^ Course contents: Singleelectron approximation; electrons in a weak periodic potential; band structure; band structure of selected metals; elementary excitations; plasmons; phonons; electronphonon interaction; transport properties; interaction of photons with solids; optical properties; beyond the independent electron approximation; surface effects; ^ : Ashcroft and Mermin. Solid State Physics. Notes: This is an Elective Course. ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: Surface Physics ^ : lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 1^{st} Elective Duration: trimester Period: 3° Trimester Spring (April  June) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Teaching methods: lecturesseminar Assessment methods: oral and seminars Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: The aim of this course is to provide students with an overview of the physical and chemical properties of solid surfaces. Prerequisites: ^ Course contents: Structural properties of a surface; theory and experimental techniques; electronic properties of a surface; surface states; experiments and theory; reactivity of a surface; interaction of atoms and molecules with well defined surface; modern surface techniques ^ : Zanwill. Physics at surfaces Notes: This is an elective module ******************************************************************************* Course code: 50901140 Course title: Laboratory of Physics of Matter ^ : lectures plus laboratory Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 2nd Duration: trimester Period: 2° Trimester  Winter (January  March) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: E. Cazzanelli Teaching methods: lectures, seminars, laboratory Assessment methods: oral and laboratory practical Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: The aim of this course is to offer students handson experience in the study of the physics of matter through laboratory work which uses modern techniques to investigate optical properties of matter. Prerequisites: Quantum mechanics (50900597) ^ : Response functions of matter. Calorimetry, thermal expansion, thermal dependence of electrical resistivity . Common laboratory techniques for studying vacuum at high and low temperatures. Lightmatter interactions. Dispersion and absorption. Measurements of light intensity. Detectors. Interference phenomena. Slits and gratings. Monochromators. Polarization of light. Polarizers. Reflection. Birefringence in solid and liquid crystals and applications. Electrooptical effects and applications. Basics of Xray diffraction. Electron and neutron diffraction. Crystals, glasses, thin films, other states of aggregation. Introduction to crystalgrowing techniques. ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: General Relativity Type of course: lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 2^{nd}  Elective Duration: trimester Period: 1° Trimester  Autumn (OctDec) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Teaching methods: lecturesseminar Assessment methods: oralseminar Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: The aim of this module is to introduce the fundamental concepts of general relativity Prerequisites: Quantum Mechanics (Elective : 50900597) ^ : Elements of general relativity: the gravitational field as a change in the metric tensor, curvilinear coordinates, transformations, covariant and contravariant vectors; covariant derivative; Cristoffel's symbols, relation between Cristoffel's symbols and the metric tensor; geodetic equations in a gravitational field; gravitational correction of the metric tensor for v< ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course Notes: This is an Elective Course ******************************************************************************* Course code: 00000000 Course title: Physical Processes in Stars ^ : lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 1ist Duration: trimester Period: 1° Trimester  Autumn (OctDec) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Teaching methods: lecturesseminar Assessment methods: oralseminar Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: This module introduces students to the main physical phenomena occurring in stars Prerequisites: Stars and Galaxies (50900593) ^ : Radiation transfer in matter: intensity of radiation, absorption and emission coefficients. Moments of the transport equation. Mean opacity and radiation transfer in a star. Cross sections: diffusion, boundfree, freefree. Energy balance of a star. Kelvin time. Necessary efficiency to power the sun. Efficiency of the relation 4p He4. Nuclear reactions: cross section, reaction rates, mean life, energy produced per mass unity. Tunneling for nuclear reactions in a star. Most effective chain reactions: PP1, PP2, PP3. Solar neutrinos. Carbon cycles. ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: Plasma Physics Type of course: lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 1st Duration: trimester Period: 3° Trimester  spring (AprilJune) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Teaching methods: lecturesseminar Assessment methods: oralseminar Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: This course introduces students to the physical phenomenon of plasma. Prerequisites: Statistical Mechanics (50900588) ^ : Plasma definition, plasmas in the Universe and in the laboratory. Elementary behavior of a plasma: electrostatic shielding, plasma waves, magnetic confinement, Larmor frequency and Larmor radius. Drift velocities due to electric and gravitational fields, gradB drift. First adiabatic invariant and magnetic mirrors. Boltzmann equation, collision term, collision frequency and mean free paths. Moments of Boltzmann equation: conservation of particles, impulse, energy. Higher order moments: stress tensor, internal energy, heat flux. Local thermodynamic equilibrium as a closure hypothesis. Waves in plasmas: conductivity tensors, dielectric tensors, dispersion relation, polarization vectors. Plasma waves in the fluid description: linearization, mobility tensor, expression of the dielectric tensor. Cold plasma approximation, electrostatic approximation. Refraction index of cold plasma: cutoffs and resonances, qualitative behavior. Electrostatic modes: ionsound waves, plasma waves, electroncyclotron waves. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Landau damping, Laplace transform, dispersion relation, analytic extension of the Laplace transform, Landau contours. Dispersion relation for a Maxwellian plasma, plasma dispersion function, Landau damping in the case of weak damping, physical interpretation. Landau damping for Langmuir waves and for ion sound waves. ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: Space Physics Type of course: lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 2nd Duration: trimester Period: 1° Trimester  Autumn (OctDec) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Teaching methods: lecturesseminar Assessment methods: oralseminar Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: This course is an introduction to interplanetary space physics Prerequisites: Plasma Physics Magnetohydrodynamics ^ : The exploration of interplanetary space: a historical perspective. Solar wind: phenomenology, density, velocity, temperature. Parker's model of solar wind: discussion of the solutions. Magnetic field in solar wind, Archimede's spiral. Spacecraft data on solar wind. Slow wind and fast wind, heliospheric current sheets. Terminal shock and the interstellar medium. Fluid and magnetic turbulence in solar wind. Field line transport in solar wind. Planetary magnetospheres: ChapmanFerraro length, corotation length. Magnetopause, magnetic reconnection at magnetopause and in the magnetotail, aurorae, and magnetospheric substorms. Dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas. Harris equilibrium for a current sheet. Electrodynamic solarterrestrial coupling. Danger and hazard for technological systems and Space Weather. Collisionless shock waves in solar wind: planetary bow shocks, jump conditions. Ion reflection, quasiparallel and quasiperpendicular shock, ion and electron foreshocks. Twostream instability, dispersion relation for equal streams and for beam plasma instability. Cosmic rays: energy spectrum, composition, origin. Acceleration and transport of cosmic rays. Solar modulation of cosmic rays. ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: Solar Physics Type of course: lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 2nd Duration: trimester Period: 1° Trimester  Autumn (OctDec) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Teaching methods: lecturesseminar Assessment methods: oral Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: This course is an introduction to the solar phenomena Prerequisites: Plasma Physics Magnetohydrodynamics ^ : The internal structure of the Sun: nucleus, radiative zone, convection zone, atmosphere. Solar corona; static corona of Capman. Deduction of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Generalized Ohm's law, Magnetic Reynolds number. Ideal MHD, Alfven Theorem and the frozenin law. Magnetohydrodynamic waves. Dynamo theory for the formation of the solar magnetic field. Solar magnetic cycles. Coronal equilibrium: MHD equilibria in axisymmetry. Forcefree magnetic fields. Forcefree equilibria in one and two dimensions. Selfconsistent equilibria in two dimensions. The GradShafranov equation in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. Magnetic flux function and magnetic surface functions. Solar oscillations and heliosismology. Solar activity: solar spots, flares, coronal arcs, etc. the magnetic structure of the solar corona: helmet streamer and coronal mass ejections. Heliospheric current sheets. Solar observation techniques: coronograph, magnetogramms, artificial satellites. ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: Observation and Data Analysis Techniques in Astrophysics ^ : lectureslaboratory Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 2^{nd}  Elective Duration: trimester Period: 1° Trimester  Autumn (OctDec) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: x Teaching methods: lectureslaboratory Assessment methods: orallaboratory test Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: The course allows students to understand and perform typical measurements in astrophysics. Prerequisites: Introduction to experimental methodology (50900390) laboratory of mechanics and thermodynamics (50900391) laboratory of electromagnetism (50900581) Laboratory of wave phenomena ( 50900580) Laboratory of Modern Physics (50900594) ^ : Measurements of velocity and magnetic fields in interplanetary space, imaging in astronomy, measurements in galactic and extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Recommended reading: Handouts are given throughout the course Note: This is an Elective Course ******************************************************************************* ^ : 50900385 Course title: Introduction to Computer Science Type of course: lecture and laboratory. Level of course: First Degree Course Year of study: 1st Duration: trimester Period: 1° Trimester  Autumn (OctDec) Number of Credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: Nicola Leone (Coordinator of the parallel sections – see organisation of Common Faculty Courses) ^ : lecture, computer laboratory Assessment methods: written exam and a laboratory test Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course: The student should understand the basic concepts of computer science, be familiar with software commonly used for office automation, Internet navigation and search, and should acquire an elementary understanding of algorithms. ^ : Lecture:  Introduction to the concept of algorithm  Information representation  Computer Architecture  Computer Networks (LAN, Internet,...)  Basics of computer programming Laboratory:  Windows Operating System  Microsoft Word  Microsoft Excel  Internet  Visual Basic ^ : Handouts are provided throughout the course. Notes: The workload of the laboratory activity corresponds to 2 credits. This course is obligatory for all students of the Faculty of Science. ******************************************************************************* ^ : Course title: Magnetohydrodynamics Type of course: lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 1st Duration: semester Period: 3° Trimester Spring (April  June) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: ;G. Zimbardo Teaching methods: lectures Assessment methods: oralseminar Language of instruction: Italian Prerequisites: Fluid Mechanics (50900127) Course contents: Electrically conducting fluids; generalized Ohm's law; magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations; magnetic helicity and crosshelicity; conservation laws in ideal MHD; Alfvèn Theorem and the "frozenin law"; reduced MHD equations; dissipative effects and the Reynolds number. MHD equilibria; the "pinch effect"; forcefree states; the GradShafranov equation. The problem of normal modes in MHD; lowfrequency waves. Resistive instability. Quasilinear approximations and the problem of turbulence in MHD. ^ : Handouts are given throughout the course ******************************************************************************* Course code: Course title: Advanced Quantum Mechanics Type of course: lectures Level of course: Advanced Level Course Year of study: 1st Duration: semester Period: 2° Trimester Spring (JanuaryMarch) Number of credits: 5 Name of Lecturer: R. Fiore Teaching methods: lectures Assessment methods: oralseminar Language of instruction: Italian Objective of course:
