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Curriculum Guide for Go In Schools

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Appendix L

Go Terms







味道 (weì dào)

Aji (味)

(뒷맛) Twitmat/Maat

Residual threats remaining in a position (Bradley 2001)

Bad aji

(èr weì)

味が悪い (aji ga warui)

味消 (Aji Keshi – destroying aji)

A bad move which needlessly neutralizes the player’s own Aji (Bradley 2001). Aji keshi is a move that unnecessarily removes one's own good aji in the opponent's position. As an example, the exchange of for in this diagram is a bad move. By playing this way, Black loses the chance later, when there might have appeared a black stone at a, to peep at , followed by White at , and Black b. This loss of potential is much more important than the meager one point of territory that Black gains (S).

Empty triangle/Good empty triangle

空角 (kōng jiăo)

空き三角 (Akisankaku/Guzumi)

(빈삼각) BinSamGak

This shape is an empty triangle (akisankaku in Japanese). It is also called the devil's shape (onigatachi), because it brings to mind the long nose of one kind of Japanese demon (S).

^ Good empty triangle:

Efficiency is one aspect of shape. Late in the game, especially, it can be obviously correct to make an empty triangle and making an empty triangle can also be the vital point. ((치중수/置中手) ChiJoongSu?- A move that goes at opponent's vital point) 2 is the vital point, even though it is an empty triangle (s).

Over-stretched shape

余り形 (Amari Gatachi)

White attacks Black but fails to benefit adequately from the attack. Not sure what the roots of this word are. Gatachi is a vocalized version of katachi, or shape. amari is one of those words difficult to translate, but it might mean "left over". That would be consistent with the idea that amarigatachi is inadequate shape left over after attacking (S).

余し (amashi)

A strategy and a style. It means to take territory with every opportunity, even by not defending some weak groups. This way one puts pressure on the opponent, leaving them the problem to keep the balance by attacking the weak groups (S). Allowing the opponent to take good points, taking space in compensation.


打吃 (dă chī)


(단수/單手) Dansu

A condition in which one or more units has been reduced to only a single liberty, and is therefore subject to capture on the opponent’s next play (Bradley 2001)

当て (Ate)

Same as Atari (Bradley 2001)

当て込み (Atekomi)

Atekomi is a play aiming to cut a diagonal play (kosumi). That is, it creates a cutting point from the opponent's diagonal (S).


厚味 (hòu wèi)

厚い (atsui)


厚味 (hòu wèi)


(세력) SeRyeok

A strong formation of stones, typically exerting outward.

Belly Attachment

(붙임) Buchim

White to play and capture the two black stones that cut off the two white stones (S).

The belly attachment does the trick


The name for this three-stone enclosure, and the advice to avoid it, come from a Korean web site (S).



모자씌움/帽子씌움 or 모착/帽着) MoJaSs or MoChak

Boshi means capping play and is visualized in the following diagram. It can be seen as the counterpart of the ikken tobi (S).


1 here is known as the clamp. Notice that it applies pressure on the two white stones (S).

Connection, esp. of A three stone wall

Bo tsugi (棒継ぎ)

The "staff connection," is the term for a wall of three stones (S).

Connect (two groups)

Katatsugi (カタ継ぎ).

(연결/連結) YeonGyeol

An additional time period in which X number of stones must be played


秒読み (Byo-yomi)

(초읽이) Choilgi

Time where X no. of moves must be made in Y amount of time.


(끊다) Kkeunhta

A cut is the action or the move which separates two connected groups of stones.

Cutting is a central concept in go - you are normally well advised to keep your own groups connected but cut your opponent's apart

Cutting point

A cutting point is an empty point between two chains of stones. If the opponent plays at that point, the two chains are cut.

Black has a cutting point at the circled point (S).

If the cutting stone can be captured immediately, there is no cutting point. In this position, a white move at the marked point puts itself in atari. Black's stones are in fact connected by a hanging connection (S).

White can of course threaten to cut. After White 1, there is again a cutting point at a, so Black now has to connect there. White 1 is called peep.

It is important to defend your cutting points.

There is a general question about how to defend. It is one of the simpler issues about good shape.

In this diagram, the marked black stone protects the cutting point in a fancy way (see keima protecting the cutting point). If White cuts, her cutting stone will be captured in a ladder towards the bottom, or in a loose ladder towards the left. So in a broader sense, there is no cutting point, yet this position still contains some aji (S).

Cutting stones

A group of stones that divides the enemy forces into two or more groups. May initially consist of a single stone at a cutting point (S). Here the stone is a cutting stone (S).

Black shouldn't sacrifice it, because if it lives the white group above it will be weak, and the white group on the side a little weak (S).

1 here is a good way to save the cutting stone from capture (S).

If the game goes this way breaks the possible ladder (White at ) (S).The result is clearly advantageous to Black.

The two stones have become very weak and it would be very troublesome to save them. But they are themselves cutting stones: if Black captures them, the initial cutting stone connects to the corner (S). Therefore White should take better care of the upper stones. This development is fine for Black, though.



A dragon is a long connected shape spanning large areas of the board. Usually dragons share the same liberties in one long connected shape but in general they are just long shapes that span a large part of the board (S).

Farmer’s hat

The farmer's hat is a basic idea in life and death, it is a big eye with a being the vital point. If Black plays at a, he as three eyes; and if White plays at a, Black is dead. The farmer's hat has five inside liberties (S).

Middle game

中盤 (zhōng pán)

中盤 ( Chuban)

중반(chung ban)

Neutral Liberty

單官 (dān guān)


(공배) Gongbae

A neutral liberty shared by safe White and Black groups. Does not count as a point for either side (Bradley 2001)

Liberty shortage

駄目ズマリ (Damezumari)

Shortage of liberties (Bradley 2001)




The designation of playing strength for those of expert and master level. Ranges from 1-dan to 8-dan for amateurs, and 1-dan to 9-dan for professional Go players (Bradley 2001). the ranking above kyu and below professional dan; generally 1 – 7 (or 9); 7 is high.


團子 (tuán zĭ)

団子 (Dango)

(포도송이) PoDoSongI

A shapeless mass of stones with little eye making potential.

A solid mass of stones without eyes and few liberties (S).

Thrust/pushing in


A move which pushes between two opposing stones in an attempt to separate them (Bradley 2001).

Push through/out & cut


Push through and cut (Bradley 2001)

It's the combination of and that is degiri. One may get into the inaccurate habit of calling the cut (it's a disconnection, but not at a cutting point). Seeing a short sequence such as this as a unit is on the whole an advance, though (S).



Black 1 is a bulge play (fukure in Japanese). It is a hane play, backed up by the marked stone already in place. Black gains great power locally, this way. Therefore the point 1 is the vital point here: if White takes it instead Black would start to worry about cutting points (S)


Fujite stands for a sealed move in a timed game that has to be interrupted (e.g. in the Japanese Kisei title match, which features games spread out over two consecutive days). The concern is that without a sealed move, there would be a disadvantage for the player who has to place the last stone on the board before the interruption. His opponent would have thinking time during the interruption not counted against the time on his clock. To solve this issue, the last player to move decides on where he wants to play and writes down the move on a piece of paper sealed in an envelope. The envelope is opened and the move played when the game is resumed (S).

Corner territory exchange

振り替り (Furikawari)


Exchange of corner territory for an outside ponnuki (Bradley 2001). A furikawari is a sudden exchange of potential territories (which may involve quite large groups of stones changing hands, too) (S).

Opening Gambit

布局 (bù jú)

布石 (Fuseki)

포석 (Poseok) (초반/初盤) ChoBan

The full-board opening (Bradley 2001). More accurately it means the initial disposition of stones (S).



下駄 (Geta)

(장문/欌門) JangMun

A trap or snare which can effectively capture opposing stones even when they still have several liberties (Bradley 2001).

Is a technique where one or a few stones are captured by blocking the exits. The basic form of a net is in this diagram. The marked black stone now cannot escape: If Black plays a, White answers at b; if Black c, she answers at d (S).

A slightly more complicated net is in this diagram. Try to check for yourself that Black can indeed not escape, after this move


圍碁 (wei qi)


바둑 (Baduk)

Go Board

棋盤 (Qipan)

碁盤 (Goban)

바둑판(Baduk P’an)

"Goban" is the Japanese word for "go board" (碁盤). Chinese: qipan (棋盘). Note that there are traditionally small markings at nine of the 'points' (the star points or hoshi). The central point is called tengen (Japanese) or tianyuan (Chinese) - the Korean word is chunweon

Go bowls

棋合 (qí hé)

碁笥 (goke), 碁器 (goki)

Go club


Go club

5-5 point


The 5-5 point has occasionally been used as the first play in the corner. The idea was experimented with during the Shin Fuseki period.

No Response

後手 (huo shuo)


(후수/後手) Husu

“Slow Hand”. The converse of sente. A move which makes no significant threat, and which therefore does not require an immediate response by the opponent (Bradley 2001).

In this endgame example, the sequence played is gote for Black, since he starts and finishes the sequence (S). A passive move; a move which does not need to be answered.

後中先 (hoù zhōng xiān)

後手の先手 (Gote No Sente)

A gote move which contains (often hidden) aggressive potential (Bradley 2001). A gote move preparing a sente followup.

Small Knight’s move/Large knight’s move

(행마/行馬) Haengma

Haengma [1] is a Korean word which means roughly the way the stones move, forward momentum. The term is used to describe various connections and their implications. Some connections are strong, but move across the board slowly (not gaining much territory[2]), while the faster connections are weaker (S).

Trick play

(piàn zhāo)

だまし手 (damashite); ハメ手 (Hamete), ゴマカシ手 (gomakashite)

(속임수) or (함정수/陷穽手) SoGimSu? or HamJeongSu

An unsound move made to try to fool the opponent into making an error. (Bradley 2001). A hamete is a trick play, a move that yields an unreasonably big advantage to the player if it is not answered correctly (S). A famous example of hamete is in this diagram. Typical continuations for this joseki would be at a or b

and : she is taken in by this hamete

White happily captures the corner, blissfully unaware that Black is intending to sacrifice the corner (S).

The sequence up to White 9 results in a huge success for Black. White has 18 points in the corner, but Black has such a thick wall outside that its value is much bigger than White's corner. Besides, Black a is sente. (The Iron Wall page shows a continuation of this example.)

Diagonal attachment


(밭전자/밭田字) BatJeonJa?

A diagonal attachment against an enemy stone. (Bradley 2001).

Inside Hane


1 is hanedashi -- the hane inside

White is certain to cut.

Black will play any of the lettered moves (S).



The main point is that whoever is to play should consider making a solid connection, rather than playing either available atari


Hanekomi is a Japanese term for a move which is a hane and also wedges in between two of the opponent's stones, i.e. both a hane and a warikomi. (S)

Hane Connect

Hane tsugi

^ Hane Tsugi or hane-connect is the sequence of moves to . It is a typical endgame move. This diagram gives the basic shape. There are a few issues (S).


Hasami (ハサミ)

협공/挾攻) HyeopGong

Pincer (Bradley 2001). A play that attacks by preventing the opponent’s extension down the side (Kosugi 1973).

Move/Place a stone

(착수/着手) Chaksu

Squeeze tsuke


As shown in the diagram (see Appendix M)

Diagonal jump (Bad shape)

愚形 (yú xíng)

チキリトビ (chikiri tobi, same as Hazama tobi); 愚形 (gukei)(


The shape created by the two White stones is called hazama tobi in Japanese. Usually it is a bad shape, as it can easily be cut apart. At special circumstances, though, it can be very powerful, but you should have an answer ready if your opponent plays in the middle (the marked point). It is also called an elephant's move, because the elephant in Chinese chess moves this way (S).

Draw Back


Draw back (Bradley 2001)

In this joseki Black 1 draws back, a less complex continuation than the stretch (nobi) at a (S).



An extension (Bradley 2001)

Tobi is for a jump in the centre, hiraki an extension along a side (S).

Honest move


A move which is honte (本手 'the honest move') is one that is played to reduce the amount of aji in one's position. If one plays honte, one accepts that one gets less points than one would otherwise get, or even that one has gote rather than sente, getting in return a solid position with little bad aji, thus freeing one's hands in the future. The kanji 本 for hon in honte 本手 is the same as in hon 本 "book" or nihon 日本 "Japan" and its meaning in this case is "real", "genuine", or "true" as in honmono 本物 "the real thing". So honte would be a move which is real or straight-forward, as opposed to tricky or flashy. Maybe "sober" is a good attribute of a honte. I guess "honest" is OK as a translation, but it has always seemed to me to be a little strange, as if someone picked an ordinary English word that looked the most like "honte".

Apex of empty triangle



A (good, honte) move that becomes the apex of an empty triangle.



A “Throw-in” sacrifice which kills an eye and/or whose capture reduces the opponent’s liberty count. (Bradley 2001)

4-4 point

Hoshi (星)


One of the nine handicap points (Bradley 2001). The 4-4 point. A 13x13 board has only five hoshi


Wei qi



The name of the game (Bradley 2001). The “I” in Igo means “to surround” and the “go” means “game,” so the name means “the surrounding game.” “Go” is a shortened version of the Japanese name (Yasuda 2004).


One point interval (Bradley 2001)

One point jump

Ikken Tobi

A one point skip or jump (Bradley 2001).

Ikken Basami

A one point pincer (Bradley 2001)




Stone (Bradley 2001)

Under the stones


(후절수/後切手) Hujeolsu

Under the stones (Bradley 2001). A play under the stones is a play in a space which has become free because some of your own stones have been captured. There are some spectacular tesuji where you plan to do this, losing stones deliberately, and carry that out unexpectedly.

Corner sequence


(정석/定石) Jeongseok

An analyzed sequence of corner plays which theoretically leads to a dynamically equal result for both sides (Bradley 2001)

Corner enclosure move


(걸침) GeolChim

An approach move against a corner stone to prevent a Shimari (Bradley 2001). A move that approaches a single enemy corner stone from the outside (Kosugi 1973)



A move which clamps an opposing stone (Bradley 2001)

Diagonal-virtual connection/Hanging connection


A diagonal virtual connection (Bradley 2001). A connection like the one in the diagram. The virtue of a kaketsugi is that it makes some eye-shape. The draw-back is the Black can play “a” (Kosugi 1973) (see Appendix M).

Solid connection


The solid connection (Bradley 2001)

Shoulder attack


A shoulder attack. A move played diagonally next to an opposing stone (Bradley 2001)


Katachi (形)

(모양) Moyang

“Shape” (may be good or bad) (Bradley 2001). A quality of a group of stones of the same color. This quality is highly influenced by the enemy stones present in the same area.

Small knight’s move


(날일자/날日字) NalIlJa

A small knight’s shape (Bradley 2001).

Sometimes the term kogeima (or small knight's move) is used, in order to distinguish this relationship from the ogeima (large knight's move).


“Erase.” When trying to reduce an opponent’s Moyo (sphere of influence), Keshi consists of “light” moves, not too deep within the area of the opponent’s strength (Bradley 2001)

Forcing move


A forcing move which must be answered, and which therefore necessarily retains Sente, but which is incidental to the main flow of play. Such stones are typically abandoned after they have served their purpose of forcing the opponent’s response, serving only as Aji thereafter (Bradley 2001)



A move played between opposing stones in order to separate them (Bradley 2001)


长生 (cháng shēng)

長生 (Ko (Chosei))

(패/覇) Pae

Eternity.” An important, oft recurring tactical situation in which a single stone is captured and the NO REPETITION RULE applies (Bradley 2001). Eternal life i.e. super ko in Ing terms.

Double Ko

This diagram shows an occurrence of a double ko. (From Large Avalanche Turn Inward). The black group has one liberty (the marked eye) and two kos, giving him always two liberties. If White takes away a liberty by taking the ko at a, Black can take the ko at b. It is then up to White to find a ko threat. Black can answer the ko threat, and when White recaptures at b, Black takes at a. It is again White who has to play a ko threat, which Black can answer.

It should be clear that White cannot win in this situation - Black is alive in double ko.

Velobici: The middle group (black with marked eye in the diagram), surrounding an opponent's inside group, is itself surrounded by an outside group. In order for such a group to live in double ko, these conditions must be met:

  1. the middle group must have an eye,

  2. the middle group must have two kos

  3. at least one of the kos must involve the opponent's inside group (ko a 'b' in diagram)


Same as Keima


(덤) Deom

The points added to White’s final score in “even” (no handicap) games to compensate for Black’s first move advantage (Bradley 2001)

逆込み (gyaku komi)

Points given to black.

逆先手 (nì xiān shŏu)

逆先手 (gyaku sente)


Same as gyaku yose.

逆先手 (nì xiān shŏu)

Gyaku yose


A gote move that deprives the opponent of a sente move.



The 3-4 point

Diagonal extension


마늘모 or 입구자/入口字 (MaNeulMo or IpGuJa)

The diagonal extension

Diagonal tsuke


A diagonal extension that attaches to an opposing stone (Bradley 2001) (see Appendix M)



(급/級) Gup

The designator of playing strength for players of less than Dan rank. For amateurs, ranges from 35 Kyu (beginner) to 1 Kyu (just below expert strength) (Bradley 2001)



(젖힘) JeotChim

“Bend: or “turn” (Bradley 2001)

White here makes a major difference, whether considered from the point of view of influence or territory.



Eye (Bradley 2001)

Capturing race

Me-ari me-nashi

(수상전/手相戰) SuSangJeon

A semeai (A life-or-death fight/race to capture) in which only one side has an eye (Bradley 2001)


(맛보기) Matbogi

Two complementary points of approximately equal importance in a given situation, such that whichever one a player occupies the opponent can (and usually must) occupy the other (Bradley 2001)



“Eye” or “point.” See ME (Bradley 2001)

3-5 point



The 3-5 point


A large sphere of influence or potential territory (Bradley 2001)

Opposing 3-4 points


Opposing komoku, such as the 4-3 point on the top and the 4-3 point on the bottom.


The “Avalanche” joseki (Bradley 2001)


“Central Placement.” A sacrifice inside the opponent’s space to reduce it to one eye (Bradley 2001)


To extend along a line from a stone not in contact with an opposing stone (Bradley 2001)

Double hane

Nidan Bane

“Two-step hane” (Bradley 2001) (see Appendix M)

Two point jump

Niken tobi

The basic two-space jump without any other stones close by is a loose connection - the opponent can cut the two stones apart in many ways. The two-space jump is often used, nonetheless, because it is light, quick and there are often supporting stones around. However, it may often be preferable to use a large knight's move instead - it is slightly more strongly connected and also gives a better direction, and can often be almost sente, since it can be used to press the opponent low (S).


A fuseki pattern in which a player occupies both 4-4 points on a single side (Bradley 2001)



To extend along a line from a stone in contact with an opposing stone (Bradley 2001). An extension away from an opponents tsuke, cross-cut, etc. (Kosugi 1973) (see Appendix M)



(들여다보다) DeulYeoDaBoDa

A “peep” into the space in an opponent’s one point jump (Bradley 2001)



A capture (Bradley 2001)

Captured stones

死子 (sĭ zĭ)

上げ石 (age ishi)


Large knight’s move

Ogeima (大ゲイマ)

(눈목자/눈目字) NunMokJa

Large Knight’s Move” (Bradley 2001)

An ogeima is often referred to as a 'large knight's move', as the pattern is an extended version of the way the chess piece moves (S).




Stones in atari that cannot be connected are said to be pinned (K)


The “Large Avalanche” joseki

Greetings to play Go

拍一盘 (pai yi pan) Play Go



Polite invitation to play a game of Go.

3-6 point


The 3-6 point opening was developed in the late 1920s. It has only been played at all often by the Korean player Yang Keon (S).

4-6 point


The 4-6 point was developed about 1934 by Sekiyama Riichi, during the ShinFuseki period. This move has been played recently by Yamashita Keigo (S).


A blocking move (Bradley 2001)

Death star



A powerful shape created when 4 stones capture a single opposing stone (Bradley 2001)


“Disposal.” Light resilient shape which allows a group to be easily settled, or to be partly or totally sacrificed if necessary without significant penalty (Bradley 2001). A series of light moves played where the opposing stones are strong in order to reduce their territorial potential (Nagahara 1982).



“Descent.” A move extending down from a second or third line stone toward the board edge (Bradley 2001)

3-3 point


(삼삼/三三) SamSam

The 3 -3 point in the corner


A fuseki pattern in which a player occupies all three handicap points on one side (Bradley 2001)


An insertion into an opponent’s wall, usually to probe for weaknesses. Similar to Warikomi (Bradley 2001)



(빅) Bik (Beek)

Means mutual life. In its simple form, it is a sort of symbiosis where two live groups share liberties which neither of them can fill without dying.

The Initiative


(선수/先手) Seonsu

The initiative. A move central to the major strategic and/or tactical motifs of the game, which therefore requires the opponent’s response, and which cannot be ignored without significant penalty! Such stones typically have long term implications, and must therefore be watched and defended. The converse of Gote. Closely related to Kikashi (Bradley 2001)

Double sente


A move which is sente for either player. It is always important to grab these moves as soon as possible, because whoever plays them gets points for free - no move is lost by playing a double sente play, but it does give one points (S).


A squeeze play which forces the opponent’s response (Bradley 2001)



(축/逐) Chuk(Chook)

The ladder (Bradley 2001)



The Ladder Block (Bradley 2001)

Ladder, reverse

グルグル回し (guru guru mawashi)

Corner enclosure


(굳힘) GutChim

Corner enclosure (Bradley 2001). A two-stone corner formation. The diagram shows a tyopical example. A shimari does not exactly secure the corner, but it does make a base around which it is hard for the opponent to gain a foothold (Kosugi 1973) (see Appendix M).


A sequence of moves to give a group good eye-making shape (Bradley 2001)



“Slide,” a small knight’s move toward the edge under opposing stones (Bradley 2001)



“Style” or “skillfulness.” Clever, artistic play (Bradley 2001)

Monkey Jump


A monkey jump (Japanese: saru-suberi) is a large-knight jump from the second line to the first line into the opponent's would-be territory, reducing it by a considerable amount. The stone on the diagram cannot be cut off. If White has a large territory to the right, the move can't be ignored and has to be replied to. A monkey jump is proverbially worth 9 points in sente, although the exact amount depends on the position, and it may very well be gote. In some cases a small jump to a is reasonable as well. This is sometimes known as a small monkey jump

Foot sweep


After the well-known martial arts technique (Masao 1989), in which a player answers a knight’s move approach with his/her own knight’s move



“Stand.” Extending one stone toward the center of the board (Bradley 2001)


The “Great Slant” Joseki (Bradley 2001)



A prefix meaning “high” (Bradley 2001)

Bamboo Joint

Take Fu

(쌍립/雙立) Ss'angNip

The bamboo joint is the name of the shape in the following diagram. The name, like the 'knuckle' on a stick of bamboo, comes from the strength of the connection. It is normally impossible to cut through it (S).

4 - 5 point

高目 Takamoku

(고목/高目) Gohmok

As an opening play, the 4-5 point is more center-oriented than the 3-5 point, and less corner-oriented than the 4-4 point.

3 – 5 point

目外し Mokuhazushi

(외목/外目) Waemok

"The 5-3 point is an old-established move which was very popular in the Edo period (1600-1867), so a great deal of research has been done on it. Its chief characteristic is that it places its main emphasis on influence - territorially, it is inferior to the 3-4 point. Like the 3-4 point, it does not finish with the corner in one move, so one's objective is to secure the corner with an extra move if the opponent does not make an approach move. Consequently, an approach move is valuable and should be played without too much delay. The 5-3 point is a lively move which can lead to some complicated and troublesome joseki." Ishida's Joseki Dictionary, Vol. II

Cross hoshi


When Black opens on the upper right 4-4 (hoshi) points and diagonally across at the lower left 4-4 (hoshi) point. (See Fuseki Patterns ^ Cross Hoshi in Addendum to Lesson Plans).

Central star point



(천원/天元) Cheonweon

The central star point.


To play somewhere, ignoring the opponent’s last move (Bradley 2001)


手筋 (shŏujīn)

Tesuji (手筋)

(맥/脈) Maek

A Suji which raises the overall efficiency of the player’s local (and sometime global) stones to their highest possible level (Bradley 2001). A clever play, the best play in a local position, a skillful move, a special tactic.

Iron pillar


(철주/鐵柱 or 쌍점/雙點) CheolJu? or Ss'angJeom

“Steel post” or “Iron pillar,” two stones connected (Bradley 2001)


A method of analyzing the efficiency of play by changing the order of moves (Bradley 2001)



A jump (=skip)

Jump, two-space

(두칸뜀) DuKanDd?'wim


A connection in between the opponent’s two un-connected units (Bradley 2001)



An attachment to an opposing stone (Bradley 2001). A play made in contact with one of the opponent’s stones, but not in contact with any friendly stones (Kosugi 1973).

Checking Extension


Which prevents the opponent’s extension (Bradley 2001). is an extension with 'added value'. This 'added value' may take a number of forms, for example an implied invasion or a threat to the base of a group

Tsume Go

A life-or-death problem (Bradley 2001)


(침입/侵入) ChimIp

An invasion into the opponent’s prospective territory which, unlike a wariuchi, doesn’t have room for extension to either side (Bradley 2001)


A move that thrusts in between opposing stones to set up cutting points. Similar to Sashikomi (Bradley 2001)



(갈라침) Gallachim

A wedge move, which has room for expansion on both sides (Bradley 2001)


A connection at the edge of the board (Bradley 2001)



(대국 종료) Daeguk Jongny

(끝내기) Gg'eutNeGi

The Endgame (Bradley 2001)


False (or bad) style, which does more harm than good. More or less the opposite of Tesuji (Bradley 2001)

Heavy group

Groups of stones which lack eye-shape which are vulnerable to attack.


(백/白) Baek

Illegal play

(반칙) Banchik

e.g. taking back a move, suicide, exceeding allotted time, etc.


(불계승/不計勝) Bulgyeseung

Win by resignation

Play a game

(대국) Daeguk


(근거/根據) GeunGeo

Go Player

(기사/棋士) Gisa

5 – 4 Point

(고목/高目) Gomok

Baseless group of stones

(곤마/困馬) GonMa


(공격/攻擊) GongGyeok

Over play

(과수) Gwasu

(무리수) Murisu

In a handicap game White must overplay to be able to catch up and overtake the handicap advantage Black enjoys. Thus, overplay is relative. A play that would be an overplay in one game might be appropriate in a different game against a different player. An overplay tries to gain too much.

Counting the score

(계가/計家) Gyega

Black opponent

(흑/黑) Heuk


후빔수) HuBimSu

An invasion of an opponent's territory that makes the opponent's territory dead or a bihk (seki).

Under the stones

(후절수/後切手) Hujeolsu

A play under the stones (Japanese: ishi-no-shita) is a play in a space which has become free because some of your own stones have been captured.

Snap back


환격/還擊) Hwan-Gyeok

A snapback is a play which captures enemy stones using one or more sacrifice stones


(자충/自充) JaChoong

Adding a stone to one's stone or stones that are not in atari, to put them into atari.


(절단/切斷) JeolDan


(접바둑) JeopBaduk

If two players differ in strength (see rank), the weaker player gets a handicap to compensate for the difference. That way, both players have a chance to win. In general, the ideal handicap is equal to the difference in kyu or dan ranks. Traditionally, handicap stones are placed on the star points, but one can also play with free placement of the handicap stones.


(집 also 가/家, 호/戶) Jip

(실리) Shilli

A part of the board that is surrounded by stones belonging to a living group, and in which the opponent cannot make a living group (presuming the player holding the territory answers correctly). Territory towards edge usually formed by 3rd or 4th line


(찌르기) Jj'iReuGi

End of the Game

(종국/終局) Jongguk

Middle Game

(중반/中盤) JungBan

Even Game

(맞바둑) MahtBaduk

Non-handicap game of Go.


(미생마/未生馬) MiSengMa

A group of stones that is not alive.


Nerai (狙い)

(날일자/날日字) NalIlJa

1. One of a group of interesting moves or sequences that a player is watching out for a favorable time to unleash (or his opponent looking for the chance to eliminate). Often, a move left as the result of a previous sequence; what kind of nerai is left, if any, is a common factor in evaluating sequences. 2. A tactical threat.



(누르다) NuReuDa

pushes White along, taking territory and also reducing the liberties on the white stone. This is a typical pushing play, of the kind that can lead to a pushing battle.

Ko threat


(팻감) Paetgam

Here is the basic idea of what is a ko threat. Suppose takes the ko. White cannot retake the ko immediately, but white can atari at . If chooses not to sacrifice three stones, then because white has already played a move away from the ko, can retake the ko. Of course, can choose to connect the ko, but black will have to pay the price of losing three stones. In this diagram, is the ko threat.

A move which threatens something. They are used in ko fights: when there is a ko which you are not allowed to immediately retake, you can play a ko threat. This should force your opponent to answer, after which you can retake the ko, and now it is your opponent's turn to find a ko threat.

Isolated stone

(폐석/廢石) PyeSeok

Describing one or more stones that are usually hard to move, or has no purpose because it is isolated or disconnected.

Sacrifice stone/play

(사석작전/捨石作戰) SaSeokJakJeon

Life and Death


(사활) Sahwal

Life-or-death fight (-race to capture)


Keshi (消し)

(삭감) SakGam

Reduction means playing a move outside or on the apparent boundary of the opponent's framework. In contrast with a deeper invasion, the idea is gently to reduce the size of the opponent's framework, limiting it to a manageable number of points, by playing near the edge of it.

Melt-down/All-or-nothing move


Shobute (勝負手)

(승부수) SeungBuSu

(aggressive) movement to change the unfavorable situation. After the opening, when a player judges that straightforward continuations are insufficient to win, she may make a shobute, a play (te) that puts the whole game (shobu) in the balance. Shobute are typically


실수/失手) ShilSu

Self-damaging move

(속수/俗手) SokSu

1. A move that makes the previous bad move a benefit. 2. A move that the player have no good plan/action afterwards, basically self-hurting move.

4 – 3 point

Komoku 小目

(소목/小目) Somok

Capturing race


(수상전/手相戰) SuSangJeon

Control (of a situation)

(수습/收拾) Suseup

To control a situation

Pivotal Stones

(요석/要石) YoSeok

Pivotal stones at very important position and should not be given up. Taneishi. Describing one or more stones that are disconnected, however still useful.


( 유가무가/有家無家) YuGaMuGa

One group of stones not having an eye, while the opponent's has one eye. the situation where in a capturing race one of the players has an eye and the other does not. As is explained under eye versus no eye capturing race, such a fight is usually a win for the player who does have an eye.

Large Avalanche Joseki

(대붕설형정석/大崩雪形定石 or 큰눈사태형정석/큰눈사태形定石) DaeBungSeolHyeongJeongSeok? or KeunNunSaTaeHyeongJeongSeok?- Large Avalanche Joseki

The large avalanche

After Black 3, the Large Avalanche pattern is complete (see Large Avalanche Simple Variations for the variations where White 2 or Black 3 is played elsewhere ). White 4, Black 5 and White 6 next are forced, after which Black can choose amongst a, b and c. Here a is the oldest variation, b is newer and c is most modern, having been introduced by Go Seigen in a game against Takagawa Kaku in 1957. Nowadays, c is the most popular variation, while b is also still played often.


白 (bái)




White stones

白子(bái zĭ)

白石 (shiro-ishi)

흰돌(hŭin dol)

White stones

White to play


White to play



Empty Corner

坏棋 (huài qī)

空き隅 (aki sumi)


Bad move

悪手 (akushu)



甘い (amai)



煽る (aoru)

Fast development

足が早い (ashi ga hayai)


Match with set number of moves.

番碁 (bango)

Match with set number of moves.

Five stone win

盤面五目勝ち (banmen gomoku kachi)


A win by 5 pts on the board i.e. without komi.

Five shape vital point

五目中手 (gomoku nakade)

Playing at the vital point of the bulky five shape.

Five-in-a-row game

五子棋 (wŭ zĭ qí)

五目並べ (gomoku narabe)

오목 (omok)

Five-in-a-row; a game played on a go board, the first player to get five in a row wins.

バタバタ (bata bata oiotoshi, ton-ton)

Capturing after a series of ataris.

Cap (move)


帽子 (boshi)

hat, cap

棒スギ (botsugi)


three-stone column or row


ブツカリ (butsukari)

same as tsukiatari (突き当たり)

チギリ (chigiri)

Capturing the tail of a group.

チキリトビ (chikiri tobi)


中国棋協会 (chuugoku ki kyōkai)

Championship Match

挑戦試合 (chōsen shiai)


Challenger for title

tiăo zhàn zhĕ

挑戦者 (chōsensha)


Chinese opening

中国流 (chūgoku ryu)


Chinese fuseki


中押 (chūoshi)


winning by resignation

Grand Knight’s move

超大飛 (chāo dà fēi)

大々桂馬 (daidai geima)


A grand knight's move; four horizontal and one vertical or vice versa.

Pushing and Cutting

沖斷(chōng duán)

出切り (de giri)


Gouging out

エグリ (eguri)

Gouging out ... robbing the opponent of a base/eye shape.


フクラミフクレ (fukurami, fukure)



外勢 (wài shì)

外勢 (gaisei)


眼形 (yăn xíng)

眼形 (gankei)


Five match series

碁盤勝負(goban shōbu)

Go saint

碁聖 (gosei)


Go saint (one of the newspaper tournaments)




這い (hai)

Crawl on first or second line.

Captured stones

ハマ (hama)

Captured stones.

Fall for a trick move

嵌まり (hamari)

A move that falls for a trick move.

Half point ko

半劫 (han kō)

A ko which is worth half a point.

Half a point

半目 (han moku)


Half a point.

Half point game

半目勝負(han moku shōbu)


A game decided by half a point.


Appendix M

Diagrams of Go Terms

Diagonal tsuke Double hane Hanging connection

Nobi Shimari Squeeze-tsuke

Example from joseki

Threatening to capture stones in a snapback is an effective tesuji, as in this joseki:

A common joseki

This diagram shows the result of a common joseki (for the 4473 enclosure) where White invaded at the 3-3 point under Black's 4-4 point. Usually this joseki ends with Black playing where White's marked stone is. But if taking sente has priority it is not uncommon to omit this move.[1]

So in this diagram White played at this point. If Black now plays around a or extends along the upper side Black is in for a nasty surprise: White plays . This threatens a snapback at 2 and is tesuji. In order to avoid losing stones to capture, Black plays . But White follows with and captures the whole group. There is no way out for Black (Black b is answered by White c).

-- Arno Hollosi

Appendix N

Game Recording Form


© 2005 by Gordon E. Castanza, Ed. D.

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