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Electrogravitic References

This file contains an electrogravitics reference list, copied ad hoc from various other files and sources with commentary by Robert Stirniman (robert@skylink.net) / March 1, 1996

Danger, Will Robinson! Some of the following information is serious and some is nonsense. Some of the things that might at first seem to be nonsense are not. And some things referenced below -- which come from serious credentialed scientists -- are in fact nonsense. Whatever the case, it's been included. Good luck sorting it out.

^ Understanding Gravity is a matter of Time.

Internet Sites

Elektromagnum website by David Jonsson: http://nucleus.ibg.uu.se/elektromagnum

KeelyNet: http://www.protree.com/KeelyNet/

Los Alamos National Lab Physics E-Print Archive: http://xxx.lanl.gov/

Center for Gravitational Physics and Geometry: http://vishnu.nirvana.phys.psu.edu/

Bill Beaty's Weird Science, Anomalous Physics, Free-Energy, Tesla Society:

http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/

The Institute For New Energy, Patrick Bailey, homepage: http://www.padrak.com/ine/

Digital Equipment Corp's Alta Vista web search engine (note: If you can't find it with this, it ain't out there yet): http://www.altavista.digital.com/

Elsevier Science. Search or browse the table of contents of more than 900 science and technology journals. Data since early 1995: http://www.elsevier.nl/cas/estoc/

Norman Redington's website, The Net Advance of Physics, recent preprints, and papers describing new developments in Physics: http://pobox.com/~redingtn

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's Aerospace Virtual Library:

http://macwww.db.erau.edu/www_virtual_lib/aerospace.html

Jack R. Hunt Memorial Library (aerospace): http://amelia.db.erau.edu/

American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA) homepage:

http://www-leland.stanford.edu/group/aiaa/national

NASA Langley Research Center Library: http://blearg.larc.nasa.gov/library/larc-lib.html

NASA Scientific and Technical Information: http://www.sti.nasa.gov/STI-homepage.html

University of Alabama at Hunstville. Dr Ning Li and Dr Douglas Torr. Microgravity research consultants to NASA's Marshall Space Center: http://isl-garnet.uah.edu/RR93/uahmatsci.html

The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base:

http://samson2.msfc.nasa.gov/fame/exps/kaw-sl3.html

Interstellar Propulsion Society: http://www.digimark.net/ips/

National Science Foundation World Wide Web Server (find out where your science tax dollars are going!): http://stis.nsf.gov/

Nexus magazine web page: http://www.peg.apc.org/~nexus/

homepage of New Scientist magazine: http://www.newscientist.com/pstourist/index.html

The Farce of Physics: http://www.germany.eu.net/books/farce

The World Wide Web Virtual Library: Sumeria/Technology: http://lablinks.com/sumeria/tech.html

The Society for the Advancement of Autodynamics website: http://www.webcom.com/~saa

Popular Mechanics' Tech Update Article Archive: http://popularmechanics.com/cgi-bin/wais.pl

Fortean website: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/anthro/fortpages.html

homepage of Apeiron Magazine: http://montreal.aei.ca:80/~apeiron/

Borderland Sciences Research Foundation ftp site: ftp: northcoast.com/pub/bsrf

Homepage of the International Society of Unified Science for advancing the Reciprocal System Theory of Dewey B. Larson: http://infox.eunet.cz/interpres/sr/isus/index.html

Frank Lofaro's homepage including alternative science links and 2 articles by Whittaker written in 1903 and 1904 about scalar field theory and free energy: http://www.unlv.edu/~ftlofaro/

Homepage of the Oppositely Charged Twin Monopole (OCTM) theory of matter, "Gravity is a Push", US patent number 5,377,936: http://www.epicom.com/gravitypush

Dr Eujin Jeong's Dipole Theory of Gravity homepage: http://www.realtime.net/~ejeong/

Levesque's (laurent@ee.umanitoba.ca) website: http://www.ee.umanitoba.ca/~laurent

UFOs and the New Physics: http://www.hia.com/hia/pcr/ufo.html

[SealthSkater note: some of these 1995 urls have been superseded and may be found at doc pdf URL ]

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

There is a fairly large body of evidence which supports the idea of a strong relationship -- and possibly an equivalent fundamental source -- for ElectroMagnetism and Gravitation. Many references to this effect are contained in this resource list. But for now, let's forget about the experimental evidence and theoretical ideas which are presented here and begin with first principles.

What if our knowledge of Physics had evolved differently? What if no one had ever given a thought to any theory of Gravitation before we discovered the principles and theories of ElectroMagnetics and the 2 nuclear forces.

We might have developed some fairly good theories which unify the "three" forces. We would know that clumps of matter are held together primarily by electromagnetic forces. And we would find experimentally that if we separate some of these clumps of matter, a small force continues to exist which tries to bring them back together.

Would it seem rational to speculate that this force is something entirely new and completely different from ElectroMagnetics? Would it not be a great foolishness to invent something new and call it "Gravity" and claim that it has no relationship with the known forces and then write elaborate mathematical theories which describe it solely as geometry? Or would it be more rational to see it as what it probably is: a manifestation of the electromagnetic forces which we already know to hold matter together?

Could it be that electric charge is a fundamental thing and inertial mass is merely a shadow of something primal? And what we know as a gravitational field is merely the net result of other primary fields?

Geometrize it if you find it useful to do so. But please recognize that defining Gravity as geometry lends no information to the understanding of its cause.

Of all the forces we know, there is none stronger than a paradigm. -- Robert Stirniman

^ 1. GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9512027

From: kldalton@cs.clemson.edu

Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 11:30:30 -0500

Author(s): Kenneth Dalton

Journal-ref: Hadronic J. 17 (1994) 483-501

Hypothesis: The electromagnetic field is the source of gravitation. This treatment of gravitation is consistent with the Quantum Theory of matter which holds that electric charge (or "generalized charge") is the most fundamental attribute of matter.

Experimental predictions of the theory include:

(1) any massive body generates a time-dependent gravitational field;

(2) there is a linear correlation between the gravitational red-shift of a stellar source and the energy of cosmic rays emitted by that source, given by ${\Delta \nu}/{\nu_0} = energy (eV)/10^{27}$;

(3) the maximum energy of cosmic rays is $10^{27}$ eV;

(4) this limit is associated with an infinitely red-shifted stellar object, an electrostatic black-hole,'' at the potential $c^2/G^{1/2} = 10^{27}$ volts.

Finally, the theory predicts that the gravitational potential near any charged elementary particle is many orders of magnitude greater than the Newtonian value.

^ 2. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9601066

From: Kenichi Horie

Date: Sat, 13 Jan 1996 14:41:29 +0900

Geometric Interpretation of Electromagnetism in a Gravitational Theory with Torsion and Spinorial Matter

Author(s): Kenichi Horie (KEK Japan)

Comments: Ph.D. thesis, 98 pages, LaTeX file, ca 276kB

Possible geometric frameworks for a unified theory of Gravity and ElectroMagnetism are investigated. General Relativity is enlarged by allowing for an arbitrary complex linear connection and by constructing an extended spinor derivative based on the complex connection. Thereby the space-time torsion not only is coupled to the spin of fermions and causes a 4-fermion contact interaction, but the non-metric vector-part of torsion is also related to the electromagnetic potential.

However, this long-standing relation is shown to be valid only in a special U(1) gauge. It is a formal consequence of the underlying extended geometry.

3. The New Gravity: a new force, a new mass, a new acceleration: unifying gravity with light

Kenneth G. Salem. 1st ed. Johnstown, PA. Salem Books, c1994. xiii, 181 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.

^ LC CALL NUMBER: QC794.6.G7 S26 1994

SUBJECTS: Unified field theories. Gravitation. Electromagnetic interactions.

ISBN: 0962539813

4. Gravitation & the Electroform model: from General Relativity to Unified Field Theory

by James A. Green. 7th ed. [Wichita, Kan.] : Greenwood Research, c1994. 33 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

^ LC CALL NUMBER: QC178 .G68 1994

SUBJECTS: Gravitation. Unified field theories. Astrophysics. "Wichita State

University Physics Graduate Seminar, Dec.1993 and Dec. 1994"

5. Another very interesting research on anti-gravity is done (and still going on) by the Japanese Prof. Shinishi Seike. He published his findings in the book ^ The Principles of Ultra Relativity. For his highly mathematical (no nonsense) book, write to:

Shinichi Seike

G Research Institute

Box 33

UWAJIMA/Ehime (798)

JAPAN

7. Patents for anti-gravity devices and systems have been issued to Brown, Hooper, Wallace, and others:

^ U.S. Patents Awarded to Townsend Brown

● #300,311 T.T.Brown Nov. 15, 1928 / A Method of and an Apparatus or Machine for Producing Force or Motion

● #1,974,483 T.T.Brown Sept. 25, 1934 / Electrostatic Motor

● #2,949,550 T.T.Brown Aug. 16, 1960 / Electrokinetic Apparatus

● #3,022,430 T.T.Brown Feb. 20, 1962 / Electrokinetic Generator

● #3,187,206 T.T.Brown June 1, 1965 / Electrokinetic Apparatus

● #3,296,491 T.T.Brown Jan. 3, 1967 / Method and Apparatus for Producing Ions and Electrically-Charged Aerosols

● #3,518,462 T.T.Brown June 30, 1970 / Fluid Flow Control System

The late Dr. William J. Hooper (BA/MA/PhD) in Physics was affiliated with the University of California at Berkley and was Professor Emeritus when he died in 1971. His works are documented and he gained two U.S. patents for his "ALL-ELECTRIC MOTIONAL FIELD GENERATOR". He claimed use of the "Motional Electric Field" to produce gravity and anti-gravity for use in SPACECRAFT and AIRCRAFT. Indeed, in U.S. patent #3,610,971 you can see a Flying Saucer diagram is used as an example in Figure 7. -- James Hartman, CaluNET Future Science Administrator

U.S. Patents Awarded to William Hooper

● #3,610,971. William Hooper, April 1969 / "All Electric Motional Electric Field Generator"

● # 3,656,013. William Hooper, April 1972 / "Apparatus for Generating Motional Electric Field"

Hooper, W. J. (1974). New Horizons in Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational Field Theory, Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc. 1969

Frances G. Gibson, ^ THE ALL-ELECTRIC FIELD GENERATOR AND ITS POTENTIAL, Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc., 1983

8. Electric Propulsion Study, Dr. Dennis Cravens, SAIC Corp, prepared for USAF Astronautics Lab at Edwards AFB, August 1990

Section 3.7 - Non-Inductive Coils

"Several authors have suggested that v x B term in the Lorentz expression should be called into question. Several unverified experimental results have ever been made. An experiment is suggested to test one or several of these theoretical views. This is an area where the experimental procedure is workable and the outcome could have direct results in the area of inertia forces.

"During the late 60s, William J. Hooper put forth an interesting theory involving the v x B terms dynamic electrical circuits. There was and is uncertainty as to the exact physical understanding of the Biot-Savart-Lorentz law and Ampere's law involving the set of reaction forces. Peter Graneau has studied these expressions. Hooper's view was that there are three different types of electric fields due to the distribution of electric field and two due to induction.

"At the heart of the issue is the connection of the magnetic field and its source in the charged particles. EM theory is presently consistent with the idea that spinning magnetic dipoles create effects indistinguishable from charged particles. There has been no critical experiment which can disprove whether a magnetic flux rotates with its source. If it does co-move with its source, then it is logical to assume that a motional electric field in a fixed reference frame of the current induces a magnetic field.

"This concept is likewise consistent with a field-free interpretation such as Ampere's original laws."

(with 4 pages more about Hooper's theories)

9. FREE FALL OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES: ON MOVING BODIES AND THEIR ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES by Nils Rognerud, 1994 (nils@ccnet.com) (available at the elektromagnum website)

This paper is a review of the problem of the observable action of gravitational forces on charged particles. The author discusses the induced electric fields and the sometimes overlooked unique physical properties. He analyzes several experiments, showing the reality of the induced electric fields. The current interpretation -- based on the idea of only one electric field with certain characteristics -- is compared with alternative approaches.

The Hooper Coil:

The author has tested a setup by pulsing strong currents (opposite and equal) through multiple parallel conductors. The configuration of the conductors in this type of experiment will cancel the B-fields while still producing an EM field in accordance with Eq. 4.2. This is similar to an experiment by Hooper (W. J. Hooper) who successfully predicted and measured the motional electric field (all in zero resultant B-field).

Interestingly, all of the above experiments can influence an electron with a zero B-field in the region of the electron. This has some profound implications -- one of which is that the motional electric force field is immune to electrostatic or magnetic shielding.

Experimentally, it can be confirmed that the motional electric field is immune to shielding and follows the boundary conditions of the magnetic (not electric) field. The only way to shield a motional electric field is to use a magnetic shield around the source of the magnetic flux (i.e., containing it at the source).

These effects are not startling if one remembers that the motional electric field is a magnetic effect and that a magnetic field has a different boundary condition than the electric field.

10. ^ U.S. Patents Awarded to Henry W> Wallace

● #3626605 Henry Wm Wallace of Ardmore PA Dec 14, 1971 / "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary Gravitational Force Field"

● #3626606 Henry Wm Wallace of Ardmore PA Dec 14, 1971 / "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic Force Field"

● #3823570 Henry Wm Wallace of Freeport NY July 16, 1973/ -- "Heat Pump" (based on technology similar to the above 2 inventions)

11. Gravity is a PUSH! United States Patent Number 5,377,936

^ NET KINETIC ENERGY DIFFERENTIAL GUIDANCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR SATELLITES AND SPACE VEHICLES

12. In the early 1960s, Erwin Saxl conducted a series of experiments which seemed to illustrate a non-zero coupling between EM and Gravitational fields. He claimed to see a change in the period of a torque pendulum when its electric potential was raised.

● U.S. Patent # 3357253 E.J. Saxl, December 1967 / "Device and Method for Measuring Gravitational and Other Forces"

"An Electrically-Charged Torque Pendulum" by E.J. Saxl, Nature 203, Page 136, July 11 1963.

13. U.S. patent #5,076,971.

Barker places radioactive elements inside the sphere of a Van de Graaff generator; runs it at a negative potential for several minutes/hours/days; and finds that the rate of radioactive decay is extremely enhanced with some relationship to the magnitude of the negative potential. [SS: is this similar to the Tom Bearden claims of being able to eliminate nuclear waste repositories => doc pdf URL ?]

The principal investigator undertook a series of experiments to test the "Barker effect" and the "Keller Catalytic Process" in changing the rate of radioactive decay of heavy elements (elements heavier than Lead such as Radium, Thorium, or Uranium -- all of which are radioactive). Barker claims that subjecting radioactive materials to high electrostatic potentials (50,000-to-500,000 volts) can increase or decrease the rate of radioactive decay, with short exposures of the high voltage capable of inducing erratic decay rates which slowly return to normal over a period of weeks.

Keller claims that subjecting radioactive materials to the high heat and fusing reaction of a chemical process (i.e., Keller Catalytic Process) can eliminate the radioactivity completely.

14. Carr, Otis (1959). "Amusement Device," (i.e. A Flying Saucer), U.S. Patent # 2,912,244.

Otis Carr's work involved counter-rotating charged discs that supposedly produced thrust when they reached a certain speed in relation to the Earth's rotational speed and became activated by free energy from space. Maybe he did have something." -- James E. Cox

Carr's work is similar in some respects to Hooper's inventions. In both cases, an anti-gravitational effect is reported to result from equal and opposite electric currents. Furthermore, one of Hooper's embodiments -- the pancake coil -- has an uncanny resemblance to the gravitational shielding experiments which were recently conducted in Tampere Finland (1992 and 1995). Except that in the Tampere experiments, the equal and opposite current is generated in a superconductor disk by way of the Meissner effect.

Will we soon begin to recognize value of the discoveries that Carr made nearly 40 years ago,and Hooper made over 25 years ago? -- Robert Stirniman

^ 15. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF HOOPER'S GRAVITY-ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING CONCEPT

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH. MILLIS, MARC G. WILLIAMSON, GARY SCOTT JUN. 1995 12 PAGES

Presented at the 31st Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego CA, 10-12 Jul. 1995; sponsored by AIAA, ASME, SAE, and ASEE NASA-TM-106963 E-9719 NAS 1.15:106963 AIAA PAPER 95-2601

Avail: CASI HC A03/MF A01

Experiments were conducted to test assertions from Patent 3,610,971 by W.J. Hooper that self-canceling electromagnetic coils can reduce the weight of objects placed underneath. No weight changes were observed within the detectability of the instrumentation. More careful examination of the patent and other reports from Hooper led to the conclusion that Hooper may have misinterpreted thermal effects as his "Motional Field" effects. There is a possibility that the claimed effects are below the detection thresholds of the instrumentation used for these tests. CASI Accession Number: N95-28893

I have 2 problems with the methodology used by the NASA scientists in the above experiment. First -- The amount of ampere-turns used in the NASA experiment was substantially lower than the amount used by Hooper. Hooper found that his effect increased in proportion the square of the current. If you were motivated to verify that the Hooper effect exists, would you not try to conduct the experiment with MORE current rather than less?

Second -- NASA conducted its tests by energizing the coils and making measurements in an immediate On.Off mode rather than letting things run for a while as Hooper did. NASA's reason for doing this was to avoid errors due to thermal effects. This makes sense.

But what does not make sense is that if you are trying to verify an original experiment and you make changes, you have an obligation to also conduct the experiment in its original mode. To do otherwise is bad science. But what could be wrong with testing things in an immediate On/Off mode? Well, it can be seen in other experiments that a gravitational effect sometimes results from macroscopic spin alignment of the quantum angular momentum of a large number of microscopic particles.

It has been demonstrated in other experiments that it takes time for these particles to come into alignment. For example, in the inventions of Henry Wallace it sometimes took minutes for the "kinemassic" gravito-magnetic field to fully manifest itself. The reason that it takes time for particles to come into alignment could be much the same reason that it takes time to permanently magnetize a magnet. Wallace found that the "kinemassic" effect occurs with elemental materials which have a component of unpaired spin in the atomic nucleus. This includes all common isotopes of Copper. Which of course is the material used in Hooper's coils.

Incidentally, NASA essentially has an economic monopoly in the lucrative market for microgravity materials research. -- Robert Stirniman

16. The Hooper effect can be readily demonstrated in the "Two Moving Magnets Experiment". In this experiment, magnetic flux is provided by equal strength opposite pole magnets moving uniformly in opposite directions. The induced motional electric field that is generated in a conductor is found to be twice that which would result from a single magnet while, remarkably, the sum of the magnetic B field is zero.

This experiment is easy to setup and verify in any electronics laboratory with a pair of magnets, a wire, and a voltmeter. In fact, you may wrap the conductor in electrostatic or magnetic shielding and find the same result. -- Nils Rognerud

Oleg Jefimenko, Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation, Electret Scientific, Star City, (1992)

Oleg Jefimenko, "Force Exerted on a Stationary Charge by a Moving Electric Current or a Moving Magnet", ^ American Journal of Physics, Vol 61, pages 218-222 (1993)

17. Apparently, there are some very interesting clues to the nature of the Universe that are related to the phenomenon of SPIN. It might get very interesting if someone were to make a project of assembling in one place all the information that has been observed, alleged, suspected, or speculated about concerning unexpected effects related to spin along with all the traditional Newtonian results … stir … add some seasoning … and see what comes out.

For example, in Quantum Mechanics, if you want to measure the spin axis of an electron, you do an experiment in which you ASSUME an axis; make a measurement of the correlation (i.e., the dot product) of that axis with the actual axis of spin for that electron; and theory says that you can determine at least how close your guess was.

It was a major surprise for the first experimenters with this to find that the guess was always right. Whatever spin axis that you assume turns out to be correct -- exactly dead accurate. You must be a VERY good guesser. Out of this experimental result came the concept of "isospin". Which in itself is kind of weird in that objects with zero radius can still exhibit spinx.

But I find the idea that the spin is wherever you guess it might be to be even weirder and to need a better model that predicts this result. -- John Sangster

18. Paper: gr-qc/9311036

From: jaegukim@cc.kangwon.ac.kr

Date: Tue, 30 Nov 93 13:47:52 +0900

"Gravitational Field of a Moving Spinning Point Particle" by Jaegu Kim, 7 pages.

The gravitational and electromagnetic fields of a moving charged spinning point particle are obtained in the Lorentz covariant form by transforming the Kerr--Newman solution in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates to the one in the coordinate system which resembles the isotropic coordinates and then covariantizing it. It is shown that the General Relativistic proper time at the location of the particle is the same as the Special Relativistic one and the Gravitational and ElectroMagnetic self forces vanish.

Jaegu Kim, "Gravitational Field of a Moving Point Particle", Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol 27 No 5, Oct 94, Pages 484-492

Jaegu Kim, "Gravitational Field of a Moving Spinning Point Particle", ^ Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol 27 No 5, Oct 94, Pages 479-483

In the above papers, Dr. Kim derives solutions for the Einstein-Maxwell equations for (a) a charged massless point particle; (b) a point particle having mass but no charge; (c) a point particle having mass and charge; (d) a massless point particle with charge and spin; and finally (e) a point particle having charge, mass, and spin. He determines that there is a region of space around a charged spinning mass in which the gravitational force is negative.

The ability to generate a negative gravity effect may come as no surprise to experimenters who have worked with Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, or superconductor material in which the angular momentum of quantum level particles can become aligned along a "Macroscopic" spin axis.

And it is probably also not a surprise to those who have looked at devices such as the inventions of Henry Wallace in which a Macroscopic body is mechanically spun at high speed in order to cause a "kinemassic" gravito-magnetic field due to spin alignment of the nucleus of elemental materials having an odd number of nucleons (un-paired spin).

19. Paper: GR-QC/9504023

Date: Mon, 17 Apr 1995 10:43:50 +0900

Title: "Pure spin-connection formulation of gravity and classification of energy-momentum tensors"

Author: Mathias PILLIN Report-no: YITP/U-95-12

It is shown how the different irreducibility classes of the energy-momentum tensor allow for a pure spin-connection formulation. Ambiguities in this formulation especially concerning the need for constraints are clarified.

From: R.Bursill@sheffield.ac.uk (R Bursill)

Subject: Hi Tc SC and gravitational shielding

Date: Fri, 6 Oct 1995 03:14:41 GMT

Is anyone familiar with the experiments in Tampere, Finland by Podkletnov et. al. on weak gravitational shielding from a Meissner levitating, rotating disk of high-Tc superconducting material? The paper is E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C 203 (1992) 441.

E. Podkletnov and A. D. Levit have another paper now -- a Tampere University of Technology report, January 1995 (Finland), the experiment having being repeated. (I assume no one believed it the first time?)

In the first experiment, a 5-g sample of silicon dioxide was found to loose around 0.05 % of its weight when placed at a distance of 15 mm from the SC disk. The SC disk had diameter 145 mm and thickness 6 mm. Under rotation of the disk, the effect increased up to 0.3 %.

In the second experiment, samples of different composition and weight (10-50 g) were placed at distances of 25mm to 1.5m from the disk. The mass loss went as high as around 2 %. I found out about this through a theoretical preprint by Giovanni Modanese -- a Von Humboldt Fellow from the Max Plank institute. The preprint no. is MPI-PhT/95-44, May 1995. A colleague got it from hep-th@babbage.sissa.it, paper 9505094.

Modanese thinks that it is something to do with the bose condensate from the SC interacting with the gravitational field. He uses some non-perturbative quantum theory on the Regge lattice to attempt to understand the effect. Must be a little bit like explaining cold fusion with the standard tools. i.e., couldn't be done. We all know what happened to cold fusion. But at the time, a professor from my department said in a public lecture that the product of the believability and the potential importance if true was of order 1. -- Robert Bursill

20. E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, "A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor", Physica C 203 (1992) pp 441-444.

E. Podkletnov and A.D. Levi, "Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Below 70 C Under Electro-Magnetic Field", Tampere University of Technology report MSU-95 chem, January 1995.

HEP-TH/9505094

Theoretical analysis of a reported weak gravitational shielding effect. Author: G. Modanese (Max-Planck-Institut, Munich) Report-no: MPI-PhT/95-44 May 1995

Under special conditions (Meissner-effect levitation and rapid rotation), a disk of high-Tc superconducting material has recently been found to produce a weak shielding of the gravitational field. We show that this phenomenon has no explanation in the standard gravity theories except possibly in the non-perturbative quantum theory on the Regge lattice. More data and independent repetitions of the experiment are, however, necessary.

^ 21. ABSTRACT SUPR-CON/9601001

From: Modanese Giovanni

Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 21:54:45 +0100 (MET)

Updating the analysis of Tampere's weak gravitational shielding experiment

Author: Giovanni Modanese

Report-no: UTF-367/96

The most recent data about the weak gravitational shielding produced in Tampere by Podkletnov and coworkers through a levitating and rotating HTC superconducting disk show a very weak dependence of the shielding value ($\sim 1 \%$) on the height above the disk. We show that while this behavior is incompatible with an intuitive vectorial picture of the shielding, it is consistently explained by our theoretical model. The expulsive force observed at the border of the shielded zone is due to energy conservation.

22. NASA is conducting experiments similar to the anti-gravity shielding experiments done in Tampere Finland. A scientist named Ning Li at the University of Alabama Huntsville is reported to be consulting with NASA. She has written some interesting articles about the relationship between superconductors and gravtiation. Here are references to some of her published articles and a few related items:

● AUTHOR(s): Li, Ning and Torr, D.G.

TITLE(s) Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on pure superconductors

In: Phys. Rev. D, JAN 15 1993 v 43 n 2 Page 457

● AUTHOR(s): Torr, Douglas G. Li, Ning

TITLE(s): Gravitoelectric-Electric Coupling via Superconductivity.

In: ^ Foundations of Physics Letters. AUG 01 1993 v 6 n 4 Page 371

● AUTHOR(s): Li, Ning and Torr, D.G.

TITLE(s): Gravitational effects on the magnetic attenuation of superconductors.

In: Physical Review B, condensed matter. SEP 01 1992 v 46 n 9 Page 5489

● AUTHOR(s): Peng, Huei

TITLE(s): A New Approach to Studying Local Gravitomagnetic Effects on a Superconductor.

In: ^ General Relativity and Gravitation. JUN 01 1990 v 22 n 6 Page 609

● AUTHOR(s): Mashhoon, Bahram Paik, Jung Ho Will, Clifford M.

TITLE(s): Detection of the gravitomagnetic field using an orbiting superconducting gravity gradiometer. Theoretical principles.

In: Physical Review D, Particles and fields. MAY 15 1989 v 39 n 10 Page 2825

I haven't had the opportunity to read the articles by Drs. Li and Torr. But I am told that in one of her articles, Dr Li provides the following interesting comment:

"… a detectable gravitomagnetic field. And in the presence of a time-dependent applied magnetic vector potential field, a detectable gravitoelectric field could be produced."

There is also some information about Dr Ning Li at: http://isl-garnet.uah.edu/RR93/uahmatsci.html .

Dr Li is with the Applied Materials Lab at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. She works closely with Dr Douglas Torr. One of their primary interests is development and production of exotic materials in a microgravity environment -- a peculiar coincidence (or maybe not) with the writing of physical theories about how to produce anti-gravity in the laboratory. Here's an unusual article from the website:

"Can Gravity be 'made' in the Laboratory?"

A theory that might lead to the creation of measurable manmade gravitational fields has been developed by physicists at UAH.

If the theoretical work is borne out in the laboratory, it will prove that physicist Albert Einstein was correct in predicting that moving matter generates 2 kinds of gravitational fields: gravito-magnetic and gravito-electric. The "artificial" gravitational field would be generated inside a container made of a superconducting material according to Dr. Douglas Torr, a research professor of physics and director of UAH's Optical Aeronomy Laboratory. "I think we can at the very least generate a microscopic field ..." [SS: are these "2 kinds of gravitational fields" related to the "Gravity-A" and "Gravity B" of Bob Lazar (doc pdf URL) or to Richard Crandall's contention that gravity is the resultant of 2 more fundamental forces (doc pdf URL ) ?]

If Einstein was right, the amount of gravito-magnetic energy produced by an object is proportional to its mass and its movement explained Dr. Ning Li, a research scientist in UAH's Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research. To create the artificial gravitational fields, Torr and Li propose placing a superconducting container in a magnetic field to align ions that are spinning or rotating in tiny circles inside the superconducting material. Their theory predicts the existence of ionic spin or rotation in a superconductor in a magnetic field.

There are persistent rumors among UFO-buffs that NASA already has an operating microgravity chamber, located in Houston TX and/or Huntsville AL. One person -- Robert Oechsler -- reports that he has personally been inside NASA's anti-grav chamber. But that's another story. For more info, see the books Alien Contact and Alien Update by Timothy Good.

23. Paper: hep-th/9412243

From: Vu.Ho@sci.monash.edu.au

Date: Sat, 31 Dec 1994 17:06:38 +1100

Title: Gravity as a coupling of two electromagnetic fields

Author: Vu B Ho

A discussion on a possibility to represent Gravity as a coupling of 2 equal and opposite electromagnetic fields [SS: e.g., "Crandall" above]. Classically the existence of equal and opposite electromagnetic fields can be ignored altogether. However, the problem can be viewed differently if we want to take into account possible quantum effects. We know that in Quantum Mechanics, the potentials themselves may be significant and may determine the dynamics of a particle in a region where the fields vanish. (Aharonov and Bohm 1959, Peshkin and Tonomura 1983)

AN EXPERIMENT TO TEST THE GRAVITATIONAL AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT Ho, Vu B. Morgan, Michael J. Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 1994 8 PAGES,

Australian Journal of Physics (ISSN 0004-9506) vol. 47, no. 3 1994 p. 245-252

HTN-95-92507

The gravitational Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is examined in the weak-field approximation to General Relativity. In analogy with the electromagnetic AB effect, we find that a gravitoelectromagnetic 4-vector potential gives rise to interference effects. A matter wave interferometry experiment -- based on a modification of the gravity-induced quantum interference experiment of Colella, Overhauser, and Werner (COW) -- is proposed to explicitly test the gravitoelectric version of the AB effect in a uniform gravitational field. CASI Accession Number: A95-87327

I recommend you get a copy of Aharonov and Bohm's classic paper "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory" published in The Physical Review in 1959. One of the important things that Aharonov and Bohm did was to demonstrate that the electromagnetic potentials are richer in properties than the Maxwell fields. The field is an artificial mathematical construct from which emerges the whole idea of a "continuum". When you can wean yourself of this intellectual crutch, you will be ready to do real physics. Both GR and QM are addicted to the same falsehood. -- Charles Cagle

In the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it has been determined theoretically and experimentally that there is a measurable effect on a charged particle due to the electromagnetic vector potential. Which of course would be no surprise except that the effect occurs even in areas of space where the value of the classical electromagnetic fields vanish. A quantum phase shift (detectable via particle interferometry) is found to occur due to the magnetic vector potential A. The effect on a charged particle occurs in regions which are completely shielded from classical electromagnetic fields.

A dual of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is the Aharonov-Casher effect where it is shown that measurable effects of spin-precession of a particle's magnetic moment can occur due to the electric potential. Even in areas of space where the classical electrical field is completely absent.

24. Prior to the revolutionary paper by Aharonov and Bohm in 1959, the importance of the electomagnetic potential and related interferometry effects was suggested in articles by Edmund Whittaker in 1903 and 1904. And what is now known as the "Aharonov-Bohm effect" was explicitly identified in an earlier paper on electron optics by Ehrenberg and Siday in 1949.

E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol 57, 1903, pages 333-355. In this paper, Whittaker demonstrates that all scalar EM potentials have an internal, organized, bidirectional EM plane-wave structure. Thus there exists an electromagnetics that is totally internal to the scalar EM potential. Since vacuum/spacetime is scalar potential, then this internal EM is in fact "internal" to the local potentialized vacuum/spacetime. -- Tom Bearden

E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to electrons by means of two scalar potential functions," ^ Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, Vol 1, 1904, pages 367-372. In this paper, Whittaker shows that all of classical electromagnetics can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry. This ignored paper anticipated the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect by 55 years and drastically extended it as well. Indeed, it prescribes a Macroscopic AB effect that is distance-independent, providing a direct and engineerable mechanism for "action-at-a-distance". It also provides a testable hidden-variable theory that predicts drastically new and novel effects. -- Tom Bearden

W. Ehrenberg and R. W. Siday, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B62, 8 (1949). 10 years earlier than Aharonov and Bohm, Ehrenberg and Siday formulated the science of electron optics by defining the electron refractive-index as a function of electromagnetic potential. Near the end of their paper, they discuss "a curious effect" which is exactly the AB effect. On the 2 sides of a magnetic flux, the vector potential has different values. This means a different refractive index for 2 geometrically equivalent paths. This difference in refractive index would cause an observable phase shift. -- Jun Liu

25. Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," ^ Physical Review, Second Series, Vol 115 no 3, pages 485-491 (1959)

Effects of potentials on charged particles exist even in the region where all the fields (and therefore the forces on the particles) vanish -- contrary to classical electrodynamics. The quantum effects are due to the phenomenon of interference. These effects occur in spite of Faraday shielding. The Lorentz force does not appear anywhere in the fundamental Quantum theory but only as an approximation that holds in the Classical limit. In QM, the fundamental physical entities are the potentials while the fields are derived from them by differentiation.

● Herman Erlichson, "Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Quantum Effects on Charged Particles in Field-Free Regions," ^ American Journal of Physics, Vol 38 No 2, Pages 162-173 (1970).

● M. Danos, "Bohm-Aharonov effect. The quantum mechanics of the electrical transformer," American Journal of Physics, Vol 50 No 1, pgs 64-66 (1982).

● Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in normal-metal rings exhibit Aharonov-Bohm Effect," ^ Physics Today, Vol 39 No 1, pages 17-20 (Jan 1986)

● S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu, "The quantum effects of electromagnetic fluxes," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol 57 No2, April 1985.

● Yoseph Imry and Richard Webb, "Quantum Interference and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect", ^ Scientific American, April 1989, pages 56-62

● E. Merzbacher, "Single Valuedness of Wave Functions", American Journal of Physics, Vol 30 No 4, pages 237-247 (April 1962)

● Yoseph Imry, "The Physics of Mesoscopic Systems", Directions in Condensed Matter Physics, World Scientific Publishing (1986)

● Richard Webb and Sean Washburn, "Quantum Interference Fluctuations in Disordered Metals", ^ Physics Today, Vol 41 No 12 pages 46-53, Dec 1989

STAR WARS NOW! The Bohm-Aharonov Effect, Scalar Interferometry, and Soviet Weaponization by T. E. Bearden, Tesla Book Company

● Peshkin M. and Lipkin H.J. "Topology, Locality, and Aharonov-Bohm Effect with Neutrons" ^ Physical Review Letters APR 10 1995 v 74 n 15

● Yakir Aharonov and Ady Stern, "Origin of the geometric forces accompanying Berry's geometric potentials", Physical Review Letters. Dec. 21, 1992 v 69 n 25 Page 3593

● Yakir Aharonov, Jeeva Anandan, and Sandu Popescu, "Superpositions of time evolutions of a quantum system and a quantum time-translation machine." Physical Review Letters. JUN 18 1990 v 64 n 25 Page 2965

^ 26. QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9506038

From: "Jun Liu"

Date: Sun, 25 Jun 1995 03:25:05 -0400

Potential Effect: Aharonov-Bohm Effect of Simply Connected Region

Author: Jun Liu

Comments: Prediction of a new effect. Numerical estimate given for experimental verification. The referees disagree with each other on the existence of this effect.

We study a generalization of Aharonov-Bohm effect, the potential effect. The discussion is focused on field-free effects in simply connected region which obviously cannot have any local field-flux. Among the published discussions about this kind of effects, it is generally agreed that this kind of effect does not exist due to gauge invariance.

However, there are also opinions that this effect is a trivial variation of Aharonov-Bohm effect and therefore there is no need to check its existence. To my knowledge, it has never been tested. My first goal here is to supply enough theoretical reason to motivate the experimental test of this effect. I start with an intuitive derivation. Then I introduce a wave-front theory as a theoretical consideration. Logically, the existence of potential effect implies the existence of the AB effect. But not vice versa. The purpose of this paper is to provide a physical connection in the opposite direction.

^ QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9510004

From: "Jun Liu"

Date: Thu, 5 Oct 1995 04:30:27 -0400

The Real Significance of the Electromagnetic Potentials

Author(s): J`un L'iu

The importance of the potential is revealed in a newly discovered effect of the potential. This paper explore the same issue introduced in quant-ph/9506038 from several different aspects including electron optics and Relativity. Some people fail to recognize this effect due to a wrong application of gauge invariance.

In the above 2 papers, Dr Liu proposes a theory of the electromagnetic potential which is a radical extension of the well-known Aharonov-Bohm effect. In the second paper, he is barely able to contain his frustration about repeated publication rejections over the last 4 years from leading physics journals.

He provides a theoretical foundation for his potential theory as well as some relatively straight forward suggestions for experiments which might confirm the theory. But there is an enormous problem. Liu's theory violates the concept of invariance of physical parameters under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. Electromagnetic gauge invariance is a cornerstone in the foundation of Quantum Theory and QED. And it is also part and parcel linked with the dogma of light speed invariance. In other words -- heresy.

The AB effect is invariant under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. While a phase-shift occurs in the AB effect, it can be identified only over a closed path and is impossible to identify with any specific "local" region of space.

Furthermore, in the AB effect, there is no interaction relating to a transfer of energy or momentum. Maintaining the idea of gauge invariance is a little harder to do in the Aharonov-Casher effect. But it can be accomplished by "gauging away" the physical effects of magnetic spin precession by using a combination of factors from the classical Maxwell fields along with the electromagnetic potential. It has the look of an elaborate parlor trick. But so does most of QED.

Liu's theory predicts that the electromagnetic potential acts like a kind of "refractive index" to wave propogation and is similar in some respects to what was predicted in the earlier paper on electron optics by Ehrenberg and Siday in 1949. The result is that in some circumstances, an electromagnetic potential causes a change in wavelength and in other circumstances causes a change in phase (AB effect).

An effect on wavelength would be manifested as a change in the envelope of the interference pattern rather than merely a shift in the pattern. In Liu's theory, an exchange of energy and momentum becomes possible. His theory is relatively easy to test and verify. But oddly (or not), no one has yet done so. Maybe because we already "know" it can't be true?

One interesting prediction of Liu's theory is that electromagnetic potential will result in time dilation. He doesn't appear to be aware that there is already experimental evidence that this occurs. See references to inventions and experiments by people such as Saxl, Barker, and Keller which demonstrate time dilation in an electric potential.

Time dilation can be viewed equivalently as a shift in wavelength. Liu wishes for someone to conduct an experiment to test for a change in wavelength by using a quantum interferometer. A fine idea. But what about those experimenters who have already measured this effect with a clock? Also see a variety of references here to theories and experiments which relate the scalar electric potential to the gravitational field. And time dilation is a well-know -- and experimentally verified -- prediction of General Relativity.

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