How tertiary level physics students learn and conceptualise icon

How tertiary level physics students learn and conceptualise


Similar
We believe in our students...
Name; e-mail; School; State/Country; Course/Grade Level; Number of potential students...
All hsc teachers are highly expected to evaluate the students’ level accurately...
Students learn how hurricanes originate...
Thoughts on what students need to learn at school...
What are the key ideas or concepts you want the students to learn?...
Quantum Racing: Engaging Students with the Physics of Motorsports...
Children need to learn phonics in a fast, fun systematic way...
This booklet is intended to help students entering Grade 9 or 10 in 2008/9 to learn as much as...
Flag Project Helps Zia Students Learn Meaning of Pledge of Allegiance...
Get students to be familiar with the writing style of the article and learn sth from the...
To learn more about programs that work with homeless and highly mobile students...



Загрузка...
страницы:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   42
скачать





HOW TERTIARY LEVEL PHYSICS STUDENTS LEARN AND CONCEPTUALISE

QUANTUM MECHANICS


by


Peter Robert Fletcher


Diploma Programming Technology

Control Data Institute, Sydney


Bachelor of Science (Double major Physics and Mathematics)

University of Sydney, Sydney


Graduate Diploma in Education (Science Education)

University of Technology, Sydney


Teacher’s Certificate

Department of School Education, New South Wales


Master of Science (Physics Education Research)

University of Sydney, Sydney


DISSERTATION


submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree


of


DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


in the


SCHOOL OF PHYSICS


at the


UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY


 University of Sydney

2004


Dedicated to


Andrew Frank Egan













Who touched the minds and lives of

all who came into contact with him.











The more success the quantum theory has, the sillier it looks.


Albert Einstein 
Letter to Heinrich Zangger, May 20, 1912: CPEA, Vol. 5 Doc. 398.


PREFACE


This study was conducted in accordance with Human Ethics approval 99/09/21; please refer to Appendix 1 for further details.


A concept mapping exercise developed by Associate Professor Ian Johnston in 1999, designed as a formative assessment task to examine the relationships between key concepts associated with quantum mechanics was selected as one of the four grounded data sources for this study; please refer to Appendix 2 for further details.


Assistance during the coding phases of this study was provided by Associate Professor Ian Johnston, Dr Kirsten Hogg, Mr Stephen Junor, Dr Michael Stewart and Mr Ian Sefton.


Peter Fletcher 2004

^ HOW TERTIARY LEVEL PHYSICS STUDENTS LEARN AND CONCEPTUALISE QUANTUM MECHANICS


by Peter Robert Fletcher


ABSTRACT (300 Word Summary)


Quantum mechanics is an area of immense importance to modern technologies and industries, covering a diverse range of applications from semiconductors and lasers to advances in nuclear medicine. Quantum mechanics is also a subject that most students have traditionally found both difficult and abstract. Despite these facts, quantum mechanics has not until recently attracted much pedagogical research and introductory courses are still taught in much the same manner as they have been for the past seventy five years. The aims of this research project are to isolate key concepts, to identify learning difficulties, to identify teaching difficulties, and so to provide both teachers and curriculum developers with a useful resource to assist them in making informed decisions. The research was conducted in two distinct stages: Stage 1 – The Grounded Theory Approach was used to develop a set of interview questions, their content and sequencing was grounded in the data collected from a range of sources including concept maps, expert interviews, examination scripts and preliminary interviews. Stage 2 – The Phenomenological Approach primarily conducted and analysed 48 one hour student interviews, generating a tabulated dataset which is divided into 5 themes. In reporting these results, attention is then drawn to facts and trends within these themes. Additionally, the discussions with lecturers, which were conducted during the grounded phase of the investigation, were also brought forward to compare, contrast and support the results under discussion. In conclusion three outcomes of this investigation are acknowledged: A Detailed Data Resource that provides a readily accessible resource which details the internal aspects of the five identified themes; A Framework in the form of a schematic representation, comprising the three areas of Mathematics, Quantum Concepts and Outside Applications, providing the teacher and/or researcher with a tool to examine how the structural and thematic components are related, and; A Research Methodology which provides an easily adaptable and robust research tool for investigating similar physics education research questions within a tertiary setting. Three research topics are proposed for future investigation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


During this research I have been fortunate to have the support of many people. I thank Ian Sefton with whom I engaged in many hours of extended conversations discussing every conceivable aspect of physics and education. I hold these discussions close to heart, as enjoyable moments which reflect the true spirit of education.

I am especially grateful to my supervisor Associate Professor Ian Johnston for his endless enthusiasm, encouragement, time and support. For his constructive comments and challenging arguments I am once again indebted. The growth of the physics education research within the School and Australia is a tribute to Ian’s vision and energy.

A special thank you to my two co-supervisors Associate Professor Mike King for his expertise, advice and guidance in all matters educational; and to Sue Gordon for her support and advice.

To the rest of the SUPER team Manju Sharma, Ian Cooper, Brian McInnes and Rosemary Millar for their support, assistance and advice over this five-and-a-half years of toil. Meredith Jordan, Gerard Sullivan, Stephen Edney, Julie Crowley, Stephen Junor, George Bacskay, Adrian George, Scott Kable, Mike Prosser, Rod Cross, John Davis, Lawrence Peak, Ferg Brand, Michael Stewart, Bill Gibson, Ross McPhedran, Joe Khachan, Brian James, Juris Ulrichs, Vicki Moore, Martijn de Sterke, Peter Robinson and Elizabeth Hing who provided support, constructive criticism and most of all their genuine interest in this project.

A warm thank you to my room mate Kirsten Hogg for her many hours of heated debate, constructive criticisms and support.

A special thanks to the School of Physics and the Faculty of Science which provided financial assistance through several small grants which allowed me to visit other key physics educational research centres in the United States and to extend the scope of the study.

I thank again all the students and lecturers in physics and chemistry who participated in the study.


Peter Fletcher 2004

^ TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER 1 1


AN INTRODUCTION TO THIS INVESTIGATION 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.2 WHAT IS QUANTUM MECHANICS? 2

1.3 IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING QUANTUM MECHANICS 6

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 7

1.5 LAYOUT OF THE THESIS 8


CHAPTER 2 11

QUANTUM MECHANICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION LITERATURE REVIEW 11

2.1 INTRODUCTION 11

2.2 CHEMISTRY RELATED 11

2.2.1 Chemistry – History & Teaching of Ideas and Concepts Papers 13

2.2.2 Chemistry – Education Research Papers 13

2.2.3 Chemistry – Papers 15

2.3 PHYSICS RELATED 15

2.3.2 Physics – History, Philosophy and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics 16

2.3.3 Physics – Teaching of Specific Concepts 16

2.3.4 Physics – Teaching Materials 18

2.3.5 Physics – Education Research 18

2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF LEARNING – A LEARNING MODEL 21

2.4.1 Learning 21

2.4.2 Constructivism 22

2.4.3 Model of student learning 23

2.4.4 Cognitive structures 24

2.5 IN RELATION TO CURRENT INVESTIGATION 27


CHAPTER 3 31

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH PLAN 31

3.1 INTRODUCTION 31

3.2 EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 31

3.3 RESEARCH SETTING 34

3.3.1 The School of Physics 35

Description of Junior Physics Courses 35

Description of Intermediate Physics Courses 36

Description of Senior Physics Courses 38

3.3.2 The School of Chemistry 38

Description of Junior Chemistry Courses 39

Description of Intermediate and Senior Chemistry Courses 39

3.4 A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH PLAN 40

3.5 METHODOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES 42

3.5.1 Foundations for Selecting Appropriate Educational

Research Methodologies 42

Ontology 42

Epistemology 43

Human nature 43

Methodology 43

3.6 SELECTING RESEARCH TOOLS 45

3.6.1 Grounded Theory Approach – Stage 1 45

Selection Criteria 46

Developing Theoretical Sensitivity 46

Data Collection 46

Theoretical Sampling 47

Data Analysis 47

Open Coding 47

Axial Coding 48

Selective Coding 48

3.6.2 Phenomenological Approach – Stage 2 48

3.6.3 Phenomenographic Influence – Capturing Variation 50

3.6.4 Interview Protocol 51

3.6.5 Triangulation 56

Time Triangulation 56

Combined Levels Triangulation 56

Methodological Triangulation 56

3.7 MAPPING APPROPRIATE METHODOLOGIES, PERSPECTIVES AND

RESEARCH TOOLS TO THE FINAL RESEARCH PLAN 57


CHAPTER 4 62

DEVELOPMENT OF FINAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS :

GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH 62

4.1 INTRODUCTION 62

4.2 SOURCES OF GROUNDED DATA 62

4.2.1 Concept Maps 63

4.2.2 Expert Group Discussions/Interviews 66

The Expert Focus Group Discussion 66

The Individual Expert Interviews 67

4.2.3 Examination Scripts 69

First Year examination Scripts 70

de Broglie 70

Terminology 70

Application of Quantised Energy 71

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 71

Second Year Examination Scripts 71

de Broglie 71

Compton Scattering 72

Tunnelling 72

Wells 73

4.2.4 Preliminary Interviews 74

4.2.5 Analysis of Data Collected 74

Analogies 77

Assessment 77

Computer Simulations 77

Course structure 77

Difficulties 78

Duality 78

Mathematics 79

Potential Energy Diagrams 79

Real World 80

Reflective Thoughts 80

Tunnelling 80

Role of Chemistry Student Interviews 80

4.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINAL INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT 82

4.3.1 Categories Brought Forward from the Grounded Study 82

4.3.2 Selective Coding 84

4.3.3 Sequencing Topics 84

Opening 84

Close 85

Body 86

4.4 FINAL INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT 90


CHAPTER 5 91

IN SEARCH OF UNDERLYING THEMES : PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH 91

5.1 INTRODUCTION 91

5.2 INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 91

5.3 DESCRIPTION OF CODING 92

5.4 INITIAL CODING OF INTERVIEWS 95

5.4.1 Description of Coding 97

Personal Log Coding 97

Inherent Meaning Coding 97

Identification of Important Statements Coding 98

Analytical Log Coding 98

Post Interview Follow-up Meeting 99

5.4.2 Description of Rationalising and Grouping Main Points 100

Scheme Grouping 101

Analytical Log Grouping 102

Key Feature Grouping 102

5.4.3 Theme Identification 103

Familiarisation of the research team with the dataset 103

Identification Process 104

Identified Themes and Associated Research Questions 105

5.5 IN-DEPTH CATEGORISATION - IN TERMS OF THE FIVE THEMES 105

5.5.1 In-depth Coding Procedure 106

5.6 RESULTS SUMMARY OF EXHAUSTIVE DESCRIPTION AND

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS 107


CHAPTER 6 110

THE RESULTS 110

6.1 BACKGROUND DETAILS 110

6.2 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 111

6.2.1 Theme 1: Types of Students (columns 1-4) 111

6.2.2 Theme 2: Entities (columns 5-13) 111

6.2.3 Theme 3: Potential Diagrams (columns 14 – 96) 113

6.2.3.1 Drawing Diagrams (columns 14-21) 114

6.2.3.2 Associated Terminology (columns 22-48) 114

6.2.3.3 Application of the Diagrams (columns 49-56) 115

6.2.3.4 Classical Understanding of the Diagrams (columns 57-75) 116

6.2.3.5 Interpretation of an Unfamiliar Diagram (column 69-75) 116

6.2.3.6 Overall on Student Understanding of Potential Diagrams

(columns 76-96) 117

6.2.4 Theme 4: Contextualisation (columns 97-231 and 254-280) 117

6.2.4.1 Analogies (columns 97-168) 117

6.2.4.2 Context (examining the context in which specific content is discussed) (columns 169-203) 119

6.2.4.3 Application (Radioactive decay c. 204-231 & Name three things

c. 254-279) 121

6.2.5 Theme 5: Difficulties (columns 232-253) 122

6.2.5.1 Analogy Related Difficulties (columns 232-234) 122

6.2.5.2 Context Related Difficulties (columns 235-237) 123

6.2.5.3 Mathematical Related Difficulties (columns 238-240) 123

6.2.5.4 Delivery Related Difficulties (columns 241-243) 123

6.2.5.5 Content Related Difficulties (column 244-245) 123

6.2.5.6 Lecturers thoughts on Difficulties 124


CHAPTER 7 126

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING 126

7.1 REVISITING THE AIMS 126

7.2 IDENTIFYING THE DISCIPLINE STRUCTURE AND MAPPING

THE THEMES ONTO THIS FRAMEWORK 126

7.2.1 Discipline Structure 127

7.2.2 Mapping the Themes 128

7.2.3 Discussion 129

Features of Interest 130

Attitudinal Components 130

7.3 REVISITING THE LEARNING MODEL AND SITUATING THE RESULTS

INTO THE CONTEXT OF THE LITERATURE 131

7.3.1 Characteristics of Students - Pressage 131

7.3.2 Characteristics of the Teaching and Learning Environment - Pressage 132

7.3.3 Student Perceptions of the Learning Context – Process 132

7.3.4 Student Approaches - Process 133

7.3.5 Learning Outcomes – Product 133

7.3.6 Cognitive Structures 133

Broad Features of the Model 134

Recognition, Association, Assimilation and Perturbation 134

Accretion 135

Restructuring and Tuning 135

7.3.7 Transferring and Application 136

7.4 IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING 136

7.4.1 To Isolate Key Concepts 136

7.4.2 To Identify Learning Difficulties 137

7.4.3 To Identify Teaching Difficulties 137

7.4.4 To Provide both Teachers and Curriculum Developers with a

Useful Resource to Assist Them in Making Informed Decisions 139

7.5 METHODOLOGY REVIEW 139

7.6 FUTURE RESEARCH 141

Map Related 141

Link Related 141

Analogy Related 141


Appendices


APPENDIX 1 A1-1

HUMAN ETHICS APPROVAL AND DOCUMENTATION A1-1


APPENDIX 2 A2-11

GROUNDED THEORY INVESTIGATION – STAGE 1 A2-11

A2.1 CONCEPT MAP RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A2-12

A2.1.1 Concept Mapping Exercise A2-12

A2.1.2 Results - Concept Map Structures A2-15

Structural and Nodal Analysis A2-15

Summary of Results from Structural and Nodal Analysis A2-18

Other Interesting Features that Emerged from the Concept Maps A2-18

Summary of Results from Concept Map Analysis A2-19

A2.1.3 Results Carried Forward – Concept Maps A2-19

A2.1.4 Concept Mapping Data Sets A2-20

A2.2 EXPERT GROUP DISCUSSIONS/INTERVIEWS RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A2-23

The Expert Focus Group Discussion A2-23

The Individual Expert Interviews A2-24

Results – Expert Group Discussions/Interviews A2-27

Teaching Approaches A2-29

Key Concepts A2-29

Assessment A2-30

Perceived Difficulties A2-31

Maths A2-31

Analogies A2-33

Computer Simulations A2-33

Experiments A2-34

A2.2.2 Results Carried Forward – Expert Discussions/Interviews A2-34

A2.3 EXAMINATION SCRIPT RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A2-36

First Year – Question 9 A2-38

Observed features A2-38

First Year – Question 10 A2-39

Observed Features A2-39

First Year – Question 11 A2-40

Observed Features A2-40

Second Year – Question A1 A2-42

Observed Features A2-42

Second Year – Question B1 A2-44

Observed Features A2-44

Second Year – Question A2 A2-45

Observed Features A2-45

A2.3.2 Results Carried Forward – Examination Scripts A2-46

A2.3.3 Examination Script Data Sets A2-46

A2.4 PRELIMINARY INTERVIEWS RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A2-73

A2.4.1 Analysis of Data Collected A2-73

A2.4.2 Coding and Results A2-92

Analogies A2-92

Assessment A2-92

Computer Simulations A2-92

Course structure A2-92

Difficulties A2-93

Duality A2-93

Mathematics A2-94

Potential Energy Diagrams A2-94

Real World A2-95

Reflective Thoughts A2-95

Tunnelling A2-95

A2.4.3 Results Carried Forward – Preliminary Interviews A2-95

A2.4.4 Chemistry Interviews A2-96

A2.5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINAL INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT A2-97

A2.5.1 Constraints of the Protocol A2-97

A2.5.2 Categories Brought Forward from the Grounded Study A2-97

A2.5.3 Selective Coding A2-99

A2.5.4 Sequencing Topics A2-100

Opening A2-100

Close A2-101

Body A2-102

A2.6 ASSOCIATED LITERATURE REVIEWS A2-107

A2.6.1 Concept Mapping A2-107

Concept mapping - Educational research A2-107

Concept mapping - Teaching A2-108

Concept mapping - Assessment A2-109


APPENDIX 3 A3-110

GROUNDED THEORY GUIDE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS A3-110


APPENDIX 4 A4-113

EXAMPLE INTERVIEW AND ANALYSIS DATASET A4-113


APPENDIX 5 A5-129

RESULTS SUMMARY FOR THE EXHAUSTIVE DESCRIPTION AND FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS A5-129


APPENDIX 6 A6-133

IN-DEPTH CATEGORISATION – TABULATED SPREADSHEET DATASET A6-133


APPENDIX 7 A7-150

DATA SET COMPLETE WITH CATEGORY DESCRIPTIONS AND REPRESENTATIVE STUDENT RESPONSES A7-150

A7.1 Theme - Types of Students A7-151

A7.2 Theme - Entity A7-153

A7.3 Theme – Potential Wells and Barriers A7-156

A7.3.1 Drawing the diagrams A7-157

A7.3.2 Wells/Barriers Associated Terminology A7-161

A7.3.3 Application of these diagrams (wells and barriers) A7-170

A7.3.4 Understanding of the potential well diagram from a classical perspective A7-172

A7.3.5 Interpretation of an Unfamiliar Potential Diagram A7-176

A7.3.6 Overall Understanding of Potential Diagrams A7-177

A7.4 Theme – Contextualising A7-183

A7.4.1 Analogies - List of Analogies (with attitudinal dimensions) A7-184

A7.4.2 Analogies - Attitude to Analogies (Generally) A7-200

A7.4.3 Context - List of Key Ideas/Concepts for teaching A7-211

A7.4.4 Context – List of Key Experiments A7-213

A7.4.5 Application of Knowledge - List for Radioactive Decay A7-214

A7.5 Theme – Difficulties A7-217


APPENDIX 8 A8-223

QUANTUM CHEMISTRY LITERATURE REVIEW A8-223

A8.1 QUANTUM CHEMISTRY – HISTORY A8-224

A8.2 QUANTUM CHEMISTRY – TEACHING CONCEPTS A8-224

Interpretations A8-224

Bonding & Structure A8-225

Atoms A8-225

Orbitals A8-226

Mathematics A8-226

Specific A8-227

A8.3 QUANTUM CHEMISTRY – LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS & LABORATORY A8-229

Demonstrations A8-229

Laboratory A8-230

A8.4 QUANTUM CHEMISTRY – COMPUTATIONAL IDEAS A8-230

Curriculum Changes & Delivery A8-230

Software Programs A8-231

Wave Function Software A8-231

Atomic Structure & Orbital Programs A8-232

Web A8-233

A8.5 QUANTUM CHEMISTRY – TEXT BOOK DISCUSSION A8-233

Book Reviews A8-233

A8.6 QUANTUM CHEMISTRY – EDUCATION RESEARCH A8-233


APPENDIX 9 A9-235

QUANTUM PHYSICS LITERATURE REVIEW A9-235

A9.1 QUANTUM PHYSICS – HISTORY A9-236

A9.2 QUANTUM PHYSICS – PHILOSOPHY & INTERPRETATION A9-237

A9.3 QUANTUM PHYSICS – TEACHING CONCEPTS A9-239

A9.4 QUANTUM MECHANICS – LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS & LABORATORY A9-243

A9.5 QUANTUM PHYSICS – TESTS A9-244

A9.6 QUANTUM PHYSICS – COMPUTATIONAL A9-244

A9.7 QUANTUM PHYSICS – COURSE MATERIAL A9-246

A9.8 QUANTUM PHYSICS – COURSES AND COMMENTS A9-246

A9.9 QUANTUM PHYSICS – TEXTBOOK REVIEW A9-247

A9.10 QUANTUM PHYSICS – EDUCATION RESEARCH A9-247

A9.11 QUANTUM MECHANICS EDUCATION RESEARCH –

DEDICATED CONFERENCES A9-250

A9.12 RELATED EDUCATION RESEARCH ON WAVES A9-251


APPENDIX 10 A10-252

CONCEPTUAL CHANGE, ANALOGIES, AND

PHENOMENOGRAPHIC LITERATURE REVIEWS A10-252

A10.1 CONCEPTUAL CHANGE A10-253

Theory & Discussion A10-253

Physics Related Research A10-253

Science & Physics Perspective A10-253

A10.2 ANALOGIES A10-254

General Theory and Discussion A10-254

General Teaching & Research A10-255

Science Teaching & Research A10-255

Chemistry Teaching & Research A10-256

Physics Teaching & Research A10-257

A10.3 PHENOMENOGRAPHY A10-258

Theory, Debate & Discussion A10-258

Research A10-259

Related A10-260


^ LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 2-1 : Presage – Process - Product Model of student learning.

Adapted from Prosser, Trigwell, Hazel and Gallagher (1994) 24

Figure 3-1 : Example page from preliminary interview transcript showing layout 55

Figure 4-1 : Copy of Student Concept Map (Student ID 21). This map shows

the “wheel linked to another wheel” structural type. Reduced from

original A3 with the labels and header instructions cropped

(Please refer to Appendix 2, Figures A2-1 through A2-4 for details

of the complete concept mapping exercise) 64

Figure 4-2 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript –

TED Page 1 Cover Page 75

Figure 4-3 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 4 75

Figure 5-1 : Representative Interview Transcript Document – Cover Page 96

Figure 5-2 : Representative Interview Transcript Document – Transcript Page.

Please refer to Table A4-1 in Appendix 4 for coding details 96

Figure 5-3 : Representative Interview Transcript Document –

Grouped Analytical Log Coding Page 100

Figure 5-4 : Representative Interview Transcript Document – Inherent Coding

Attitudinal Learning Matrix Page 101

Figure 7-1 : A diagrammatic representation of the discipline structure and

framework showing the relationship between the three identified areas underpinning quantum mechanics 127

Figure 7-2 : Schematic overview of the first four themes mapped over the three

areas of the disciplines framework 129


Appendices


Figure A2-1 : Concept Map Instruction Sheet (Printed A4 Portrait) A2-13

Figure A2-2 : Example “Newtonian Concept Map” provided with Concept

Map Instruction Sheet (Printed A4 Landscape on reverse) A2-13

Figure A2-3 : Concept Map Cover Sheet (Printed A4 Portrait) A2-14

Figure A2-4 : Concept Map Answer Sheet (Printed A3 Landscape) A2-14

Figure A2-5 : Copy of Student Concept Map (Student ID 21). This map shows the

“wheel linked to another wheel” structural type. (Reduced from

original A3 with the labels and header instructions cropped

(Refer to Figure A2-4)) A2-15

Figure A2-6 : Focus Group Discussion Points A2-24

Figure A2-7 : Physics Lecturer Guide Interview Questions A2-25

Figure A2-8 : Chemistry Lecturer Guide Interview Questions A2-27

Figure A2-9 : Examination Script – First Year Question 9 A2-38

Figure A2-10 : Examination Script – First Year Question 10 A2-39

Figure A2-11 : Examination Script – First Year Question 11 A2-40

Figure A2-12 : Examination Script – Second Year Question A1 A2-42

Figure A2-13 : Examination Script – Second Year Question B1 A2-44

Figure A2-14 : Examination Script – Second Year A2 A2-45

Figure A2-15 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript –

TED Page 1 Cover Page (1 of 9) A2-74

Figure A2-16 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 2 (2 of 9) A2-75

Figure A2-17 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 3 (3 of 9) A2-76

Figure A2-18 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 4 (4 of 9) A2-77

Figure A2-19 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 5 (5 of 9) A2-78

Figure A2-20 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 6 (6 of 9) A2-79

Figure A2-21 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 29 (7 of 9) A2-80

Figure A2-22 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 30 (8 of 9) A2-81

Figure A2-23 : Representative Preliminary Interview Transcript – TED Page 31 (9 of 9) A2-82

Figure A4-1 : Transcript Cover Page – which includes the Key Feature Grouping A4-114

Figure A4-2 : Transcript Grouped Analytical Log Coding Page A4-115

Figure A4-3 : Transcript page – which includes the Personal Log, Inherent Meaning

Coding and Analytical Log A4-116

Figure A4-4 : Transcript Inherent Meaning Coding Attitudinal Learning Matrix Page A4-117

Figure A4-5 : Transcript Sorted List Inherent Meaning Coding A4-118


LIST OF TABLES


Table 3-1 : Preliminary Research Project Plan 41

Table 3-2 : Description of Interview Question Types 52

Table 3-3 : Research Project Plan – Stage 1 58

Table 3-4 : Research Project Plan – Stage 2 59

Table 4-1 : Concept Map Structural Types & Results Summary

(n=67 not mutually exclusive) 65

Table 4-2 : Interview Themes 84

Table 4-3 : Interview Topics 85

Table 4-4 : Interview Closure Topics 86

Table 4-5 : Interview Body Topics 87

Table 4-6 : Structure of the Final Interview Instrument 89

Table 5-1 : Colaizzi’s seven steps of phenomenological analysis mapped against

the coding and analysis steps employed in this study 95

Table 5-2 : Summary of the five identified themes and their associated

research questions 105

Table 5-3 : Outline of the results of the exhaustive description and the

fundamental analysis process for each theme - 1 and 2 (Table 1 of 3) 107

Table 5-4 : Outline of the results of the exhaustive description and the

fundamental analysis process for each theme - 3 and 4 (Table 2 of 3) 108

Table 5-5 : Outline of the results of the exhaustive description and the

fundamental analysis process for theme - 5 (Table 3 of 3) 109


Appendices


Table A2-1 : Concept Map Structural Types and Results Summary

(not mutually exclusive) A2-17

Table A2-2 : Maps with two or more links to ‘Uncertainty Principle’ A2-19

Table A2-3 : Concept Map Coding – Linking and Map Structures (1of 2) A2-21

Table A2-4 : Concept Map Coding – Primary Nodes within Wheel, Complex

and Hierarchical Structures (2 of 2) A2-22

Table A2-5 : Expert Interview/Group Discussions - The depth of response

against each identified category A2-28

Table A2-6 : Expert Group - Key concepts identified by lecturers A2-30

Table A2-7 : Expert Group – Difficulties Identified by the 18 lecturers A2-32

Table A2-8 : Examination Script – Questions selected for analysis A2-36

Table A2-9 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 9 (1 of 2). A2-47

Table A2-10 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 9 (2 of 2) A2-48

Table A2-11 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 10 (1 of 5) A2-49

Table A2-12 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 10 (2 of 5) A2-50

Table A2-13 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 10 (3 of 5) A2-51

Table A2-14 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 10 (4 of 5) A2-52

Table A2-15 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 10 (5 of 5) A2-53

Table A2-16 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 11 (1 of 4) A2-54

Table A2-17 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 11 (2 of 4) A2-55

Table A2-18 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 11 (3 of 4) A2-56

Table A2-19 : Examination Script Coding - First Year Question 11 (4 of 4) A2-57

Table A2-20 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Advanced Question B1 (1 of 6) A2-58

Table A2-21 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Advanced Question B1 (2 of 6) A2-59

Table A2-22 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Advanced Question B1 (3 of 6) A2-60

Table A2-23 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Advanced Question B1 (4 of 6) A2-61

Table A2-24 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Advanced Question B1 (5 of 6) A2-62

Table A2-25 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Advanced Question B1 (6 of 6) A2-63

Table A2-26 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (1 of 8) A2-64

Table A2-27 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (2 of 8) A2-65

Table A2-28 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (3 of 8) A2-66

Table A2-29 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (4 of 8) A2-67

Table A2-30 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (5 of 8) A2-68

Table A2-31 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (6 of 8) A2-69

Table A2-32 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (7 of 8) A2-70

Table A2-33 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A1 (8 of 8) A2-71

Table A2-34 : Examination Script Coding - Second Year Question A2 (1 of 1) A2-72

Table A2-35 : Interview Themes A2-100

Table A2-36 : Interview Topics A2-101

Table A2-37 : Interview Closure Topics A2-102

Table A2-38 : Interview Body Topics A2-104

Table A2-39 : Structure of the Final Interview Instrument A2-106

Table A4-1 : Columns 4 through 10 of the interview transcript were reserved for

recording these codes. The seven columns formed a data record and

each column stored a field. A4-119

Table A4-2 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Double Slit

Experiment and Wave Particle Duality Topics (Table 1 of 8) A4-121

Table A4-3 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic Uncertainty

(Table 2 of 8) A4-122

Table A4-4 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic Explain in

terms of Quantum Mechanics (Table 3 of 8) A4-123

Table A4-5 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic

Quantaroo - the Quantum Kangaroo (Table 4 of 8) A4-124

Table A4-6 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic Difficulties

Learning and Teaching (Table 5 of 8) A4-125

Table A4-7 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic Difficulties

Learning and Teaching (Table 6 of 8) A4-126

Table A4-8 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic Difficulties

Learning and Teaching (Table 7 of 8) A4-127

Table A4-9 : Inherent Meaning General Coding Dataset for the Topic Advise

new lecturer (Table 8 of 8) A4-128

Table A5-1 : Outline of the results of the exhaustive description and the fundamental

analysis process for each theme - 1 and 2 (Table 1 of 3) A5-130

Table A5-2 : Outline of the results of the exhaustive description and the fundamental

analysis process for each theme - 3 and 4 (Table 2 of 3) A5-131

Table A5-3 : Outline of the results of the exhaustive description and the fundamental

analysis process for theme - 5 (Table 3 of 3) A5-132

Table A7-1 : Theme Types of Students, Profile of Students representative responses A7-152

Table A7-2 : Theme Types of Students, Profile of Students percentage matrix A7-152

Table A7-3 : Theme Entity representative responses A7-154

Table A7-4 : Theme Entity percentage matrix A7-155

Table A7-5 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Potential Well Features Presented

representative responses A7-157

Table A7-6 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Potential Well Features Presented

percentage matrix A7-158

Table A7-7 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Barrier Features Presented representative

responses A7-159

Table A7-8 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Barrier Features Presented percentage matrix A7-160

Table A7-9 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin –

Eigen States representative responses A7-161

Table A7-10 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin –

Eigen States percentage matrix A7-161

Table A7-11 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin – Energy Quantisation representative responses A7-162

Table A7-12 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin – Energy Quantisation percentage matrix A7-162


Table A7-13 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin –

Wave Function representative responses A7-163

Table A7-14 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin –

Wave Function percentage matrix A7-164

Table A7-15 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin –

Probability Distribution representative responses A7-165

Table A7-16 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Origin –

Probability Distribution percentage matrix A7-165

Table A7-17 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Eigen States representative responses A7-166

Table A7-18 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Eigen States percentage matrix A7-166

Table A7-19 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Energy Quantisation representative responses A7-167

Table A7-20 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Energy Quantisation percentage matrix A7-167

Table A7-21 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Wave Function representative responses A7-168

Table A7-22 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Wave Function percentage matrix A7-168

Table A7-23 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Probability Distribution representative responses A7-169

Table A7-24 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Associated Terminology, Meaning –

Probability Distribution percentage matrix A7-169

Table A7-25 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Application of Diagram –

Wells representative responses A7-170

Table A7-26 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Application of Diagram –

Wells percentage matrix A7-170

Table A7-27 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Application of Diagram –

Barrier representative responses A7-171

Table A7-28 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Application of Diagram –

Barrier percentage matrix A7-171

Table A7-29 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Classical Perspective – Well –

Sides representative responses A7-172

Table A7-30 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Classical Perspective – Well –

Sides percentage matrix A7-173

Table A7-31 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Classical Perspective – Well –

Sloping Base representative responses A7-174

Table A7-32 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Classical Perspective – Well –

Sloping Base percentage matrix A7-175

Table A7-33 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Interpretation of Unfamiliar Potential

Diagram percentage matrix A7-176

Table A7-34 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding of Wells

representative responses A7-177

Table A7-35 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding of Wells

percentage matrix A7-177

Table A7-36 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding of Barriers

representative responses A7-178

Table A7-37 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding of Barriers

percentage matrix A7-178

Table A7-38 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Concept – Energy Quantisation representative responses A7-179

Table A7-40 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Concept –

Wave Function representative responses A7-180

Table A7-41 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Concept –

Wave Function percentage matrix A7-180

Table A7-42 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Application –

Explain Existing representative responses A7-181

Table A7-43 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Application –

Explain Existing percentage matrix A7-181

Table A7-44 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Application –

Analyse New representative responses A7-182

Table A7-45 : Theme Potential Diagrams, Overall Understanding – Application –

Analyse New percentage matrix A7-182

Table A7-46 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom –

Bohr representative responses A7-184

Table A7-47 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom –

Bohr percentage matrix A7-185

Table A7-48 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom – de Broglie representative responses A7-186

Table A7-49 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom – de Broglie

percentage matrix A7-186

Table A7-50 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom – Fuzzy Cloud representative responses A7-187

Table A7-51 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom – Fuzzy Cloud percentage matrix A7-187

Table A7-52 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom – Wave Packet representative responses A7-188

Table A7-53 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Atom – Wave Packet percentage matrix A7-188

Table A7-54 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Uncertainty –

Walking Across Dark Room representative responses A7-189

Table A7-55 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Uncertainty –

Walking Across Dark Room percentage matrix A7-189

Table A7-56 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Uncertainty –

Balls in Cups representative responses A7-190

Table A7-57 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Uncertainty –

Balls in Cups percentage matrix A7-190

Table A7-58 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Vibrating Strings representative responses A7-191

Table A7-59 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Vibrating Strings percentage matrix A7-192

Table A7-60 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Ball in a Well (Gravity) representative responses A7-193

Table A7-61 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Ball in a Well (Gravity) percentage matrix A7-193

Table A7-62 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Harmonic Oscillator representative responses A7-194

Table A7-63 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Harmonic Oscillators percentage matrix A7-195

Table A7-64 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Rubber Sheet for Well representative responses A7-196

Table A7-65 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Rubber Sheet for Well percentage matrix A7-196

Table A7-66 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Particle in a Box representative responses A7-197

Table A7-67 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Particle in a Box percentage matrix A7-198

Table A7-68 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Wave in a Box representative responses A7-199

Table A7-69 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Wells –

Wave in a Box percentage matrix A7-199

Table A7-70 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) –

Good representative responses A7-200

Table A7-71 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) –

Good percentage matrix A7-200

Table A7-72 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) –

Good makes you think representative responses A7-201

Table A7-73 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) –

Good makes you think percentage matrix A7-201

Table A7-74 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Good Allows you

to test/ consolidate understanding representative responses Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Good Allows you to

test/consolidate understanding percentage matrix A7-202

Table A7-75 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Good Allows you to test/consolidate understanding percentage matrix A7-202

Table A7-76 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Appropriate Limited

Use representative responses A7-203

Table A7-77 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Appropriate Limited

Use percentage matrix A7-203

Table A7-78 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Appropriate But

very abstract not good teaching tools representative responses A7-204

Table A7-79 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Appropriate But

very abstract not good teaching tools percentage matrix A7-205

Table A7-80 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Bad Hinder

representative responses A7-206

Table A7-81 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Bad Hinder

percentage matrix A7-206

Table A7-82 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Bad Usually

emphasises the classical representative responses A7-207

Table A7-83 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Bad Usually

emphasises the classical percentage matrix A7-207

Table A7-84 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Bad Analogies

are lies / Doesn’t Happen representative responses A7-208

Table A7-85 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – Bad Analogies

are lies / Doesn’t Happen percentage matrix A7-209

Table A7-86 : Theme Contextualisation, Analogy (attitudinal) – No Response

percentage matrix A7-210

Table A7-87 : Theme Contextualisation, Context – List of Key Ideas/Concepts

percentage matrix A7-211

Table A7-88 : Theme Contextualisation, Context – List of Delivery Methods

percentage matrix A7-212

Table A7-89 : Theme Contextualisation, Context – List of Products percentage matrix A7-212

Table A7-90 : Theme Contextualisation, Context – List of Key Experiments

percentage matrix A7-213

Table A7-91 : Theme Contextualisation, Application – Explanation of Radioactivity

percentage matrix (1 of 3) A7-214

Table A7-92 : Theme Contextualisation, Application – Explanation of Radioactivity

percentage matrix (2 of 3) A7-215

Table A7-93 : Theme Contextualisation, Application – Explanation of Radioactivity

percentage matrix (3 of 3) A7-216

Table A7-94 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Analogy Related representative responses A7-218

Table A7-95 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Analogy Related

percentage matrix A7-218

Table A7-96 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Context Related

representative responses A7-219

Table A7-97 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Context Related

percentage matrix A7-219

Table A7-98 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Mathematical Related

representative responses A7-220

Table A7-99 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Mathematical Related

percentage matrix A7-220

Table A7-100 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Delivery Emphasis Related representative responses A7-221

Table A7-101 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Delivery Emphasis Related

percentage matrix A7-221

Table A7-102 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Content Related

representative responses A7-222

Table A7-103 : Theme Difficulties, Student Comments, Content Related

percentage matrix A7-222






Download 1.81 Mb.
leave a comment
Page1/42
Date conversion31.08.2011
Size1.81 Mb.
TypeДокументы, Educational materials
Add document to your blog or website

страницы:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   42
Be the first user to rate this..
Your rate:
Place this button on your site:
docs.exdat.com

The database is protected by copyright ©exdat 2000-2017
При копировании материала укажите ссылку
send message
Documents

upload
Documents

Рейтинг@Mail.ru
наверх