Course Outline - PHYS 4061 3.0/PHYS 5061 3.0 W 2010 (2009-10)
Course Title Experimental Techniques in Laser Physics
Lab Wed 130 – 430 PM PSE 226
Fri 130 – 430 PM PSE 226
Lecture Thurs 130 – 220 PM SC 223
Tutorial Thurs 230 – 320 PM SC 223
Office Hours Questions relating to the lecture component should be addressed to the instructor during the tutorial. Teaching assistants (TAs) will answer questions pertaining to experiments and data analysis for lab reports. TAs will announce office hours in PSE 226. Regular interaction with TAs regarding data analysis is an essential part of this course.
Instructor A. Kumarakrishnan (Kumar)
252 PSE x 77755 (Office)
107 PSE x 20392 (Lab)
Teaching Assistants (TAs) Office Phone E-mail
Brynle Barrett 107 PSE x 20392 firstname.lastname@example.org
Carson Mok 107 PSE x 20392 email@example.com
^ There is no textbook. A useful list of references is included at the end of this handout.
The principal resource is a comprehensive manual that can be purchased from the physics department office (PSE 128).
Abbreviated notes for lectures and tutorials can be obtained from the course web site http://datamac.phys.yorku.ca/
Course Content Students will be exposed to a common data analysis tutorial (based on Mathematica) during the first two weeks of the term. Students will then work in groups of two and cycle through 10 experiments related to laser spectroscopy.
The laboratory component of the course will emphasize techniques related to laser spectroscopy and hands-on skills and background necessary for trapping neutral atoms with lasers.
^ will focus entirely on data analysis, interpretation, and answers to exercises in the manual. Reports do not require extensive written descriptions. Mathematica should be used for all data analysis.
The lecture component will introduce theoretical concepts related to the instrumentation such as gas lasers, diode lasers, laser beam propagation, Fabry-Perot resonators, electro-optics, acousto-optics and optical detectors.
The tutorials will cover theoretical concepts related to the laboratory experiments.
Related Course Students taking ^ will have the option of taking another laboratory course PHYS 4062 3.0/PHYS 5062 (Atom Trapping) during the fall term of 2010. 4062/5062 involves a single experiment that will allow students to trap atoms with lasers and investigate the properties of laser-cooled atoms. The lecture component of 4062/5062 will involve an introduction to relevant theoretical concepts such as the radiation pressure force and optical dipole force. The long form lab report in 4062/5062 will test understanding of the atom trapping experiment and emphasize presentation and written skills.
Objectives Students taking these courses can expect to use state of the art equipment and gain a working knowledge of conventional experimental techniques in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy. This background should be adequate preparation for working in research laboratories and industry related to photonics.
Grade Lab Reports 75%
Oral Exam 5%
Final Exam 20%
^ No calculators or study aids will be allowed during exams.
Lab Reports The grade for lab reports will be based on attendance and content. The first lab report is related to the data analysis tutorial that will be completed over four, 3-hour lab sessions. Subsequent experiments will each involve two, 3-hour lab sessions.
Requirements for lab report are clearly specified in the manual but please verify with TAs if unclear. The first lab report (on the data analysis tutorial) requires submission in hardcopy and in electronic format. Part of the grade for this report will depend on the functionality of the Mathematica notebooks that students will submit in electronic form. All other labs require only hard copy submissions.
Please consult relevant sections of the laboratory manual.
1) Answers to exercises and summary of analysis in Word format or equivalent. You can also submit hand written sections if they are neatly organized and presented.
2) Include relevant data
3) Include Mathematica (analysis) notebooks as appendices
4) Graduate students – please use the label “Graduate Student Report” on all submissions.
Attendance TAs will record attendance. Students are expected to be present during the entirety of all 3-hour lab sessions or until the laboratory work is completed.
Unless special arrangements are made with the course instructor, students arriving more than 10 minutes after the beginning of a laboratory session will be deemed as being absent.
If a student is absent even for a single lab session or leaves a lab session before the work is completed, the score on the relevant lab report will be zero. If a lab is completed within a single session, TAs can certify that attendance is not required during the 2nd session.
Lab reports should be submitted to the TAs in PSE 226 by 1:30 PM, at the beginning of the lab session on specified days.
Please see specified due dates on the last few pages of this handout.
Lab reports submitted by 430 PM on the day after the due date will incur a penalty of 10%. These reports are due in PSE 107.
Lab reports submitted by 430 PM two days after the due date will incur a penalty of 20%. These reports are due in PSE 107.
No lab reports will be accepted after the above cut off date and the score on such lab reports will be zero.
Exceptions will require the approval of the instructor. Approval will be possible only under exceptional circumstances.
The TAs will not accept e-mail submission of lab reports.
Graded reports will generally be returned one week after the due date.
If there is a dispute about lab grades, please discuss it with the TAs. If the dispute remains unresolved, please bring it to the attention of the instructor.
Extra Credit There are three extra credit sections distributed among 8 lab reports that have a combined weighting equivalent to a single lab report. Undergraduates completing these sections can boost their course grade or compensate for lab reports on which they have not performed adequately. One of these sections (Electro-Optic Modulator in Emission & Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment) is compulsory for undergraduates. The other two sections are optional.
Two sections (Electro-Optic Modulator in the Emission & Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment and Power Broadening in the Zeeman shift experiment) are compulsory for graduate students. The third section (Index of Refraction in the Fabry-Perot Interferometer experiment) is optional for graduate students.
Makeup Labs Makeup labs are intended to cover situations in which there is equipment malfunction or factors beyond the control of students that prevented the completion of an experiment and in cases where approval from the course instructor is obtained due to medical reasons.
Students missing a lab session due to medical reasons are required to file an attending physician statement (not a doctor’s note) and demonstrate a convincing reason for absence to schedule a makeup lab. The attending physician’s statement can be obtained from the registrar’s office.
Makeup labs cannot be used to complete extra credit sections.
Homework There is no homework requirement. Practice problems will be assigned periodically. These problems will play a significant role in preparing students for oral and written exams.
Oral Exam This exam will be scheduled during the last part of the term and will last 15-30 minutes. It will be based only on the second experiment that students carry out following the data analysis tutorial.
^ This will be a comprehensive written exam covering material associated with both lecture and lab components of the course. A review session will be scheduled toward the end of the term.
Students absent from the final exam are required to petition the university to schedule a makeup exam. Even if a petition is approved, the makeup exam is likely to be harder. This is because the pattern of this exam will necessarily be different from the class exam and because it will typically be scheduled a long time after the end of the semester.
The first four sessions will involve a common orientation for all student groups. The orientation will consist of four components.
1) The TAs will organize students in groups (of two) and assign a starting experiment for each group. Each student group will start with the assigned experiment and cycle through the remaining experiments in serial order. The order of experiments is specified later in this handout.
2) Students will complete a common data analysis tutorial (Lab 0) based on Mathematica during the first four sessions. They will submit a lab report based on the completed tutorial and relevant exercises.
3) A laser safety tutorial (an appendix to the manual) will be assigned during the first session following a discussion of safety precautions. A quiz based on the tutorial will be held during the second session. Only students who have attended the first session and successfully completed the quiz during the second session will be permitted to take the course.
4) Students will be given an overview of diode laser controllers and other sensitive equipment used in the course. Diagrams of the front panels of the laser controllers are contained in an appendix to the manual.
Each student group is allowed to share data from experiments. Students are encouraged to discuss lab reports with their lab partners, other students, TAs and the instructor. However, all work submitted must be your own.
Students are urged to visit the Academic Integrity web site at York University
(http://www.yorku.ca/tutorial/academic_integrity/) and complete the Academic Integrity Tutorial.
This course is designed as per the definition of a three-credit lab course in the Faculty of Science. According to the definition, a one-credit lab course implies three hours of laboratory work per week. For this course, six hours of laboratory work per week will constitute the equivalent of two credits. The lecture module (1 lecture per week) will constitute an additional credit.
Since this an upper level course, the requirements will be more intensive compared to introductory courses. Therefore, it is particularly important that students adopt suitable strategies that are summarized below.
1) All experiments are designed to be completed within the allotted time (typically two laboratory sessions) but they require efficient utilization of time.
2) Please prepare thoroughly for each lab by reviewing the tutorials, reading through the manual and attempting exercises.
3) Do not leave the lab until you understand how the data you have obtained can be used for graphical analysis.
4) At the end of the first lab session for each experiment, all student groups will benefit by discussing the state of the experiment with the TAs and developing suitable plans for the second lab session.
^ are provided throughout the manual. Students should easily be able to adapt these to analyze data following four laboratory sessions dedicated to data analysis.
Students with an understanding of the required graphs (see 3)) should spend no more than 30 minutes attempting to plot the results. If difficulties are encountered, they should immediately attend an office hour scheduled by the TAs. The importance of interaction with the TAs for data analysis cannot be emphasized in stronger terms.
6) Students who review the content of lectures and tutorials on a regular basis and complete practice problems should find the oral and written exams to be straightforward.
Several PCs (with Mathematica installed) will be available in PSE 213A. These computers can be used at any time. However, students are required to check out keys in advance in the physics office (PSE 128).
Schedule of Experiments and Due Dates
0 Jan 6 Jan 8 Orientation/Math Tutorial (common)
0 Jan 13 Jan 15 Orientation/Math Tutorial (common)
1 Jan 20 Jan 22
2 Jan 27 Jan 29 (Math Tutorial report due in 226 PSE)
3 Feb 3 Feb 5 (1st Lab report due in 226 PSE)
4 Feb 10 Feb 12 (2nd Lab report due in 226 PSE)
5 Feb 24 Feb 26 (3rd and 4th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
6 Mar 3 Mar 5 (5th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
7 Mar 10 Mar 12 (6th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
8 Mar 17 Mar 19 (7th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
9 Mar 24 Mar 26 (8th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
10 Mar 31 Apr 2 (9th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
^ Monday, April 5 (10th Lab report due in 226 PSE)
Tuesday April 6
Winter Classes End Monday, April 5
Order of Experiments Following Common Data Analysis Tutorial
Students will start with an assigned experiment and cycle through the following list.
1. Lab 1 - Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy/Electro-Optic Modulator (two 3-hour sessions)
2. Lab 2 - Doppler Free Spectroscopy/Zeeman Shift (two 3-hour sessions)
3. Lab 3 - Gaussian Beam Propagation/Optical Fibers (two 3-hour sessions)
4. Lab 4 - Laser Frequency Stabilization/Lock-In Amplifier (two 3-hour sessions)
5. Lab 5 - Vacuum Systems (two 3-hour sessions)
6. Lab 6 - Optical Detectors/Acousto-Optic Modulator (two 3-hour sessions)
7. Lab 7 - Fabry-Perot Interferometer/Faraday Isolator/Index of Refraction (two 3-hour sessions)
8. Lab 8 - Radio Frequency Components/Optical Heterodyne Detection (two 3-hour sessions)
9. Lab 9 - Electromagnetic Waves at an Interface/Reflectivity AND
Lab 10 - LabVIEW/Computer Interfacing (completed as one unit over two 3-hour sessions)
10. Lab 11 – Optical Tweezers
Light-Matter Interactions and Laser Spectroscopy
1) W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer)
2) P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley)
3) L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover)
4) H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, ^ (Springer)
5) A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley)
1) B. H. Bransden, C. J. Joachain, Physics of Atoms and Molecules (Longman)
2) A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy (Oxford)
1) A. E. Seigman, Lasers (University Science Books)
2) O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum)
3) D. C. O’Shea, W. R. Callen, W. T. Thodes, Introduction to Lasers and Their Applications
4) R. S. Quimby, Photonics and Lasers (Wiley)
5) C. C. Davis, Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cambridge)
1) E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley)
2) Pedrotti and Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics (Prentice Hall)
3) G. R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover)
4) M. Mansuripur, Classical Optics (Cambridge)
1) J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis (University Science Books)
1) D. W. Preston and E. R. Dietz, The Art of Experimental Physics (Wiley)