Introduction to Automotive Concepts AUT 100
Representing Alabama’s Public Two-Year College System
27 November, 2006
Introduction to Automotive Concepts
MODULE A – HISTORY OF AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING
^ This module provides the students with a background of automotive manufacturing including some of the key historical eras, and major concepts that have helped shape automotive manufacturing in its present form.
North American manufacturing
Early European manufacturing
Modern production methods
Toyota production system
Theory of constraints
Value stream mapping
Total productive maintenance
Craft production http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarssteama.htm
First self propelled vehicle (1769) In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1725 - 1804). Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle, built under his instructions at the Paris Arsenal by mechanic Brezin. It was used by the French Army to haul artillery at a whopping speed of 2 1/2 mph on only three wheels. The vehicle had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. The steam engine and boiler were separate from the rest of the vehicle and placed in the front (see engraving above). The following year (1770), Cugnot built a steam-powered tricycle that carried four passengers.
Steam engines (1769 -1883) After Cugnot Several Other Inventors Designed Steam-Powered Road Vehicles
Cugnot’s vehicle was improved by Frenchman, Onesiphore Pecqueur, who also invented the first differential gear.
In 1789, the first U.S. patent for a steam-powered land vehicle was granted to Oliver Evans.
In 1801, Richard Trevithick built a road carriage powered by steam - the first in Great Britain.
In Britain, from 1820 to 1840, steam-powered stagecoaches were in regular service. These were later banned from public roads and Britain's railroad system developed as a result.
Steam-driven road tractors (built by Charles Deitz) pulled passenger carriages around Paris and Bordeaux up to 1850.
In the United States, numerous steam coaches were built from 1860 to 1880. Inventors included: Harrison Dyer, Joseph Dixon, Rufus Porter, and William T. James.
Amedee Bollee Sr. built advanced steam cars from 1873 to 1883. The "La Mancelle" built in 1878, had a front-mounted engine, shaft drive to the differential, chain drive to the rear wheels, steering wheel on a vertical shaft and driver's seat behind the engine. The boiler was carried behind the passenger compartment.
In 1871, Dr. J. W. Carhart, professor of physics at Wisconsin State University, and the J. I. Case Company built a working steam car that won a 200-mile race.
Early Electric Cars
Steam engines were not the only engines used in early automobiles. Vehicles with electrical engines were also invented. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first electric carriage. Electric cars used rechargeable batteries that powered a small electric motor. The vehicles were heavy, slow, expensive, and needed to stop for recharging frequently. Both steam and electric road vehicles were abandoned in favor of gas-powered vehicles. Electricity found greater success in tramways and streetcars, where a constant supply of electricity was possible.
Internal Combustion engine (1807) ^
An internal combustion engine is any engine that uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder - the piston's movement turns a crankshaft that then turns the car wheels via a chain or a drive shaft. The different types of fuel commonly used for car combustion engines are gasoline (or petrol), diesel, and kerosene.
1680 - Dutch physicist, ^ designed (but never built) an internal combustion engine that was to be fueled with gunpowder.
1807 - Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented an internal combustion engine that used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen for fuel. Rivaz designed a car for his engine - the first internal combustion powered automobile. However, his was a very unsuccessful design.
1824 - English engineer, Samuel Brown adapted an old Newcomen steam engine to burn gas, and he used it to briefly power a vehicle up Shooter's Hill in London.
1858 - Belgian-born engineer, Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir invented and patented (1860) a double-acting, electric spark-ignition internal combustion engine fueled by coal gas. In 1863, Lenoir attached an improved engine (using petroleum and a primitive carburetor) to a three-wheeled wagon that managed to complete an historic fifty-mile road trip. (See image at top)
1862 - Alphonse Beau de Rochas, a French civil engineer, patented but did not build a four-stroke engine (French patent #52,593, January 16, 1862).
1864 - Austrian engineer, ^ *, built a one-cylinder engine with a crude carburetor, and attached his engine to a cart for a rocky 500-foot drive. Several years later, Marcus designed a vehicle that briefly ran at 10 mph that a few historians have considered as the forerunner of the modern automobile by being the world's first gasoline-powered vehicle (however, read conflicting notes below).
1873 - George Brayton, an American engineer, developed an unsuccessful two-stroke kerosene engine (it used two external pumping cylinders). However, it was considered the first safe and practical oil engine.
1866 - German engineers, Eugen Langen and Nikolaus August Otto improved on Lenoir's and de Rochas' designs and invented a more efficient gas engine.
1876 - Nikolaus August Otto invented and later patented a successful four-stroke engine, known as the "Otto cycle".
1876 - The first successful two-stroke engine was invented by Sir Dougald Clerk.
1883 - French engineer, Edouard Delamare-Debouteville, built a single-cylinder four-stroke engine that ran on stove gas. It is not certain if he did indeed build a car, however, Delamare-Debouteville's designs were very advanced for the time - ahead of both Daimler and Benz in some ways at least on paper.
1885 - Gottlieb Daimler invented what is often recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine - with a vertical cylinder, and with gasoline injected through a carburetor (patented in 1887). Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle the "Reitwagen" (Riding Carriage) with this engine and a year later built the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
1886 - On January 29, Karl Benz received the first patent (DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled car.
1889 - Daimler built an improved four-stroke engine with mushroom-shaped valves and two V-slant cylinders.
1890 - Wilhelm Maybach built the first four-cylinder, four-stroke engine.
Early car manufacturers http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blDuryea.htm
Panhard and Levassor (1889) were the first builders of an entire motor vehicle for sale. (Not just engine inventors who experimented with car design.) 1891 Panhard-Levassor vehicle with front engine
Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor were partners in a woodworking machinery business, when they decided to become car manufacturers. They built their first car in 1890 using a Daimler engine. The team were commissioned by Edouard Sarazin, who held the license rights to the Daimler patent for France. (Licensing a patent means that you pay a fee and then you have the right to build and use someone's invention for profit - in this case Sarazin had the the right to build and sell Daimler engines in France.) The partners not only manufactured cars, they made improvements to the automotive body design.
Panhard-Levassor made vehicles that had a pedal-operated clutch, a chain transmission leading to a change-speed gear box, and a front radiator. Levassor was the first designer to move the engine to the front of the car and use a rear-wheel drive layout. This design was known as the Systeme Panhard and quickly became the standard for all cars because it gave a better balance and improved steering. Panhard and Levassor are also credited with the invention of the modern transmission - installed in their 1895 Panhard.
Panhard and Levassor also shared the licensing rights to Daimler motors with Armand Peugot. A Peugot car went on to win the first car race held in France, which gained Peugot publicty and boosted car sales. Ironically, the "Paris to Marseille" race of 1897 resulted in a fatal auto accident, killing Emile Levassor.
Benz Velo was the first to build standardized cars. (1894) 134 identical Velos were manufactured in 1895.
Charles and Frank Duryea were the first American gas powered commercial car manufacturers.
America's first gasoline powered commercial car manufacturers were two brothers, Charles Duryea (1861-1938) and Frank Duryea. The brothers were bicycle makers who became interested in gasoline engines and automobiles. On September 20 1893, their first automobile was constructed and successfully tested on the public streets of Springfield, Massachusetts. Charles Duryea founded the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in 1896, the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline powered vehicles. By 1896, the company had sold thirteen cars of the model Duryea, an expensive limousine, which remained in production into the 1920s.
North American manufacturing
Ransome Eli Olds
The first automobile to be mass produced in the United States was the 1901, Curved Dash Oldsmobile, built by the American car manufacturer Ransome Eli Olds (1864-1950). Olds invented the basic concept of the assembly line and started the Detroit area automobile industry. He first began making steam and gasoline engines with his father, Pliny Fisk Olds, in Lansing, Michigan in 1885. Olds designed his first steam-powered car in 1887. In 1899, with a growing experience of gasoline engines, Olds moved to Detroit to start the Olds Motor Works, and produce low-priced cars. He produced 425 "Curved Dash Olds" in 1901, and was America's leading auto manufacturer from 1901 to 1904.
Ransom E. Olds created the assembly line in 1901, although most credit Henry Ford, whose contribution was to refine the process and perfect the standardization of components. This new approach to putting together automobiles enabled him to more than quadruple his factory’s output, from 425 cars in 1901 to 2,500 in 1902.
American car manufacturer, Henry Ford (1863-1947) invented an improved assembly line and installed the first conveyor belt-based assembly line in his car factory in Ford's Highland Park, Michigan plant, around 1913-14. The assembly line reduced production costs for cars by reducing assembly time. Ford's famous Model T was assembled in ninety-three minutes. Ford made his first car, called the "Quadricycle," in June, 1896. However, success came after he formed the Ford Motor Company in 1903. This was the third car manufacturing company formed to produce the cars he designed. He introduced the Model T in 1908 and it was a success. After installing the moving assembly lines in his factory in 1913, Ford became the world's biggest car manufacturer. By 1927, 15 million Model Ts had been manufactured.
Another victory won by Henry Ford was patent battle with George B. Selden. Selden, who had never built an automobile, held a patent on a "road engine", on that basis Selden was paid royalties by all American car manufacturers. Ford overturned Selden's patent and opened the American car market for the building of inexpensive cars. (Learn more about Henry Ford)
Henry Ford invented an improved assembly line and installed the first conveyor belt-based assembly line.
Although Henry Ford is often credited with the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and its development came from employees Clarence Avery, Peter E. Martin, Charles E. Sorensen, and C.H. Wills.
The assembly line reduced production costs by reducing time.
The model T was assembled in 93 minutes.
Early European manufacturing
André Citroen, the company's founder, was first and foremost an entrepreneur and a marketing man who had a magic understanding of public taste for 15 years of heady growth.
Citroen did not enjoy engineering like other early company founders. While his great rival Louis Renault fiddled with engines, Citroen gambled huge sums at baccarat in casinos.
He was born in 1878 to a family of gem merchants, and at age 22 Polytechnique, France's most prestigious engineering school.
His first job was with a gear-making company owned by family friends, and he borrowed the idea of a double helical gearing when he chose a double arrow, or chevron, as the symbol for his cars.
When he was invited to the board of the car builder Automobiles Mors in 1908, Citroen joined the car industry. Mors made its cars in a cramped workshop, on different floors, with machine tools grouped together according to their type.
In1912, Citroen visited America and Henry Ford's new Rouge River plant in Detroit, where the mass production of Model T cars was getting more and more efficient.
He saw the clear advantage of mass production in vast, well-lit halls, on a single floor. Three years later he got to apply those principles, making shells for France in World War One.
At the end of the war, Citroen turned his arms factory into his car company and in 1919 his first small, inexpensive car arrived. A year later he made 20,000 cars, more than Peugeot and Renault put together.
The first model was Type A, in 1919, which is considered to be the first mass production car in Europe.
By1929, Citroen became the world’s second largest car maker. This is partly because of innovative technology, such as the all steel monocoque body in place of the popular wood / steel sheet lamination, then came the front-wheel-drive. Another important contribution is the way he did the business - he treated car making is not only selling a good but also services. Therefore a credit company was set up to help customers financing the purchase, a dealer / service network was established to enhance marketing as well as after sales services. He also introduced the first 1-year warranty.
The Renault story started in 1898 by Louis Renault, whose brother Fernand and Marcel gave financial support. Renault founded the company bearing his name that year and made 6 cars - in the age before mass production was invented, cars were built slowly by craftsmen. Production rose to 179 cars in 1900 and then jumped to nearly 1200 units 5 years later, thanks to a contract for supplying Paris taxis.
Having visited Henry Ford in America and saw the expansion of arch-rival Citroen, Louis Renault applied mass production method to his factory in the early 20’s. As a result, production surged to 25,000 cars in 1924. Renault became one of the major car makers in the world.
Unlike Citroen, Renault built a large range of models, from small cars to luxury cars, also vans, trucks and even tanks. During both World Wars, like many other car makers, it was transformed to be an arsenal producing military vehicles and aircraft engines. In the WW II, it was occupied by German forces (so was the whole France !) and supplied German army. As a result, after the war, Louis Renault was found guilty and was sentenced. Just 20 days later, he died.
Therefore the company was confiscated and nationalized. The Government-appointed new boss continued expanding the factory and introducing new cars, also eliminated the wide-range policy in pre-war era. The sole mass production model became 4CV, which was a small car produced for some 15 years, from 1947 to 1961. It was succeeded by Renault 4, which helped production rose to 500,000 in 1963. Another successful model, Renault 5, was launched in 1972, then R9 (1982) and Clio (1991).
In 1917 the Mitsubishi Model A was Japan’s first series production automobile. It was not mass produced and thus too expensive compared to mass produced American and European rivals.
In 1925 Ford Motors Japan was established and was the first to begin mass production of automobiles in Japan.
General Motors followed suit in 1927. GM Japan was established and production ensued.
The Automobile Manufacturing Industries Act of 1936 stifled the monopolization of the automobile market by American manufacturers by fostering domestic mass production motor vehicles. In 1939 the American automobile manufacturers withdrew from Japan.
The first companies operating under this law were Toyota and Nissan.
The Automobile Manufacturing Industries Act positioned the automobile industry in a key role in the war effort, and the ministry of war soon after classified motor vehicle manufacturing as a munitions industry. This was the first step in a controlled economy which placed everything from production to sales, including materials, labor, and capital under government control.
In 1955, Suzuki, Fuji, and Mitsubishi all began production of vehicles in response to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry’s proposal for a “People’s Car.”
In pursuit of improved mass production and cost reduction, manufacturers built factories exclusively for the manufacture of passenger cars, because the previous approach, where both trucks and passenger cars were assembled in the same facilities, had reached the limit of its capabilities.
At this same time, each company began to clearly, consistently apply the approach to managing manufacturing resources that is known today as “just in time” manufacturing.
http://www3.u-toyama.ac.jp/cfes/FES4/2005LEE.PDF (page 8-11)
Korea’s automobile history began in August 1955, when Choi Mu-seong, a Korean auto mechanic, and three of his brothers, mounted an engine on a modified US Army Jeep to manufacture its first car, called the "Sibal".
In 1960, Sinjin Automobiles (the predecessor of Daewoo Motors) launched Sinjin Publica under a technical licensing agreement with Toyota. In order to develop the automobile industry, the Korean government announced the "Automobile Industry Promotion Policy" in 1962, and The Automobile Industry Protection Act to protect the infant industry. Foreign automakers were barred from operating in Korea, except in joint ventures with local business entities. The government's efforts led to companies that were established in other businesses entering the industry, and the formation of new startups.
Three companies were established in 1962:
Kyeongseong Precision Industry, which changed its name to “Kia Industry”, and started assembling cars in cooperation with Mazda in 1964;
Ha Dong-hwan Automobile Industry Co. (the predecessor of SsangYong Motor Company;
Saenara Automobile, established with the technical cooperation of Nissan Motor Co.; it was the first automaker in Korea that was equipped with modern assembly facilities.
The Asis Motors Company was established in 1965, and the Hyundai Motor Company in 1968 with the technical cooperation of the Ford Motor Company.
However, all of these companies were then merely automotive assemblers, importing parts from overseas partners.
Modern production methods
The Toyota Production System, which is steeped in the philosophy of the complete elimination of all waste and imbues all aspects of production with this philosophy in pursuit of the most efficient production method, traces its roots to Sakichi Toyoda's automatic loom. The TPS has evolved through many years of trial and error to improve efficiency based on the Just-in-Time concept developed by Kiichiro Toyoda, the founder (and second president) of Toyota Motor Corporation.
Central to the TPS is the philosophy of "the complete elimination of all waste."
Waste can manifest as inventory in some cases, processing steps in other cases, and defective products in yet other cases. All these "waste" elements intertwine with each other to create more waste, eventually impacting the management of the corporation itself.
The automatic loom invented by Sakichi Toyoda not only automated work that used to be performed manually but also built the capability to make judgments into the machine itself.
By eliminating both defective products and the associated wasteful practices, Sakichi succeeded in tremendously improving both productivity and work efficiency.
Kiichiro Toyoda, who inherited this philosophy, set out to realize his belief that "the ideal conditions for making things are created when machines, facilities, and people work together to add value without generating any waste." He conceived methodologies and techniques for eliminating waste between operations, between lines, and between processes. The result was the so-called Just-in-Time method.
By practicing the philosophies of "Daily improvements" and "Good thinking, Good products, " the TPS has evolved into a world-renowned production system. Furthermore, all Toyota production divisions are making improvements to the TPS day and night to ensure its continued evolution.
Nowadays, the "Toyota spirit of making things" is referred to as the "Toyota Way." It has been adopted, not only by companies inside Japan and within the automotive industry, but in production activities worldwide, and continues to evolve globally.
Toyota Motor Corporation's vehicle production system is a way of "making things" that is sometimes referred to as a "lean manufacturing system" or a "Just-in-Time (JIT) system," and has come to be well known and studied worldwide.
This production control system has been established based on many years of continuous improvements, with the objective of "making the vehicles ordered by customers in the quickest and most efficient way, in order to deliver the vehicles as quickly as possible."
The Toyota Production System (TPS) was established based on two concepts: The first is called "jidoka"(which can be loosely translated as "automation with a human touch") which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced; The second is the concept of "Just-in-Time," in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow.
Based on the basic philosophies of jidoka and Just-in-Time, the TPS can efficiently and quickly produce vehicles of sound quality, one at a time, that fully satisfy customer requirements.
-Quality must be built in during the manufacturing process!-
If a defective part or equipment malfunction is discovered, the machine concerned automatically stops, and operators stop work and correct the problem.
For the Just-in-Time system to function, all of the parts that are made and supplied must meet predetermined quality standards. This is achieved through jidoka.
1. Jidoka means that a machine safely stops when the normal processing is completed. It also means that, should a quality or equipment problem arise, the machine detects the problem on its own and stop, preventing defective products from being produced. As a result, only products satisfying the quality standards will be passed on to the next processes on the production line.
2. Since a machine automatically stops when processing is completed or when a problem arises and is communicated via the "andon (problem display board)," operators can confidently continue performing work at another machine, as well as easily identify the problem cause and prevent its recurrence. This means that each operator can be in charge of many machines, resulting in higher productivity, while the continuous improvements lead to greater processing capacity.
Making only "what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed!"
Producing quality products efficiently through the complete elimination of waste, inconsistencies, and unreasonable requirements on the production line.
In order to deliver a vehicle ordered by a customer as quickly as possible, the vehicle is efficiently built within the shortest possible period by adhering to the following:
1. When a vehicle order is received, a production instruction must be issued to the beginning of the vehicle production line as soon as possible. 2. The assembly line must be stocked with small numbers of all types of parts so that any kind of vehicle ordered can be assembled. 3. The assembly line must replace the parts used by retrieving the same number of parts from the parts-producing process (the preceding process). 4. The preceding process must be stocked with small numbers of all types of parts and produce only the numbers of parts that were retrieved by an operator from the next process.
Theory of constraints
a continuous improvement philosophy which centers on increasing the money made from the exchange of products or services offers other options for realizing the goal besides cost reduction. A relatively recent approach for doing this is called the Theory of Constraints (TOC). Conceived by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt, TOC, places the highest premium on increasing Throughput, which Goldratt defines as the rate at which the system generates money through sales. Not forgetting the axiom that "you have to spend money to make money," Goldratt links increases in Throughput to decreases in Inventory and Operating Expenses.
Although there are instances of rigorous process thinking in manufacturing all the way back to the Arsenal in Venice in the 1450s, the first person to truly integrate an entire production process was Henry Ford. At Highland Park, MI, in 1913 he married consistently interchangeable parts with standard work and moving conveyance to create what he called flow production. The public grasped this in the dramatic form of the moving assembly line, but from the standpoint of the manufacturing engineer the breakthroughs actually went much further.
Ford lined up fabrication steps in process sequence wherever possible using special-purpose machines and go/no-go gauges to fabricate and assemble the components going into the vehicle within a few minutes, and deliver perfectly fitting components directly to line-side. This was a truly revolutionary break from the shop practices of the American System that consisted of general-purpose machines grouped by process, which made parts that eventually found their way into finished products after a good bit of tinkering (fitting) in subassembly and final assembly.
The problem with Ford’s system was not the flow: He was able to turn the inventories of the entire company every few days. Rather it was his inability to provide variety. The Model T was not just limited to one color. It was also limited to one specification so that all Model T chassis were essentially identical up through the end of production in 1926. (The customer did have a choice of four or five body styles, a drop-on feature from outside suppliers added at the very end of the production line.) Indeed, it appears that practically every machine in the Ford Motor Company worked on a single part number, and there were essentially no changeovers.
When the world wanted variety, including model cycles shorter than the 19 years for the Model T, Ford seemed to lose his way. Other automakers responded to the need for many models, each with many options, but with production systems whose design and fabrication steps regressed toward process areas with much longer throughput times. Over time they populated their fabrication shops with larger and larger machines that ran faster and faster, apparently lowering costs per process step, but continually increasing throughput times and inventories except in the rare case—like engine machining lines—where all of the process steps could be linked and automated. Even worse, the time lags between process steps and the complex part routings required ever more sophisticated information management systems culminating in computerized Materials Requirements Planning(MRP) systems .
As Kiichiro Toyoda, Taiichi Ohno, and others at Toyota looked at this situation in the 1930s, and more intensely just after World War II, it occurred to them that a series of simple innovations might make it more possible to provide both continuity in process flow and a wide variety in product offerings. They therefore revisited Ford’s original thinking, and invented the Toyota Production System.
This system in essence shifted the focus of the manufacturing engineer from individual machines and their utilization, to the flow of the product through the total process. Toyota concluded that by right-sizing machines for the actual volume needed, introducing self-monitoring machines to ensure quality, lining the machines up in process sequence, pioneering quick setups so each machine could make small volumes of many part numbers, and having each process step notify the previous step of its current needs for materials, it would be possible to obtain low cost, high variety, high quality, and very rapid throughout times to respond to changing customer desires. Also, information management could be made much simpler and more accurate.
The thought process of lean was thoroughly described in the book The Machine That Changed the World (1990) by James P. Womack, Daniel Roos, and Daniel T. Jones. In a subsequent volume, Lean Thinking (1996), James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones distilled these lean principles even further to five:
Specify the value desired by the customer
Identify the value stream for each product providing that value and challenge all of the wasted steps (generally nine out of ten) currently necessary to provide it
Make the product flow continuously through the remaining, value-added steps
Introduce pull between all steps where continuous flow is possible
Manage toward perfection so that the number of steps and the amount of time and information needed to serve the customer continually falls
There is more on this subject in Module C.
Value stream mapping
Have you ever looked over a letter, thought it was perfect, and then gave it to someone else who found some obvious mistakes? That’s what can happen when you get too close to a process — it’s difficult to see it with an objective eye.
Value Stream Mapping (VSM) gives you the tools to stand back and identify the waste in your business and to streamline processes to get rid of waste. Think of it as your personal magnifying glass and your source for solutions to eliminate that waste.
And there’s a lot of waste that can be kicked to the curb. Statistics show that as much as 60% of operations in a manufacturing business do not add value to the customer. Value Stream Mapping your company:
Reduces lead time
Improves product quality and space utilization
Reduces rework/scrap and inventory levels
Reduces indirect labor costs
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