Tips for teaching at the elementary or secondary level (Any subject) icon

Tips for teaching at the elementary or secondary level (Any subject)


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Tips for teaching at the elementary or secondary level (Any subject)















Good principles of teaching and learning 12

Classroom preparations and management 13

Preparation involving the multiple intelligences 13

Preparing the multiple intelligence activity centers 13

Using music to set the mood 14

Using visuals to set the mood 15

Using kinesthetic learning to set the mood 15

Multiple intelligence checklist for the classroom 16

Seating students with behavioral problem and learning difficulties 18

Material for the walls 18

Post the following information next to the classroom door 19

Write or post this information on the blackboard too 19

Supplies 20

Supplies students should get before school starts 20

Teacher supplies 20

For those without their own room 20

Health supplies for the classroom 21

Other classroom supplies 21

For the teacher’s desk 21

Minimize theft 21

Paperwork 21

School forms to get 21

Student folders 22

Wednesday going-home folder 22

Student folders for study hall 22

A teacher notebook 23

Substitute packet 23

Emergency lesson plans 23

Roster sheet 23

Note cards for calling on students 23

The grade book 24

Other forms 24

Other things to do or prepare 24

People to know at the school 25

Working with the librarian 25

Developing a realistic course calendar 25

^ Interacting with families 27

Letter to parents before the school year starts 27

At-home study tips to mention 27

Helping with activities 27

Other topics to cover 28

The family interest inventory 28

Letter to students 28

Introducing yourself through video 29

Parent e-mail groups 29

Interacting with parents over misbehaving students 29

Back-to-school night (Parents’ night) 29

In advance 29

That night 30

Intro about you 30

Teacher-Parent Conferences 30

Student-led parent conferences 30

Overview 30

Preparation 31

During the conference 32

Goal-setting component 33

Post-conference 33

Still meet regularly with parents 33

Cautions 34

^ The first days of school 35

What students want to know on the first day of school 35

Introducing yourself 35

Five things that enhance positive expectations 35

Have a student repeat directions after you give them 35

Disciplining 35

Overview 35

Enforcing classroom expectations 36

The discipline plan 37

Introducing the discipline plan 37

The discipline plan – A copy for parents and students 39

Rules and expectations 39

Consequences 39

Positive consequences 39

Negative consequences 39

The Action Plan 40

The Action Plan – Version 1 41

The Action Plan – Version 2 42

Student Behavior and Consequences Log 43

Improving disciplining through the multiple intelligences 43

Giving positive written feedback to all students 44

Tips for reaching disruptive students 45

Disciplining through class meetings 45

Teaching procedures 45

The three steps to teaching procedures 45

Procedures for the first day 45

Beginning of each class - attendance 46

Absent students 46

Getting students’ attention 46

Bathroom, drinking fountain, and locker 46

Collecting papers and assignments 47

Getting students into groups 47

When the end-of-class bell rings 47

Other important procedures 47

Tardy students 48

Homework 48

Assigning each student a number for homework 48

Assignment heading 48

Missed and late assignments 48

Grading a classmate’s homework 49

Strategies for students 49

Using technology 49

Internet access at home 50

Packets for students the first day 50

Graded notebooks 50

Tips for interactive student notebooks 50

Notebook evaluation sheets 51

Formative assessment 52

Summative assessment 52

Discussing other study skills for all their subjects 52

Long-term projects 52

Tests 53

Organization 53

Goal setting with the students 53

Icebreakers 54

Name toss 54

Get the autograph of someone who... 54

What do we have in common? 55

Our multiple intelligences 56

Multiple intelligences survey #1 56

Multiple intelligences survey #2 57

^ Last days of school 59

Instructional planning: Beginning with the end in mind 60

Best ways to improve achievement (and four connecting questions) 60

Nine excellent instructional strategies 60

Four planning questions for instruction 60

Matching instructional strategies with the planning questions 60

Entry points for planning and indicators of a job well done 61

Entry points for planning 61

Indicators of proper planning 62

The unit or course 62

The teacher 62

The learners 63

The classroom environment 63

The syllabus 63

First: Use standards and enduring understandings to determine desired results 64

Curricular priorities 64

Enduring understandings 64

Essential questions 65

Essential content: Concepts and classifications 66

Types of classifying 66

Essential skills 66

Use direct instruction for teaching essential skills 66

Think alouds 67

Second: Use the desired results to make summative assessments 67

Summative Assessments: Portfolios 67

Definition 67

Goals 68

Benefits 68

Student involvement 68

Types of portfolios 68

Growth portfolios 68

Journal portfolios 69

Literature response portfolios 69

Process portfolios 69

Showcase portfolios 69

Annual portfolios as parts of a student’s archive 69

Portfolio checklist 70

Family involvement 71

Mid-year portfolio family response 72

Parents’ response form at the end of the year 72

The five stages of creating a portfolio 73

Stage 1: Planning 74

Stage 2: Considering materials 75

Stage 3: Organizing and producing the portfolio 76

Stage 4: Evaluating the portfolio 76

Stage 5: Publishing the portfolio 77

Portfolio evenings / celebrations 77

Questions about the portfolio approach 77

Pre-portfolio questionnaire 78

Setting up a portfolio assignment 80

Student reflection form for a selection 80

Documenting the multiple intelligences 80

Student collaboration on their portfolios 81

Portfolio work samples 82

Periodic review of portfolio 82

Portfolio checkpoints 82

Criteria for evaluating a portfolio 83

Sample rubric for assessing final portfolio 85

Summative assessments: Learning contracts 86

Contracts and parents 87

Sample activity choices for contracts 87

Contract examples 89

Example #1 – Typical learning contract 89

Example #2 - “Celebration of Learning” contract 91

Summative assessments: Individual ones and not a compilation 93

Principles 93

Traditional 93

Performance/Authentic 93

Academic prompts 93

Tasks & projects 94

Questions that students will have 94

G.R.A.S.P.S. design tool 94

Goal 95

Role 95

Audience 95

Situation 96

Product/Performance and Purpose 96

Standards & criteria for success 97

Tasks & projects sorted by Bloom’s Taxonomy 97

Tasks & projects sorted by the multiple intelligences 97

Third: Use summative assessments to make diagnostic & formative assessments 100

Diagnostic and formative assessments 100

Diagnostic assessing 101

Formative assessing 101

Using proper questioning in the classroom 101

Informal techniques 101

Index card summaries/questions 101

Hand signals 102

With a partner 102

The three-minute pause 102

One-minute essay 103

Question box or board 103

Analogy prompt 103

Visual representation (web or concept map) 103

Fourth: Use diagnostic and formative assessments to make lesson procedures and activities 103

What is W.H.E.R.E.T.O.? 103

W.h.e.r.e.t.o - Where (are we expected to be when we finish?) 103

Assessment criteria 104

Six facets of understanding 104

Application
104

Empathy 105

Explanation
105

Interpretation 106

Perspective 106

Self-knowledge 107

Rubrics and anchors 107

Creating your own rubric 107

A rubric for rubrics 109

Audience rubric 110

Anchors 110

Requesting permission to use certain students’ work 110

W.H.E.R.E.T.O. – Where: Responding to students’ writing 110

Pennsylvania Writing Assessment Domain Scoring Guide 111

6+1 Trait Scoring Continuum 113

Ideas and content 113

Organization 114

Voice 115

Word choice 116

Sentence fluency 117

Conventions 118

Presentation 119

Alternative rubric for writing 120

w.H.e.r.e.t.o. – Hook (their attention) and Hold (their interest) 121

Hook: Opening a unit 121

Determining unit sections 121

Identifying key lesson content 122

Room preparations 122

Designing a unit "opener" activity 122

Quotes 122

Provocative propositions 122

Musical prompts 122

Visual prompts 123

Do a KWL about the topic with the students 123

w.H.e.r.e.t.o. – Hold attention: When showing videos 123

w.H.e.r.e.t.o. – Hold attention: Technology in the classroom 123

Safety on the Internet 123

Safe areas of the Internet 124

Cyber Patrol 124

Filters 124

Safe and Appropriate Use of the Internet Rules 124

National Educational Technology Standards 125

For teachers 125

For students 127

Tips for managing classroom computers 128

Copyright and Fair Use Guidelines 129

Copyright for students’ work 129

SMART boards 129

Google Search shortcuts 130

RSS 131

Aggregating students’ blog postings 132

RSS feeds for website searches 132

RSS feeds for news groups 133

Combining RSS feeds 133

Social bookmarking 133

Furl 133

Setting up your account 133

Setting up accounts for students 134

For student research projects and citations 134

Reaching other people’s folders with RSS 134

Other uses for your students 135

For sharing information with colleagues 135

Del.icio.us 135

Jot 135

Graphics, images, & image-capture tools 136

Paint programs versus draw programs 136

GIF versus JPEG 136

Tools capturing still images 137

Scanners (flatbed scanner) 137

Video digitizer 137

Digital cameras 137

Flickr: Creating and publishing images online 137

Getting started – all for free 138

Annotating for students 139

Online discussions about photographs 139

Sound 140

Blogs 141

What is a blog? 141

Beginning a blog 141

Potential uses of a teacher’s blog 143

For student use 143

Shared blogs 144

Appropriate use 144

Evaluation 144

Videoblogging 144

Inspiration 144

PowerPoint 145

Do’s and Don’ts 145

Examples … 145

Getting started 146

Designing the slide templates 146

The notes pane 147

Colors 147

Inserting a picture 147

Sounds 147

Movie clips 148

Graphs 148

Transitions and animations 149

Hypermedia 149

Using PowerPoint to be a hypermedia author 149

Storyboarding 150

Screen layout 151

Text presentation and writing style 151

HyperStudio 152

Cards 152

Stacks 152

Text boxes 152

Buttons (links) 153

HyperStudio and the Internet 154

Video productions 154

Resources for making classroom videos 154

Possible productions for the classroom 155

Camcorder tips 156

Clay animation 157

iMovie editing 158

Overview of the three stages 158

Video editing 159

Titles 161

Sound editing 162

Importing photos and video segments 164

Exporting and sharing the video 164

Putting the movie into other multimedia 165

QuickTime viewing 165

Web authoring 165

MediaBlender 166

eZediaQTI 166

Word processing documents as web pages 166

Page layout 167

Wikis 167

What is a Wiki? 167

Benefits 167

The teacher’s control of a wiki 168

Wiki groups within one class 168

Wiki sites and features 169

Incorporating pictures and files into your wiki 170

Webquests 170

Podcasts 171

Why create classroom-related podcasts? 171

Looking for and listening to others’ podcasts 171

Creating a podcast on your own 172

Editing your podcast and adding music 174

Publishing your podcast on the Internet 174

Letting people subscribe to your podcasts 175

Creating a podcast with your students 175

Screencasting 175

How to do it 176

For Windows 176

For Macs 177

Videoconferencing 177

w.H.e.r.e.t.o. – Hold attention: Response activities to other instructional stimuli 178

In general 178

Written responses 178

Art and craft responses 179

Dramatic, musical, and other types of responses 179

Illustrated dictionary entries 180

Illustrated proverbs 181

Journal entries 181

Journal types 181

Letters 181

Metaphorical representations 182

Mosaics 182

Picto-words 182

Poetry and song lyrics 182

3-D graphic organizers 182

w.h.E.r.e.t.o. - Engage (their minds) and Equip (them with communication skills) 183

Engage their minds: Inquiry teaching with essential questions 183

The Big 6 184

Critical evaluation strategies 185

C.A.C.A.O 185

M.A.R.K.E.R. 186

Web pages in particular, including blogs 186

Note card format 187

Bibliography card format (general) 188

Equip them with communication skills: Reading skills 188

Checklist for using all reading strategies 188

Pre-reading strategies 189

Anticipation guides 189

Brainstorm (the KW in KWL) 190

KW in more detail 190

Carousel – KWL for several sub-topics 191

Questioning 192

Quick writes 192

Skim 193

Structured preview 194

“During” reading strategies 194

The importance of post-it notes 194

Generating questions and answers 194

Guide questions 195

Inferencing 195

Monitoring & self-questioning 195

Predicting 195

Read alouds in class (by the teacher) 196

Story frames 196

The Narrative/Story Frame 196

The Problem/Solution Frame 196

The Conversation Frame 196

The Definition Frame 197

The Argumentation Frame 197

Summarizing 197

Synthesizing 197

Visualizing 198

“Post-reading” strategies 198

Self-questioning 198

Summarizing & retelling 198

The L in “KWL” 198

Storyboards 198

Family help with reading 199

Asking for help for when the student reads at home 199

The Take-Home Journal 199

Utilizing cooperative learning in reading activities 199

Reciprocal teaching 199

Literature circles 201

Implementation 201

Setting cooperative norms 203

A “Looks like, Sounds Like” chart 205

Roles 206

Self-assessment 211

Equip them with communication skills: Vocabulary skills 212

Deciding when to give direct instruction for it 212

Overview of strategies 212

Concept attainment 212

Concept cards 212

Dictionary 213

Photographed vocabulary 213

Previewing words in context 213

Semantic feature analysis 213

Semantic impressions (pre-reading) 213

Venn diagrams 214

Word expert cards 214

Word map 215

Word walls 216

Equip them with communication skills: Highlighting and note-taking 217

Highlighting 217

Reverse highlighting – for beginners 217

If defacing the text is not allowed 217

Note-taking 217

Column notes - during reading 218

Allowing a study cards for tests 218

Other note-taking options 218

Equip them with communication skills: Writing 219

Five stages of writing (Writer’s Workshop) 219

RAFT – role, audience, format, topic 220

w.h.e.R.e.t.o. – Rethink, Revise, and Reflect 221

Rethink and Revise (self-editing and peer editing) 221

Peer editing 221

Pair discussion: Guidelines for both author and peer editor 221

I heard, I noticed, I wondered… 221

Checklist for the peer editor 222

Conference sheet 222

Alternative: Peer editing silent rubric 223

Alternative: Peer read-around 224

13 steps for doing a peer read-around 224

Reflect: Self-assessments 226

Formative student self-assessments 226

Option one: Weekly feedback form 226

Option two: Progress self-assessments 227

Option three: Confidential reports 227

Formative teacher evaluation done anonymously 228

w.h.e.r.E.t.o. - Evaluate 228

See the earlier section on summative assessments (pages 229

Summative student self-assessments 229

As a pre-test and then a post-test 229

For writing assignments - using PA Writing Assessment Domain Scoring Guide 229

Self-evaluation questions after finishing a unit 230

End-of-the-year assignment 231

w.h.e.r.e.T.o. – Tailored: Differentiated instruction 231

Tips for reaching disruptive students 231

I.D.E.A.: The least-restrictive environment possible 231

Things you can do to address special needs 232

Encouraging full participation 232

Providing reading support 232

Modifying written work 233

Students with physical challenges 234

Supporting cultural diversity 234

Modifying the assessment 234

Gifted students 234

Other accommodation ideas for LD students 234

w.h.e.r.e.t.O. - Organized 235

Enhancing students’ understanding of knowledge 236

Graphic organizers 237

Vocabulary Word Map 237

KWL 238

Sequence chart / Timeline 239

Compare and contrast organizer 240

Venn diagram and summary paragraph 241

Three-way Venn diagram 242

Two-story map 243

Character map 244

Five W’s chart 245

Prediction chart 247

Problem / solution chart 249

Fact / opinion chart 250

Persuasion map 251

Opinion / proof chart 252

ABC Brainstorm 253

Cluster word web 254

Sandwich chart 255

Thinking verbs, teacher roles, and student roles for Bloom’s Taxonomy 256

Knowledge and information-based questions (IBQs) 256

Thinking skills and document-based questions (DBQs) 256

Attitudes and perception-based questions (PBQs) 257

Fostering creativity and problem-solving 257

Brainstorming 257

Problem-solving strategies 257

At the end of a lesson 258

When time is running out 258

Doing the handout on a transparency 258

Gallery walks 258

Lesson closure handout 259

Fifth: Use lesson procedures and activities (and assessments) to make lesson plan 260

Objectives 260

Plan template 260

Points to remember 261

Questions to ask yourself 262

Multiple intelligence questions 262

Planning 262

Evaluation 263

Websites for free, high-quality, standards-based lesson plans 263

^ Professional development and reflection for the teacher 264

Reflection 264

Essential questions to ask yourself 264

Self-evaluation questions before teaching a unit 264

Professional development 264

Mentoring 264

Danielson’s Domains 265

Category I: Planning and Preparation 265

Category II: Classroom Environment 265

Category III - Instructional Delivery 266

Category IV – Professionalism 266

Bibliography 268


































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