory, poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Debye-Hűckel limiting law for activity coefficients.

  2. Electrochemical cells (25 lectures): Reversible cells, electromotive force (emf) of a cell and free energy of cell reaction. Types of electrodes (half cells) constituting reversible cells. Classification of electrochemical cells: chemical and concentration cells, liquid junction potentials and their elimination. Standard emf of cells: the Nernst equation, thermodynamics of single electrode potentials, arbitrary potential zero: the hydrogen scale, standard electrode potentials, sign convention, electromotive series and its significance, redox potentials, convention of representing electrochemical cells and calculation of the emf of a cell, reference electrodes, equlibrium constant of cell reaction and emf of a cell, electrode-concentration cells, electrolyte-concentration cells Measurement of emf. Application of potential measurements: calculation of solubility product constants, standard free enthalpies and entropies of aqueous ions, activity coefficients, dissociation constants and determination of pH by emf measurement, potentiometric titrations.

  3. Chemical kinetics (20 lectures): Theory of reaction rates: Collision theory of bimolecular gas reactions: basic calculations, comparison with experiments, steric requirement. Diffusion controlled reactions in solutions: diffusion and reaction, formulation and solution of the material balance equation. Activated complex theory: the reaction co-ordinate and the transition state, the Eyring equation, rate of decay of the activated complex, concentration of the activated complex, the rate constant, collision of structureless particles, the kinetic isotope effect, experimental observation of the activated complex. Thermodynamic aspects of activated complex theory. Dynamics of molecular collisions: reactive collisions, potential energy surfaces, attractive and repulsive surfaces, classical trajectories. Theory of unimolecular reactions: Lindemann-Christiansen hypothesis, Hinshelwood’s treatment.

  4. Kinetics of photochemical and radiation chemical reactions (10 lectures): Photochemical reactions: primary processes, reactions of electronically excited species, photochemical thresholds, laws of photochemical equivalence, rotating sector technique, flash photolysis. Laser photochemistry: pulsed lasers, multiphoton excitation. Photosensitization. Radiation chemical reactions: primary processes, pulse radiolysis, hydrated electrons. Chemiluminescence.

Recommended Books:

  1. P.W. Atkins : Physical Chemistry

  2. W.J. Moore : Physical Chemistry

  3. N. Kundu and S.K. Jain : Physical Chemistry

  4. Gurdeep Raj : Advanced Physical Chemistry

  5. S. Glasstone : Introduction to electrochemistry

  6. E.C. Potter : Electrochemistry

  7. G. Kotum and J.O’M. Bockris : Introduction to electrochemistry

  8. K.J. Laidler : Chemical Kinetics

  9. S.R. Logun : Fundamentals of Chemical Kinetics

  10. D.N. Bajpye : Advanced Physical Chemistry




Course : Chem 313H

Statistical Thermodynamics & Surface Chemistry

Examination : 3 Hours

Full Marks : 50 ( 0.5 unit, 2 credits)

(40 lectures, 2 lectures per week)


1. Statistical thermodynamics (10 lectures): Distribution of molecular states: configurations and weights, instantaneous configuration, dominating configuration, the Boltzmann distribution. ^ Molecular partition function: interpretation of the partition function, partition function for a uniform ladder of energy states, translational partition function, internal energy and entropy for non-interacting molecules. Canonical partition function: the canonical ensemble and canonical partition function, internal energy and entropy for interacting systems, relation between canonical and molecular partition functions for distinguishable and indistinguishable molecules, entropy of a monatomic gas: the Sakur-Tetrode equation. Some applications of statistical thermodynamics: Enthalpy and free energy from partition function, translational, rotational, vibrational, and electronic contributions to the molecular partition function and their estimation, calculation of mean translational, rotational, and vibrational energies and the heat capacities, partition function and equations of state for ideal and real gases, residual entropies, relation between equilibrium constant and partition function.

  1. ^ Liquid-gas and liquid-liquid interfaces (10 lectures): Surface and interfacial tensions, curved interfaces: bubbles, cavities, and droplets, Laplace and Kelvin relations, nucleation. Variation of surface tension with temperature, measurements of surface and interfacial tensions, adsorption and orientation at interfaces, surface activity and surfactants, classification of surfactants, rate of adsorption, thermodynamics of adsorption: Gibbs adsorption equation and its verification. Association colloids: micelle formation, critical micelle concentration (cmc), factors affecting cmc, structure of micelles, solubilization, surface behaviour, conductance, sharpness of cmc, energetics of micellization, the Krafft phenomenon. Spreading: adhesion and cohesion, spreading of one liquid over other, monomolecular films.

  2. ^ Processes at solid-gas interfaces (10 lectures): The extent of adsorption: physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms: Langmuir isotherm, BET and other (Temkin and Freundlich) isotherms. Rates of surface processes: rates of adsorption and desorption, mobility on surfaces. Catalytic activity at surfaces: adsorption and catalysis – Eley-Riedel mechanism, Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, molecular beam studies. Examples of catalysis: hydrogenation, oxidation, cracking and reforming.

  3. ^ Process at solid-liquid interfaces (10 lectures): Contact angle and wetting: spreading wetting, adhesional wetting, immersional wetting, measurement of contact angles, factors influencing contact angles and wetting, wetting agents, water repellency, ore floatation. Detergency: mechanism of detergency, wetting, dirt removal, redeposition of dirt, detergent additives. Adsorption from solutions: solution adsorption isotherms, isotherm equations, surface areas.




Recommended Books:

  1. Duncan J. Shaw : Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry

  2. A.W. Adamson : Physical Chemistry of Surfaces

  3. Gurdeep Raj : Advanced Physical Chemistry

  4. K.L. Kapoor : Physical Chemistry vol. II and III

  5. Donald H. Napper : Polymeric Stabilization of Colloidal Dispersions

  6. D. A. McQurric : Statistical Thermodynamics.



Course : Chem 321F

Reaction Mechanism & Stereochemistry

Examination: 4 hours

Full Marks-100 (1 unit, 4 credits)

(75 lectures, 4 lectures per week)




  1. Organic acids and bases (6 lectures): Theory on acids and bases, inductive, mesomeric and structural effects on acidity and basicity of organic molecules, hard acid- base rule.

  2. Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution (SN) (8 lectures): SN1and SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, comparison, simple kinetics of SN1 and SN2 reactions. Solvent, structure, attacking reagents and leaving groups effect on SN reactions. SNi reactions and anchimeric effect.

  3. Elimination Reaction (8 lectures): Classification, E2 and E1 mechanism, kinetics, stereochemistry, selectivity of products (Saytzeff & Hofmann). Competition between elimination and substitution reactions.

  4. Addition Reactions (8 lectures): Addition reactions to C = C double bonds and CC triple bonds, addition of water, HBr, Br2 molecule to double bonds and stereochemistry. Effects of substituents in alkene to HBr addition, selectivity on products, epoxidation and sharpless epoxidation to double bonds, ozonolysis in triple bonds.

  1. ^ Organic Reactions (12 lectures) :

(a) Mechanisms: Brief idea of the following: Carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Important organic reactions with their mechanisms and synthetic applications: Reformatsky, Reimer-Tiemann & Arndt-Eistert. Carbanion Condensation: Aldol and cross Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Perkin condensation, Cannizzaro reaction and Diels-Alder reactions.

(b) ^ Molecular rearrangement: Hofmann, Lossen, Schmidt, Pinacol-Pinacolone, Beckmann and Curtius.

6. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (6 lectures): General methods of synthesis and reactions of naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, biphenyl methane, stilbene and their derivatives.

  1. 1H and 13 C NMR Spectroscopy ( 12 lectures) : Basic Principle of proton and 13C NMR spectroscopy, instrumentation, Nuclear magnetic moments, energy states and magnetogyric ratio, mechanism of absorption of energy and resonance chemical shift, shielding & deshielding effects, shifting of chemical shift values, magnetic anisotropy, n+1 rule, Pascal’s triangle, coupling constant peak height and number of protons.

8. Stereochemistry (15 lectures): (a) Stereoisomerism, plane polarised light, specific rotation, asymmetric, dissymmetric and stereogenic centre. Optical isomerism, optical antipodes, diastereomers, crieteria of optical isomerism of an organic molecule, Symmetric elements, CIP rules for R,S- nomenclature (only for C-chirals). Racemic modifications and resolutions, asymmetric synthesis, enantiomeric exces and optical purity. (b) Geometrical isomerism for olefins, oximes and cyclic compounds, cis-trans and E, Z naming, methods of interconversion between two geometrical isomers and determination of cis-trans relationship.


Recommended Books:

1. I.L. Finar : Organic Chemistry, Vol. I & II

2. J.B. Hendrickson, : Organic Chemistry

D.J. Cram and G.J. Hammond

3. E.L. Elliel : Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds

4. P.S. Kalsi : Stereochemistry, Conformation and mechanism

5. K. Mislow : Introduction to Stereochemistry

6. P. Sykes : A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry

7. R.T. Morrison and R.N. Boyd : Organic Chemistry

8. E.S. Gould : Mechanism and Structure in Organic Chemistry

9. J. March : Advanced Organic Chemistry Reactions Mechanisms and Structure

10. C.K. Ingold : Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry

11. Elliot R. Alexandar : Principle of Ionic Reactions

12. Raj K. Bansal : Organic reaction mechanism

13. J.N. Gurtu and R. Kapoor : Organic reactions and reagents

14. Nasipuri : Stereochemistry

15. V.R. Dani : Organic Spectroscopy

16. Williams & Fleming : Spectroscopy Method in Organic Chemistry.

17. Y.R. Sharma : Elementary Organic Spectroscopy

18. P.S. Kalsi : Spectroscopy of Organic Compound

19. D.L. Pavia, G.M. Lampman & : Introduction to Spectroscopy

G.S.C. Kriz, jr

20. Silverstein Bassler & Morrill : Spectroscopy Identification of Organic Compounds

21. E.L. Eliel, Samuel H. Wilen : Stereochemistry of Organic Chemistry


Course : Chem 322F

Natural Products & Medicinal Chemistry

Examination: 4 hours

Full Marks : 100 (1 unit, 4 credits)

(75 lectures, 4 lectures per week)

1. Carbohydrates (15 lectures): Classification, structure and configuration of aldoses and ketoses, projection formulae and conformations, reactions of monosaccharides, mutarotation, anomerization epimerization, determination of ring size, conformation of aldohexoses. Molecular rotation and Hudson's rule.

2. Alkaloids (12 lectures): Occurrence, classification, extraction and isolation of alkaloids, general methods of determining structures. Chemistry of ephedrine, nicotine, atropine and morphine.

3. Purines (8 lectures): Purine and Uric acid derivatives, adenine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, guanine, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline.

4. Terpenes (15 lectures): The essential oils: Classification of terpenes, isoprene rule, occurrence, extraction and isolation. General methods of determining structures of terpenes. Detailed studies of some monoterpenes: (i) acyclic terpenes (citral), (ii) monocyclic terpenes (limonene), (iii) Bicyclic monoterpenes (-pinene).

5. Amino Acids and polypeptides (13 lectures): Classification, physical and chemical behaviour of amino acids, synthesis, analysis of amino acids, polypeptides, synthesis, assay and sequence.

6. ^ Synthesis of important drugs (12 lectures):

a) Drug and its Classification, modes of action of some important drug e.g. sulphadrugs, antimalarial & antipyretic

b) Supha-drugs: sulphanilamide, sulphapyridine, sulphathiazole, sulphadiazine, sulphamethazine, sulphaguanidine, prontosil, chloramine  T.

c) Antimalarials: Pamaquine, Chloroquine, Camoquine, Mepacrine, Draprim, Paludrine.

d) Antipyretic Analgesics: Paracetamol, Aspirin, Phenacetin, Cinchopen, Phenylbutazone, Mefenamic.

Recommended Books:

1. I.L. Finar : Organic Chemistry Vol. I & II

2. W. Pigman : Carbohydrates

3. S.W. Fox and J.F. Foster : Protein Chemistry

4. Alfred Burger : Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. I & II

5. J.B. Hendrickson, D.J. Cram and G.J. Hommond. : Organic Chemistry

6. A. Kar : Medicinal Chemistry

7. O.P Agarwal : Chemistry of natural products Vol. I & II

8. G. Chatwal : Organic Chemistry of natural products Vol. I & II

9. L. Wade Jr. : Organic Chemistry



^

Course : Chem 323H


Industrial Chemistry

Examination : 3 hours

Full Marks : 50 (0.5 unit, 2 credits)

(40 lectures, 2 lectures per week)

1 Unit operations and unit processes (5 lectures): Introduction, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, and their applications in common industries. Introduction, evaporation: evaporators and their classification, operating principles of single and multipleeffect evaporators, distillation: simple and fractional distillation, construction of fractionating column.

2. ^ Pulp and paper (6 lectures): Sources and classification of raw materials, production of pulps: sulfate, sulfite and soda processes, physical and chemical processes involved in it, characterization of papers and their evaluations, outlines for the utilization of wastes and used paper.

3. Petroleum (6 lectures): General idea of formation, composition and evaluation.

(a) ^ Separation operation: Distillation, adsorption, filtration, crystallization, extraction and treating process.

(b) Conversion process: Cracking, polymerization, alkylation, hydrogenation, hydrocracking, isomerization, reforming or aromatization, esterification and hydrolysis, motor and aviation fuel and their characteristics and evaluation.

4. ^ Natural gas (5 lectures): Origin, composition and purification, production of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, production of urea and the physico-chemical processes associated with its production.

5. Soap and detergents (6 lectures):

(a) General idea of soap and principles of its cleansing action, production of soaps: raw materials, characterization of fats, oils and waxes, manufacturing procedure.

(b) Definition of detergents, detergency principles, classification of detergents and their quality comparison with soaps, production of detergents and physico-chemical operations.

6. ^ Chlor-alkali industry (7 lectures): General principles of electrolysis, electrolysis of sodium chloride at very dilute, concentrated and molten conditions, definition of brine, sources of sodium chloride, preparation and purification, production of caustic soda and chlorine by electrolytic method, principles of using diaphragm, diaphragm materials, general information of different types of electrolytic cells and their merits and demerits.

7. Sugar industry (5 lectures): Raw materials, production, detail of the operations and processes, refining of sugar, utilization of by-products.

Recommended Books:

1. R.N. Shreve : The Chemical Process Industries

2. A. Roger : Roger’s Manual of Industrial Chemistry Vol. I & II

3. Riegel : Riegel’s Industrial Chemistry

4. G. Martin : Industrial Chemistry, Vol. I & II

5. Nelson : Petroleum Refinery Engineering

6. Vincent Souchelli : Fertilizer Nitrogen

7. R.K. Das : Industrial Chemistry, Part I & II

8. Robert B. Leighu : Chemistry of Engineering Materials

9. Hayward : Outline of Metallurgical Practice


Course : Chem 331F

Inorganic Chemistry III

Examination : 4 hours

Full Marks : 100 ( 1 unit, 4 credits)

(75 lectures, 4 lectures per week)

  1. Wave mechanics (9 lectures): Schrodinger’s wave equation, physical significance of , principle of superposition, particle in one dimensional box, particle in three dimensional box, solution of Schrodinger’s wave equation for H atom, atomic and molecular orbitals.

  2. The chemistry of the main group elements (14 lectures):

  1. Group VA(15), VIA(16), VIIA(17) and VIIIA (18): Properties of the elements, and their oxides, hydrides, and halides

  2. Interhalogens, polyhalides and pseudohalogens

  3. Oxides & oxyacides of sulpher & phosphorus

3. Chemical bonding:

a) Covalent bond (10 lectures): Wave mechanical treatment of covalent bond, valence bond (V.B.) theory, Heitler London treatment and some improvements, molecular orbital (M.O.) theory, comparison between VB and MO theories.

b) Metallic bond (4 lectures): Properties of metal, electron gas model, free electron model (Sommerfeld model).

c) van der Waals’ forces (4 lectures): Dipole-dipole interactions, dipole induced dipole interactions and London dispersion forces.

  1. a) ^ Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) (6 lectures): Shapes of molecules of non transition elements.

b) Molecular geometry (6 lectures) : Shapes of molecules (eg. NH3, H2O, CO32-, NO3-, BF3, SF6, PCl5, etc.) and the concept of hybridization of bond orbitals, linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, square planar, trigonal bipyramid, square pyramid and octahedral.

  1. Coordination chemistry (12 lectures): Valence bond theory and crystal field theory, splitting of d orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes, splipping, factors affecting CFSE, spectrochemical series, magnetic and spectral properties of coordination compounds, Jahn Teller distortion, uses of complexation in analysis.

  2. Solvents (8 lectures) : Solubilities of compounds, effect of temperature on solubility, role of water as a solvent, chemical structure and solubility, solubility from chemical reactions, energy change in solution formation. The effect of hydration and lattice energies. Born’s equation for solubilities of salt.




Recommended Books:

1. R.C. Day and J. Selbin : Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry

2. Manas Chanda : Atomic Structure and Chemical Bond

3. J.E. Huheey : Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structures and Reactivity

4. D.K. Sabera : Electronic Structure and Chemical Bonding

5. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson : Advanced Inorganic Chemistry

6. B.E. Douglas and D.H. : Concepts and Models of

McDaniel and J. Alexander Inorganic Chemistry

7. K.F. Purcell and J.C. Kotz : Inorganic Chemistry

8. W.U. Malik, G.D. Tuli and R.D. Madan : Selected Topics in Inorganic Chemistry

9. B.R. Puri and L.R. Sharma : Principles of Inorganic Chemistry.

10. G.S. Manku : Theoretical Principles of Inorganic Chemistry


Course : Chem 332F

Nuclear Chemistry

Examination : 4 hours

Full Marks : 100 (1 unit, 4 credits)

(75 lectures, 4 lectures per week)

1. Nuclear forces and nuclear structure (13 lectures):

a) Nuclear forces: Nucleon, nuclear forces, characteristic of nuclear forces, meson field theory.

b) Nuclear Structure: Liquid drop model, shell model, collective model.

2. Nuclear reaction (12 lectures): Definition, energetics, nuclear cross section, compound nucleus theory, direct interaction, different types of nuclear reactions: nuclear fission theory, energy and mass distribution, nuclear fusion.

3. Interaction of radiation with matters (9 lectures): Energy loss per ion pair, range, stopping power, velocity and energy of -particles, loss of energy by -particles, Bremsstrahlung, gamma ray interaction with matter – photoelectric effect, Compton effect, pair production and annihilation.

4. Radiation detection and measurements (14 lectures): Specific ionization, behaviour of ion pairs in electric fields, ionization chambers, proportional counters, Geiger muller counters, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, Wilson cloud chambers and bubble chambers.

5. Acceleration of charged particles (9 lectures): The Cockcroft-Walton (voltage multiplier) accelerator, Van de Graaff generator, linear accelerator, cyclotron, synchrocyclotron.

6. Nuclear reactors (10 lectures): Basic principles of chain-reacting systems, general aspects of reactor design, thermal, fast and intermediate reactors, reactor fuel, moderators, reflectors, coolants and control materials, critical size of a reactor.

7. Radiochemical applications (8 lectures): Tracer technique, radiometric analysis, isotope dilution, activation analysis, reaction kinetics and mechanisms, hot-atom chemistry (Szilard-Chalmers process), radiocarbon dating.


Recommended Books:

1. S. Glasstone : Source Book on Atomic Energy

2. G. Friedlander, J.W. Kennedy, E.S. Macias and J.M. Miller : Nuclear and Radiochemistry

3. G.R. Choppin : Nuclear and Radioactivity

4. H.J. Arnikar : Essentials of Nuclear Chemistry

5. B.G. Harvey : Nuclear Chemistry


Course : Chem 333H

Analytical Chemistry – I

Examination: 3 hours

Full Marks : 50 (0.5 unit, 2 credits)

(45 lectures, 2 lectures per week)


1. Brief idea on (2 lectures):

a) Scope of analytical chemistry , b) Units of weight and concentration .

2. Evaluation of analytical data (12 lectures):

Definition of terms: mean, median, precision, accuracy, determinate errors and their correction, indeterminate errors, normal error curve & its properties, standard deviation, confidence level, tests of significance (t & F tests), rejection of data (Q-test), sensitivity, detection limit, least square analysis of data.

3. ^ Preliminary steps of analysis (10 lectures): Sampling, decomposing and dissolving samples, separation of impurities from sample solution: precipitation, solvent extraction and ion-exchange methods, selection of a method for analysis.

4. Titrimetric methods of analysis (13 lectures):

a) Definition of terms: Titration, standard solution, primary standard, equivalence point, end point, equivalent weight, normality, molarity, ppm, titer.

b) Complexometric tritrations with (i) inorganic complexing agents, e.g., Cl-, SCN-, CN- and (ii) aminocarboxylic acids, e.g. EDTA, EDTA titrations: effect of pH, titration curves, effect of the complexing agents, indicators, titration methods and scope.

c) Precipitation tritrations : principle, titration curves, Mohr, Volhard and Fajan's method of titration.

5. Gravimetric methods (8 lectures): Mechanism of precipitate formation, particle size and purity, colloidal precipitates, coagulation, peptization, coprecipitation, precipitation from homogeneous solution, organic and inorganic precipitating agents, applications, merits and demerits of gravimetric methods.

Recommended Books:

1. D. A. Skoog, D.M. West & : Fundamentals of Analytical

F.J. Holler. Chemistry (6th Ed.)

2. G.D. Christian : Analytical Chemistry (4th Ed.)

3. D.A. Skoog : Principles of Instrumental Analysis (4th Ed.)

4. H.A. Laitinen and W.E. Harris : Chemical Analysis

5. Bassett, Danney, Inorganic Analysis : Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative

Joffery and Mendhams

6. H.H. Willard, L.L. Merritt, : Instrumental Methods of

J.A. Dean and F.A. Settle Analysis (6th Ed.)


Course : Chem 301L

Physical, Organic and Inorganic Chemistry Practical-III

Full Marks : 200 (2 units, 8 credit)

Examination : 36 hours ( 6 days)



Section – A: Physical Chemistry Practical-III,

Examination : 12 hours (Two days)

Full Marks : 70

(i) Experiment: 50* Marks, (ii) Continuous Lab. assessment: 20** Marks

  1. Measurement and control of temperature, setting of water thermostat at certain temperature with the help of toluene-mercury regulator, preparation of reference electrodes.

  2. Determination of viscosity coefficient of the (a) water-alcohol and (b) nitric acid-chloroform mixtures and comments on the structure of the solutions.

  3. Determination of the viscosity coefficient of different mixtures of toluene and nitrobenzene to test the validity of Kendall’s equation.

  4. Construction of adsorption isotherm of a suitable acid from aqueous solution by charcoal.

  5. Determination of the rate constant of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of an ester by titrimetric method at different hydrogen ion concentration.

  6. Determination of the rate constant of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of sucrose by polarimetric method.

  7. Kinetic studies of reduction of hydrogen peroxide.

  8. Determination of the partial molar volume of alcohol in alcohol+water mixture by slope method.

  9. Determination of cell constant, equivalent conductance at infinite dilution and verification of D-H-O equation conductometrically.

  10. Determination of cooling corves of binary solid system.

  11. Boiling temperature vs composition diagram of completely miscible binary liquid pairs.

  12. Construction of Daniel cell and determination of the (a) e.m.f. of the cell, (b) standard electrode potential of quinhydrone, silver and silver-silver chloride electrodes.

NB: A few more experiments, relevant to the theoretical courses may be done, subject to the availability of the Lab. facilities.


Section-B: Organic Chemistry Practical-III

Examination : 12 hours (Two days)

Full Marks : 65



(i) Experiment: 45* Marks, (ii) Continuous Lab. assessment : 20** Marks

  1. Separation of a mixture of organic compounds and their systematic identification (both solids and liquids)

  2. Analysis of cement for (a) insoluble materials, (b) silica, (c) iron (III) oxide, and (d) calcium oxide etc.

  3. Determination of iodine value, saponification value, acid value and R.M. value of oils and fats.

  4. Analysis of molasses for (a) moisture, (b) total sugars (c) reducing sugars.

  5. Estimation of celluose, hemicellulose and lignin in a sample of jute fibre.

Recommended Books:

1. A.I. Vogel : A Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry

2. Shiriner, Fusion & Curtin : Systematic Organic Analysis

3. H.T. Clarke : Practical Organic Chemistry

4. A.I. Vogel : Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry  Part I, II & III

5. J. Bassett & others : Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis

6. Skoog & West : Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry

7. Schwarzenbach & Flaschka : Complexometric Titrations


Section C: Inorganic Chemistry Practical-III

Examination : 12 hours (Two days)

Full Marks : 65

(i) Experiment: 45* Marks, (ii) Continuous Lab. assessment: 20** Marks

  1. Gravimetric estimation of the following :

  1. Iron as ferric oxide.

  2. Barium as barium sulphate.

  3. Zinc as zinc ammonium phosphate.

  4. Maganese as manganese pyro phosphate.

  1. Quantitative separation and estimation of the components of the following mixtures :

  1. Iron and manganese.

  2. Copper and zinc.

  3. Copper and nickel

3. Estimation of hydrochloric acid as silver chloride.

4. Analyses of alloys, ores and minerals.

5. Analysis of coal for (a) moisture, (b) volatile matter and (c) ash, (d) sulphur.


Recommended Books:

1. A.I. Vogel : A Textbook of Inorganic Quantitative Analysis

2. Alexeve : Qunatitative Chemical Analysis

3. D.A. Skoog and D.M. West and : Fundamentals of Analytical

F.J. Holler Chemistry (6th Edn)

4. Jugal Kishore Agarwal : Practicals in Engineering Chemistry

5. R.K. Das : Industrial Chemistry, part II


* The examiners shall mark the experiment(s) of section A, B & C and submit the marks to the chairman of the relevant examination committee. The final marks shall be computed by the committee.

** The Lab. teachers of sections A, B & C shall evaluate continuously the Lab. classes and submit the average marks of Lab. assessment in sealed envelopes to the Chairman of the relevant examination committee within three weeks from the last lab. held.

The average marks shall be computed by the examination committee. The total marks for the practical course shall be obtained by adding the marks of section A, B & C. The examination committee shall send a copy of the consolidated marks to the controller of examinations.




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