Graduation under 10+2+3 pattern with 50% marks in the aggregate. Or Post-graduation (following graduation under 10+2+3 pattern) in any language-literature, Phil icon

Graduation under 10+2+3 pattern with 50% marks in the aggregate. Or Post-graduation (following graduation under 10+2+3 pattern) in any language-literature, Phil


Eligibility: Graduation under 10+2+3 pattern with 50% marks in the aggregate. Or Post-graduation (following graduation under 10+2+3 pattern) in any language-literature, Philosophy, Anthropology, Psychology, Sociology, Mathematics and Computer Science with 50% marks in the aggregate both at the graduate and post-graduate levels.


Note: Courses LNG 101 & 102 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

Full marks Credits

LNG 101 Phonetics 100 5

LNG 102 Morphology 100 5

LNG EL 1.1 Language Teaching Methods 100 5

LNG EL 1.2 Sociolinguistics 100 5

LNG EL 1.3 Historical and Comparative Linguistics 100 5


Note: Courses LNG 201, 202 &203 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any one from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

LNG 201 Phonology 100 5

LNG 202 Syntax 100 5

LNG 203 Semantics-I 100 5

LNG EL 2.1 Language Testing 100 5

LNG EL 2.2 Psycholinguistics 100 5

LNG EL 2.3 Writing Systems 100 5


Note: Course LNG 301 is compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any three from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

LNG 301 Semantics-II 100 5

LNG EL 3.1 Pragmatics 100 5

LNG EL 3.2 Natural Language Processing 100 5

LNG EL 3.3 Language Processing, Parsing and Generation 100 5

LNG EL 3.4 Translation 100 5

LNG EL 3.5 Philosophical underpinnings of Modern Linguistics 100 5

LNG EL 3.6 Indian Grammatical Traditions 100 5

LNG EL 3.7 Sociology of Language 100 5

LNG EL 3.8 Applied Linguistics 100 5

LNG EL 3.9 Lexicography 100 5

LNG EL 3.10 Stylistics 100 5


Note: Courses LNG 401 and 402 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

LNG 401 Dissertation 100 5

LNG 402 Advanced Syntax 100 5

LNG EL 4.1 Computational Morphology 100 5

LNG EL 4.2 Syntactic Models 100 5

LNG EL 4.3 Corpus Linguistics 100 5

LNG EL 4.4 Language Universals and Typology 100 5

LNG EL 4.5 Child Language Acquisition 100 5

LNG EL 4.6 History of Linguistics 100 5

LNG EL 4.7 Semiotics 100 5

LNG EL 4.8 Neurolinguistics 100 5

Scheme of Examination

The M.A. Linguistics will be a four-semester course. Students will be required to choose four courses in each semester, thus the total number of courses to be studied will be 16. Each course offered by the department will be of five credits. The total credits to be done by each student will be 80.

Each course will carry 100 marks whose distribution will be as under:

1. Mid-semester test 10 Marks.

2. Weekly class test 10 Marks.

3. Seminar 05 Marks.

4. Attendance & Conduct 05 Marks.

5. Final Examination 70 Marks.

The final examination question paper shall have the following format:

  1. Four long answer questions of 15 marks each based upon the whole syllabus will be asked, out of which students shall attempt any two questions in about 500 words each.

  2. Six short answer questions each of 8 marks based upon the whole syllabus will be asked out of which the students shall answer any three questions in about 250 words each.

  3. 16 Objective type questions of one mark each will be asked and students will have to attempt them all.


Note: Courses LNG 101 & 102 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.


It is a basic course in articulatory and acoustics phonetics-starting with the mechanisms of speech, description of segments and suprasegmentals and going on to cooarticulation, training in transcription and the basics of acoustic phonetics.

1. The Anatomy and Physiology of Speech: Vocal tract, respiratory system, laryngeal system; supralaryngeal system. Initiation of Speech: Air stream mechanism; phonation.

Articulation: Consonant and vowel; velum; direction of air flow; manner of articulation; place of articulation; three term labels.

2. Obstruents: Plosives; fricatives, affricates; ejectives; implosives and clicks. Sonorants:

Sonorant consonants and vowels. Suprasegmentals: Stress; length; pitch; intonation; voice quality; rhythm, nasalization, juncture.

3. Multiple articulation and Co-articulation: Double articulation; secondary articulation; co-articulation; parametric phonetics. Phonetic Transcription: Principles and methods; terminology relating to transcription; learning skills; phonemic and phonetic transcription.

4. Acoustic Characteristics of Speech: Transmission; frequency; pitch; amplitude; resonance; measuring frequency; pitch, Auditory Phonetics.


Abercrombie, D. 1967. Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University

Ball, M.J.and Rahilly, J. 2000. Phonetics: The Science of Speech. London: Arnold.

Catford, J.C. 1988. A Practical Introduction to Phonetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ladefoged, P.1993. A Course in Phonetics. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. (3rd Edition)

Ladefoged, P & Maddieson, I. 1996. The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.

Leiberman, P. & Blumstein, S. 1988. Speech Physiology, Speech Perception and Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

LNG 102 : Morphology

This course covers the basics in morphological theory ranging from morpheme, word structure to morphological typology.

1. Word Classes and Morpheme Classes: Grammatical category, inflection and derivation.

Analysing Morphological Structure: Complex words.1.Variation in Morphology: Types of variation. The Hierarchical Structure of Words: Trees and labeled brackets; heads and hierarchy.

2. The Status of Words:Word boundaries and clitics; the lexicon; Problems in Morphological Analysis: Zero derivation; unmarked forms; discontinuous morphemes.

3. Morphology and Typology: Syntactic word order and morpheme order.


Anderson, S.R.1992. A-morphous Morphology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT

Aronoff, M. 1976. Word Formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Fromkin, V.(ed.)2000. Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistics. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Spencer, A. 1991. Morphological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

LNG EL 1.1 Language Teaching Methods

1. Learning Theories: Acquisition vs. learning; language, mind and society; empirical (S-R) theories of learning; cognitive theories; implications for language teaching; second/foreign language learning; identity and contrastive hypothesis in learning a second language; input hypothesis.

2. Learner: Innate potential of the learner creativity; social psychological aspects such as aptitude, intelligence, attitude, stereotypes and motivation.

3. Learner Output: Language interference; mistakes and errors; errors as learning Strategies; interlanguage, idiosyncratic dialects and approximate systems.

4. Methods: Approach, technique and method; grammar- translation method; direct method; audio-lingual approaches; cognitive approaches; communicative approaches; the silent way; suggestology; systems of evaluation: integrated approaches for teaching and evaluation; translation, dictation and cloze; innovative materials for language teaching.


Agnihotri, R.K.and Khanna, A.L.(ed) 1994. Second Language Acquisition: Socio-cultural and Linguistic Aspects of English in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Agnihotri, R.K. and Khanna, A. L. (ed.)1995. English Language Teaching in India: Issues and Innovations. New Delhi: Sage Publications

Brumfit, C.J. and Roberts, J.T.1983. Language and Language teaching. London: Batsford

Cook, V. 1993. Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. London: Macmillan.

Dulay, B., Burt,M.and Krashen, S.1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R.1985, Understanding Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Halliday, The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. London: Longman.

Prabhu, N.S.1987. Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J.C.1974. Error Analysis: Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. Essex: Longman.

LNG EL 1.2 Sociolinguistics

1. Sociolinguistics & the Sociology of language; Language & Society; Speech community; Verbal Repertoires; speech Acts & Politeness Hierarchy; Linguistic competence & communicative competence, Linguistic variability; Patterns of Variation; Sociolinguistic Universals.

2. Language Varieties: Regional & Social, Formal & Informal, Standard & Non- standard; Vernacular; Non-native Varieties; Registers & Styles; Discourse; Language in Mass media & advertising; language and gender; language & education.

3. Languages in Contact: Bilingualism, Types of Bilingualism; Diglossia; Code-mixing & Code-switching; Language maintenance & shift; Borrowing; Pidgins & Creoles; language death; Multilingualism; Convergence.

4. Sociolinguistics Methodology: Methodological Preliminaries: selection of speakers & linguistic variables; collecting the texts; Identifying linguistic variables and their variants in texts; data processing & interpretation; Method of quantification of linguistic variation; types of variables; Variable Rules; ethno methodology, Sapir- Whorf hypothesis; observer’s paradox.


Dittmar, N.1976; Sociolinguistics; London; Edward Arnold.

Fasold, R. 1984; The Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language. Oxford; Basil Blackwell.

Hudson, R.A.1979; Sociolinguistics; Cambridge Univ. Press.

Humes, D.H. 1977; Foundations of Sociolinguistics; Cambridge Univ. Press.

Milroy, L; 1980; Language and Social Networks; Baltimore; Univ. Park Press.

Trudgill, P. 1974, Sociolinguistics – An Introduction. Penguin.

Downes William: Language and Society. CUP.

Singh, Rajendra. Lectures against Sociolinguistics. Munshiram Manoharlal.

Gumperz, JJ: Language and Social identity.

^ LNG EL 1.3 Historical and Comparative Linguistics

1. Introduction: Synchronic and diachronic approaches to Language; use of written records for historical studies; language classification; notion of language family. Criteria for identifying family relationships among languages; definition of the word cognate; language isolates; criteria for typological classification – agglutinative, inflectional, analytic, synthetic and polysynthetic; basic word order typology-SVO, SOV, etc.

2. Linguistic Change and Reconstruction: Sound changes; Neogrammarian theory; genesis and various types of regularity and spread of sound change, phonetic and phonemic change; split and merger, grammatical change, semantic change; lexical diffusion of sound change; reconstructing the proto-stage of languages, internal reconstruction and comparative method- their scope and limitations, innovation and retention; sub grouping within a family; family tree and wave models.

3. Language Contact and Dialect Geography : Linguistic borrowing- lexical and structural; motivation-Prestige and need; Classification of loan words-loan translation, loan blend, calques, assimilated and unassimilated loans (tadbhava and tatsama); Bilingualism; dialect, idiolect; isogloss; methods of preparing dialect atlas, focal area, transition area and relic area.


Antilla,R.1972 An Introduction to Historical & Comparative Linguistics; New York; Macmillan.

Bhat, D.N.S. 1972 Sound Change; Poona; Poona Bhasha Prakashan.

Bynon, T. 1977 Historical Linguistics; CUP.

Hoenigswald, H.M 1960 Language Change & Linguistic Reconstruction. Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press.

Lehman, W.P 1962 Historical Linguistics- An Introduction; New York: Holt Rinchart & Winston.

Semester – II

Note: Courses LNG 201,202 & 203 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any one from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

^ LNG 201 Phonology

The course takes the student through classification of sounds, distinctive features, the phonemic principle; rule writing and the construct ‘syllable’.

1. Sounds of Speech: Natural classes; distinctive features; major class features; laryngeal features; secondary articulation; prosodic features.

2. Distinctiveness and the Phonemic Principle: Phonemicization; formalization; minimal pairs; complementary distribution.

3. Natural Class: The psychological reality of the phoneme; phonetic similarity; variation.

4. Morphology: Connection to morphology; neutralization;

5. Rule writing; rule ordering.


Fromkin, V. (ed.) 2000. Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistics. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Goldsmith, J (ed.) 1999. Phonological Theory: The Essential Readings. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Goldsmith, J (ed.) 1995. The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Cambridge; Blackwell.

Kenstowicz, M. 1994. Phonology in Generative Grammar. Cambridge; Blackwell.

Rocca, I. & Johnson, W.1999. A Course in Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.

LNG 202 Syntax

1. Phrase Structure Grammar and Transformational Grammar :

Constituency and Constituency Tests- Phrase Structure grammar- inadequacy of PS grammars; transformations-deep and surface structure (the Aspects model).

2. Rules and Constraints on Rules: Types of Rules: Phrase Structure Rules, Transformations, and Interpretive Rules; Types of transformational operation: movement, deletion, insertion – constraints on rules: the Ross constraint.

3. The Theory of Government and Binding: Universal Grammar, the Innateness Hypothesis; Principles and parameters – D-structure, S- structure, PF and LF (the GB model); the projection principle; movement and trace; anaphors, pronouns, Referring expressions and the binding principles – c-command; thematic (theta) roles: agent, patient or theme, experience, goal etc. The theta criterion – Case (structural and inherent), Case assignment, the Case Filter; bounding theory (subjacency) – PRO and the control.


Culicover, P.W.1976. Syntax. London: Academic Press.

Culicover, P.W.1997. Principles and Parameters: An Introduction to Syntactic Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fabb, N. 1994. Sentence Structure. London: Routledge.

Freidin, R. 1992. Foundations of Generative Syntax. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Fromkin, V.A. (ed.) 2000. Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistic Theory. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell,

Haegeman, L. 1992. Introduction to Government and Binding Theory. London: Blackwell. (2nd edition)

Haegeman, L. & Gueron, J. 1999. English Grammar: A Generative Perspective. London: Blackwell.

Jacobs, R.A. & Rosenbaum, P.S. 1968. The English Transformational Grammar. Waltham, Massachusetts: Blaisdell Publishing Company.

Radford, A. 1988. Transformational Grammar. Cambridge University Press.

Radford, A. 1999. Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Riemsdijk, H. Van & Williams, E. 1986. Introduction to the Theory of Grammar. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Roberts, I. 1997. Comparative Syntax. London: Arnold..

LNG 203 Semantics –I

1. Lexical Semantics; Psycho lexicology; The lexical matrix; synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, meronymy. Nouns and lexical inheritance systems; Adjectives; Verbs

2. Formal Semantics; Formal Languages; Syntax and semantics, Propositional logic.

First Order Predicate Logic.

3. Pragmatics: Role of context in meaning. Speech Acts.


Austin, J.L. 1976. How to do Things with Words. Oxford University Press.

Lyons. J. 1995. Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Matilal, B.K. 1990. The Word and the World: India’s Contribution to the Study of Language. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

LNG EL 2.1 Language Testing

1. The Nature of Psychological Tests and their uses:

Test structure: hidden traits and elicited performance representing them; Purposes served by tests: educational, administrative, research; formative and summative evaluation, evaluation as part of the teaching process (pedagogic uses).

2. Language Evaluation: (Clarifying what language tests seek to measure):

The nature of language ability-individual trait vs. rule system of speech community; describing language ability: progression from beginner – learner to use; Components of overall proficiency. (Models of Carrol, Valette and Bachman); Proficiency level schemes and the terms to describe levels.

3. Resources for Assessing Language Ability: Test types and task formats; written (paper and pencil), oral tests and performance tests; Selection and supply type task formats, (problem of stems and distractor in multiple choice items); Discrete point and integrative tests; tests of extended writing / speaking, mixed skills and interaction on dyadic and group settings; special test types; Cloze, C-test, portfolio assessment, meta-linguistic ability tests.

4. Basic Concepts of Measurement: Criterion referencing and norm referencing; maximum performance and typical performance; Validity and reliability.

5. Stages in Test Construction: Decisions regarding purpose, time, nature of items and content of test; Pilot design and trailing for instruction, time and administration; assembling the finished test; reviewing validity and reliability; establishing norms.


Allen, H.B.& Campbell, R.N.(eds.) 1972. Teaching English as a Second Language. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Bell, R.T. 1981 An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. London: Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd.

Davies, A. 1990. Principles of Language Testing. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.

Hughes, A. 1989. Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meenakshi. 1994. Modern Trends in Educational Evaluation and Measurement. Chandigarh: Arun Publishing.

Weir, C.1990. Communicative Language Testing. London: Prentice Hall.

LNG EL 2.2 Psycholinguistics

A. Child Language Acquisition

  1. Phonological development: Early speech production and perception(categorical perception, word segmentation, babbling) to mature system.

  2. Syntactic and semantic bootstrapping Stages of sentence production; emergence of functional categories and projections.

  3. Lexical acquisition: Lexical categories and the natural partitions hypothesis (the noun advantage), regular and irregular morphology; lexical mapping.

  4. Learnability issues: Development of UG principles (qualification and binding) and parameter setting; Diary Studies, large sample studies and longitudinal studies; language acquisition and multilingualism; motherese; emergence of linguistic awareness; acquisition of discourse strategies.

B. Language Disorders:

1. Broca and Localization of the Language Faculty

2. Linguistic Aphasiology

a. Linguistic descriptions and aphasic syndromes (Clinical varieties of Aphasia)

b. Disturbances of the sound system

c. Acquired dyslexia

d. Disturbances of sentence production; agrammatism.

e. Disturbances of sentence comprehension

f. Overview of linguistic aphasiology.


Baker, C.L. & Mc Carthy, J. (eds.) 1981. The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Clark, E.V. 1993. The Lexicon in Acquisition. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Crain, S and Diane Lillo-Martin. 1999. An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Blackwell textbooks in Linguistics.

Ingram, D. 1989. First Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Jusczyk, P. 1997. The Discovery of Spoken Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT.

Lakshmi Bai, B. 2000. Sounds and Words in Early Language Acquisition: A Bilingual Account. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.

Lust, B., Suner, M., and Whitman, J.(eds.) 1994. Syntactic Theory and First Language Acquisition: Cross Linguistic Perspectives. Vol.I: Heads, projections and Learnability; Vol.II: Binding, Dependencies and Learnability. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillside.

Rithie, W. and Bhatia, Tej (eds.) 1999. Handbook of Child Language Acquisition. New York: Academic Press.

Caplan, D.1987. Neurolinguistics & Linguistic Aphasiology: An Introduction. Cambridge Studies in Speech Science & Communication. Cambridge & New York; CUP.

Benson, D.F.1979. Aphasia, Dyslexia & Agraphia. New York: Churchill Livingston.

Caplan, D. 1992. Language Structure. Processing and Disorders, Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Caplan, D., Lecours, A.R. and Smith, A.(eds.)Biological Perspectives in Language. Cambridge. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Caramazza, A. & Edgar B.Z.(eds.)1978. Language Acquisition and Language Breakdown: Parallels & Divergencies. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.

Curtiss, S. 1997 Genie: A Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern-day “Wild Child”. New York: Academic Press.

Ellen P. Language Mixing. In Segalowi, S. (ed.) Language Function & Brain Organization. New York: Academic Press. (pp 227-44)

Goodgrass, H. 1993. Understanding Aphasia. Santiago: Academic Press.

Grojean. F. 1982. Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Hyltenstam, K. and Obler, L.K. (eds.) Bilingualism Across the Lifespan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jakobson, R. 1968. Child Language, Aphasia & Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton.

Laranth, P. 2000. Empowerment of Mothers of Hearing impaired children in CBR programmes. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal. Vol.10-1.

Lightfoot, D.1982. The Language Lottery: Toward a Biology of Grammars. Cambridge: MIT Press.

LNG EL 2.3 Writing Systems

1. Linguistics, Writing systems and Semiotics. Origin and development of scripts. Units of speech and units of writing . The visible speech. Written records.

2. Major Writing systems: Theocratic script of Egypt, Cuneiform Writing, Chinese Writing system, Semitic writing , The alphabet. Their critical appreciation, Dead scripts.

3. Writing in India: Brahmi, Kharosthi, Sharda, the regional scripts. South Indian scripts, Devanagari.

4. Creating new alphabet, Writing reforms, Transcription and transliteration, script mixing and script switching, Style and Art in writing. Graph, allograph, grapheme. Script and Sociolinguistic identity.


MAK Halliday: Language as a Social Semiotic.

Yuen Ren Chao, 1968: Language and Symbolic Systems.

Raj Bali Pandey: Indian Paeliography.

L. Bloomfield: Language, MLBD.

Robert A. Hall: Introductory Linguistics.

Fromkin & Rodman 1983: An Introduction to Language.

M.A. Mehendale, 1948: Ashokan Inscriptions in India.

John Defrancis, 1989: Visible speech: The Diverse Oneness of Writing Systems, Honolulu.

Florian Coulmas, 1989: The Writing Systems of the World. Basil Blackwell.

Semester - III

Note: Course LNG 301 is compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any three from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

LNG 301 Semantics-II

Part A: Montague Grammar

1. Higher Order Type-theoretic Languages

2. Tense and Modal Operators 3. Montague’s Intensional Logic

4. The Grammar of PTQ Part B: Interfaces Computational Semantics

  1. Lexical Semantics; Semantics and Cognition

  2. Semantics, Pragmatics and Natural Language Interpretation

  3. Semantics in Linguistics and Philosophy


Dowty, D.R., Robert E. Wall & Stanley P. 1968. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Lappin, S. (ed). 1997. The Handbook of Contemporary Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Montague, R. 1973. The Proper Treatment of Quatification in Ordinary English. In Hintikka. K.J.J.,

Moravcsik, J.M.E.and Suppes, P. (eds). 1973. Approaches to Natural Language, 221-242, Reidel: Dordrecht.

Montague, R. 1974. Universal Grammar. In Theoria, 36,373-98. Reprinted in Montague.

Montague, R. 1974. Formal Philosophy: Selected papers of Richards Montague. New Haven: Yale University Press.

LNG EL 3.1 Pragmatics

1. Definition, Semantics and pragmatics, Meaning and context, Peirce, Austin, Searle, Grice etc.; theory of speech acts –Austin, Searle, etc. Locution and illocution, Performative acts;

2. Entailment, Presupposition and Implicatures- Frege, Strawson, Grice etc.

3. Deixis- Peirce, Levinson etc. Person, place and time deixis; Social deixis, Relevance theory, Politeness Principle – Leech etc.


Bar-Hilled, Y. (ed.) 1971. Pragmatics of Natural Languages. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Cole, P. (ed.) 1978. Syntax & Semantics : Pragmatics. N. York: Academic Press.

Davis, S.(ed.) 1991. Pragmatics: a reader, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Habermas, J. 1979. Communication and the evolution of Society. Boston: Beacon Press.

Lavinson, S.C. 1983. Pragmatics: Cambridge Univ.Press.

Vershueren, J. 1999. Understanding Pragmatics, London.

LNG EL 3.2 Natural Language Processing (A Paninian Perspective)

1. NLP: Introduction: Some Example Applications, Achievements and Brief History, Open Problems. (i). Major Goal

2. Language Structure and Language Analyzer: I. Introduction to Language Structure II. Overview of Language Analyzer: Morphological Analyzer, Local Word Grouper (LWG), Requirements of Computational Grammars: Computational Aspect, Systems Aspect, Large System Aspect.

3. Words and Their Analyzer: Introduction, Why Morphological Analysis, Morphological Generation Using Paradigms, Morphological Analysis Using Paradigms, Speeding Up Morphological Analysis by Compilation, Morphological Analyzer-Some Additional Issues.

4. Local Word Grouping: Introduction, Verb Groups (Kriya Rupa Charts), Noun Groups, Strategy for Grammar Development, Semantics in Stages, Some open Problems.

5. Paninian Grammar: Introduction, The Semantic Model, Free Word Order and Vibhakti, Paninian Theory, (Karaka Relations), Active, Passive, Control (Karaka to Vibhakti Mapping, Karaka Sharing).

6. Paninian Parser: Introduction, Constraint Parser Using Integer Programming, Constraint Parser Using Matching and Assignment (Reduction to Bipartite Graph Matching, Reduction to Assignment Problem, Preferences over Parses, Lakshan Charts for Sense Disambiguation.

7. Machine Translation: (a) Survey: Introduction, Problems of Machine Translation, Is MT Possible? Brief History, Possible Approaches, Current Status, (b). Anusaraka or Language Accessor: Background, Cutting the Gordian Knot, The Problem, Structure of Anusaraka Systems, User Interface, Linguistic Area, Giving up Agreement in Anusaraka Output, Language Bridges.


A. Bharti, V. Chaitanya, R. Sangal. (ed.). 2000. Natural Language Processing: Prentice Hall of India.

^ LNG EL 3.3 Language Processing, Parsing and Generation

Part A: Parsing and Probability Context-free Grammars, Chart parsing Probability Theory, Statistical Models, Speech Recognition, Entropy, Markov Chains, Cross Entropy, Cross Entropy as a Markov Evaluator, Trigram Models of English, Part-of Speech Tragging Probabilistic Grammars, PCFGs and Syntactic Ambiguity, PCFs and Grammar Induction,PCFGs and Ungrammaticality Part B: Probabilistic Parsing

  1. Syntactic Disambiguation of PP’,Using Semantic Information for Syntactic Disambiguation, Relative Clause Attachment, Uniform use of Lexical / Semantic Information

  2. Clustering, Clustering by next Word, Clustering with Syntactic Information, Problems with Word Clustering.

  3. Disambiguating Word Senses with and without outside Information, Meanings and Selection restrictions.


Charniak, E. 1993. Statistical Language Learning. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Kalvans, Judith L. & Resnik, P. (eds.) 1996. The Balancing Act. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

LNG EL 3.4 Translation

Translation: The basic concept and its importance.

A. Translation and other branches of linguistics, Definition and theories of translation; process of translation, text analysis and target language; transference of meaning, Types of translation; translation & transliteration, criticism of Translation.

B. Issues of translation: Equivalence, Untranslatability-linguistic, stylistic & cultural, meaning variation, kinds of texts-scientific, technical, legal, administrative, literary, Translation of literary texts-transcreation vs translation, Importance of Translation in comparative literature & in cross cultural studies, Machine translation, Exercise problems, Effects of Translation on language and literature.


Nida, Eugine A. 1964. Toward a Science of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Newmark, P. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. England, Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Carter,R.; 1982; Language & Literature-An Introductory Reader in Stylistics; London; Edward Arnold.

J.C. Catford, 1965: A Linguistic Theory of Translation. OUP.

Theodore Savery: The Art of Translation.

LNG EL 3.5 Philosophical underpinnings of Modern Linguistics

1. The Standard Logic- based Approach

2. The Metaphor-focused Cognitive Approach

3. The Indian Approach

4. The Deconstructionist Approach

5. Contemporary Debates


Derrida, J. 1976. Of Grammatology. (Tr. Gayatri C. Spivak). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press

Lakoff,G and Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Lyons, J. 1968. Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Matilal, B.K. 1990. The Word and the World: India’s Conrtibution to the Study of Language. Delhi. Oxford Univ. Press.

McCawley, J.D. 1981. Everything Linguistics ever Wanted to Know about Logic. Chicago: Chicago University.

Mukherji, N. 2000. The Cartesian Mind: Reflections on Language and Music. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.

LNG EL 3.6 Indian Grammatical Traditions

  1. Introduction : The place of Language Study in Indian Scholarship, Development of Language, Place of Language in Vedangas. Major Texts of the Indian Grammatical Tradition (Pre-Paninean, astadhayayi and Kaumidi Parampara, Commentaries on Panini, other traditions of Grammar: Buddhista Chandravyakarana and Saraswata Vyakarana)

  2. Phonetics– Phonetics in Ancient India, Paninean Siksa, Vajasneyi Pratisakhya.

  3. Nirvacana– Nirvacana and etymology, Nirukata, Nighantu, Paninean derivation

  4. Vyakarana Survey of pre-Paninean Grammatical thought (early accounts of Yuan-Chwang and H. Tsing), First Ahnika of Patanjali Mahabhasya (paspasa), astadhyayi (Pratyahara Sutras, Rules- 1-1.1-10; 1.1.1-17;1.4.23-55; 2.2.23-29;8.4.49,41,45,53,55,56,58,60,62,63)

5. Lexicography (Amarkosa)


  1. R.G. Bahandarkar, Development of Language and of Sanskrit.

  2. J.F. Apte, ‘The Vedangas’ in The Cultural Hertage of India, Vol.I-II.

  3. Satyavat, ‘Sanskrit Grammar’ in the Cultural Heritage of India, Vol.5

  4. Louis Renov, ‘Panini’ in Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol.5

  5. W.S. Allen, Phonetics in Ancient India.

  6. Paniniyan Siksa and Vajasmeyi-Pratisakhya.

  7. Uhlenbeck, A Manual of Sanskrit Phonetics.

  8. S. Varma, Critical Studies in the Phonetic Observations of Indian Grammarians.

  9. L.Sarup, Nirukta and Nighantu

  10. V.S. Agarwal, ‘Yaska and Panini’ in Cultural Heritage of India, Vol.I

  11. Astādhyāyi (tr. By S.C.Vasu – S.M.Katre)

  12. Bhartrhari, Vākyapadiya (Kānda I & III )

  13. George Cardona, Panini: A Survey of Research, MLBD,1980.

  14. George Cardona, Panini: His Work and Its Traditions,MLBD,1988.

  15. D.D. Mahulkar, The Prāyidākhya Tradition, M.S. University, Baroda.

  16. Goldstucker Theodor, Panini, (original in 1861), (reprint by Varanasi Chukhamba in 1965).

  17. M.D. Pandit, Zero in Panini, University of Poona, 1990.

  18. Kapil Kapoor, (a) ‘Bhartrhari on Lexical Meaning’ in Linguistics at Large (ed. By V. Prakasam), Hyderabad, 1991. (b). ‘Norm and Variation : A Classical Debate’ in Language and Text,(R.N. Srivastava, ed.),Delhi.1992.

LNG EL 3.7 Sociology of Language

1. Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language Formal perspectives on language and studying language in social context; myths about language; folk linguistics; study of language and society where the focus is on form; the study of language where the focus is on social issues; speech community; ethnicity; language and identity; nation, language and religion and other symbols of statehood.

2. Language and Socialization

Language and social roles; construction of human knowledge in childhood; grammar, categories and word-view; Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis; new perspectives on linguistic relativity; deficit hypothesis and its critique; variability hypothesis and its critique; critical language awareness.

3. Language Standardization Language, dialect, variety, pidgin, creole, mixed code, standard language; standard language-a social power; role of script, printing and satellite communication; language of countercultures e.g. cults, criminals; slang; linguistic attitudes.

4. Language Planning Mono-and Multilingual societies; typology of linguistic situation; the colonial period and the modern times; constitutional provisions regarding language; the case of Hindi and Urdu; the hegemony of English; Three Language Formula.

5. Language and ideology Language, discourse and ideology;hegemony of English; language and gender; literacy and its politics; orality and literacy; language in mass communication and advertising.


Bell, A. 1991. The Language of News Media. London: Blackwell.

Cameron, D. (ed.) 1988. The Feminist Critique of Language. London: Routledge.

Coupland L. Sarangi, S. and Candlin, C. 2001. Sociolinguistics and Social Theory. Essex: Pearson.

Dittmar, N. 1976. Sociolinguistics, London: Edward Arnold.

Fairclough, N. (ed.) 1992. Critical Language Awareness. London: Longman.

Fasold, R. 1984. The Sociolinguistics of Society. Blackwell: Oxford.

Foucault, M. 1972. The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Taviskot.

Gumperz, J.J. ed. 1982. Language and Social Identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gumperz, J.J. and Hymes, D.(ed.) 1972, Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt Rhinehart and Winston.

Gumprez, J.J. and Levinson, S.S.(ed.) 1996. Rethinking Linguistic Relativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gupta, R.S. and Aggarwal , K.(ed.) 1988. Studies in Indian Sociolinguistics. New Delhi: Creative.

Hudson, R. 1980. Sociolinguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kress, G.R. and Hodge, R.V. 1979. Language as Ideology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Lankshear, C.and Lawler, M. 1987. Literacy, Schooling and Revolution, New York: The Falmer Press.

Le Page, R.B. & Tabouret-Keller, 1985. The Acts of Identity. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

Lee, D.1992. Competing Discourses: Perspective and Ideology in Language, London: Longman.

Mesthries, R. 2001. The Concise Encyclopaedia of Sociolinguistics, Oxford; Elsevier Pergamon.

Niranjana, T. 1993. Siting Translation: History, Post-structuralism and the Colonial Context. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Schiffman, H.F. 1996. Linguistics, Culture and Language Policy, London: Routledge.

Singh, R. 1998, Lectures against Sociolinguistics. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Suleri, S. 1992. The Rhetoric of English in India. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Sunerrajan, R. (ed.) 1993. The Lie of the Land. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

LNG EL 3.8 Applied Psycholinguistics

Second Language Research

  1. The Linguistic Environment First, second and foreign languages, age difference and socio-psychological factors.

  2. Development Perspectives Acquisitional orders and markedness, interlanguage, effects and non–effects of instruction, input and adjustments to input.

  3. Attainment Levels Competencies and performance, critical age; second language loss.

  4. Psycholinguistics The Reading Brain, Normal Adult Reading and its Development, Brain Imaging of Reading Subprocesses, Acquired Dyslexia, Integrating Themes in Reading Research


Agnihotri, R.K. and Khanna, A.L. 1994. Second Language Acquisition: Socio-cultural and Linguistic Aspects of English in India, New Delhi: Sage.

Ellis, R. 1990. Instructed Second Language Acquisition: Learning in the Classroom. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Ellis, R. 1991. Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Oxford: Longman.

Flynn, S. and O’Neil, W.(eds.) 1994. Adult Next-Language Acquisition and the Theory of Grammar.

Johnson, J. and Newport, E. 1991. Critical Period Effects on Universal Properties of Language: The Status of Subjacency in the Acquisition of a Second Language. In Cognition 39: 215-250. Distinct Cortical Areas Associated with Native and Second Language Acquisition. In Nature 388.

Strozer, J.R. 1994. Non-native Language Acquisition from a Principles and Parameters Perspective. In Ottero, C.P. (ed). Noam Chomsky: Child Assessments. Vol.IV: Tome II. Routledge.(pp. 680-721).

LNG EL 3.9 Lexicography

1. Introduction Introducing the field, historical and socio-cultural background to lexicography.

2. Approaches to Dictionary Typology and Dictionary use.

3. Macrostructure and Microstructure: Alternative dictionary formats and alternative entry formats.

4. Lexical Representation: Phonological, morphological and grammatical structure.

5. Lexical Semantics and Pragmatics: Sense, synonymy, polysemy, hyponymy, hypernymy, meronymy, troponymy, graduation and other semantic relations, collocation, approaches to semantic and pragmatic knowledge representation.

6. Monolingual dictionary: Registeral, regional and other kinds of variation.

7. Interlingual Dictionary, Structure and Equivalences, Problem of Intertranslatability.

8. General and Special Purpose Dictionaries: Pedagogical and other special purpose dictionaries, etymological and encyclopaedic dictionaries, electronic dictionary.

9. Lexicography and Natural Language Processing: Representation of lexical knowledge for NLP, design of dictionaries for NLP, Universal Network Language, Wordnet.


Atkins, B.T.S.& Zampolli, A. 1994. Computational Approaches to the Lexicon, Oxford University Press.

Hartmann, R.R.K. 1983. Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

LNG EL 3.10 Stylistics

1. Linguistics and literature; approaches to literature: Literacy – aesthetic and semiotic-linguistic; Literature-figurative and symbolic uses of language in literature.

2. Stylistics-its definition and scope; stylistic as an area of applied linguistics; stylistics and its relations with semiotics, aesthetics and poetics.

3. The term Style-its various senses and diversity of its definitions; problems in defining style.

4. Stylistic analysis of literary texts:

a. Phonological identification of style-features and summative word.

b. Lexical : Verbal and synonymic repetition.

c. Grammatical-nominal and verbal style.

d. Semantic: Semantic parallelism; selectional restrictions.

e. Foregrounding, automatization and de-automatization.

f. Discourse analysis.

5. Structuralism and post-structuralism; Indian poetics.


Allen, H.B. (ed.) 1958. Readings in Applied English Linguistics. New York: Appleton-Century-Croffs. (Part 7)

Carter, R.A. (ed.) 1982. Language and Literature: An Introductory Reader in Stylistics. London: George Allen and Unwin.

Semester – IV

Note: Courses LNG 401 & 402 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

^ LNG 401 Dissertation

Each candidate will prepare and submit a dissertation on a topic of his choice. This will enable the student to collect and analyze linguistic data and demonstrate his/her capability/knowledge of linguistic analysis.

i. Topic decided and delimited.

ii. Study of earlier works: linguistic & non-linguistic.

iii. Making a bibliography: list of references.

iv. Pilot survey: Seeing the site and collecting the most rudimentary data & information.

v. Making a synopsis with chapterwise plan of the work.

B. Data collection:

^ LNG 402 Advanced Syntax

1. Basic issues in the Principles and parameters theory:

Interaction of Principles within certain Parameters; Language specific examples and the question of basic word order; problems with the theory.

2. From Principles and Parameters theory to the Minimalist Program:

Reasons for discarding D-structure and S-structure. How does the computational system work in the Minimalist Program? Functional categories and the significance of DP analysis; AGRsP, AGRoP, and Tense Phrase, scope for innovation to account for language specific phrasal categories.

3. Some Key concepts in the Minimalist Program:

Spell-out, greed, procrastination, last resort, AGR-based case theory, multiple-spec hypothesis, strong and weak features; interpretable and non-interpretable features.

4. Transformational components:

The copy theory of Movement, its properties, motivation for move Alpha, LF and PF movement, checking devices and features of convergence.

5. Logical form:

Questions of semantic interpretation in the Minimalist Program; How does it differ from that in the Principles and Parameters theory?


Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding, Dordrecht: Foris.

Chomsky, N.1995. The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Hornstein, N. 1995. Logical Form: From GB to Minimalism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Kayne, Richard. 1994. The Antisymmetry of Syntax. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph No. 25. MIT Press.

LNG EL 4.1 Computational Morphology

A: Nature, Function and Applications; Natural language applications: speech applications, word processing, document retrieval. Nature of morphology: Form, function and rules; morphotactics, phonology and psycholinguistic evidence. B: Computational Approaches: Computational mechanisms, URKIMMO,KIMMO, computational complexity of two-level morphology, other approaches.


Sproat, R. 1992. Morphology and Computation. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Antworth, E.L. PC-EIMMO: A Two-level Processor for Morphological analysis.

^ LNG EL 4.2 Syntactic Models

A- Unification-Based Grammars Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical FunctionalGrammar. B- HPSG Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar i) Typed feature structures, Head Feature Principle, the COMPS and SPEC features, agreement, ii) Head-Complement Rule, Head-Specifer Rule, Head-Modifier Rule, Coordination Rule, iii) Imperative rule, Valence Principle, Argument Realization Principles, Case Constraint. Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS), Predications, Modification, Semantic Composition. iv)Principle, Semantic Inheritance Principle, Feature-Based Binding Theory, Argument Structure list, binding in PP’s and imperatives. Structure of the lexicon, lexical types, lexical rules, inflection and derivational rules. C– TAG: Tree-Adjoining Grammar TAG formalism, lexicalization, unification-based features, tree selection, tree database, tree grafting, tree families and sub categorization frames, case and PRO. Verb classes, ergatives, subjects and complements, the copula, raising verbs and small clauses, ditransitive constructions, dative shift. Sentence types, passives, extraction, relative clauses, adjunct clauses, imperatives. Gerund NPs, determiners and noun phrases, modifiers, auxiliaries, conjunction, comparatives.


Shieber, S.1986. An Introduction to Unification-Based Approaches to Grammar. Stanford:CSLI

Sells, P. 1985. Lectures on Contemporary Syntactic Theories. Stanford:CSLI.

Sag, Ivan & Wasow, T. 1999. Syntactic Theory: A Formal Introduction. Standard: CSLI.

The XTAG Research Group. 1999. A Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar for English. Pittsburg: Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania.

LNG EL 4.3 Corpus Linguistics

1. Corpus Linguistics: Introduction Corpus Linguistics from the 1950s to the early 1980s.

2. What is a Corpus and What is in It? Corpora vs. Machine – readable Texts, Text Encoding and Annotation, Multilingual Corpora.

3. Quantitative Data: Introduction, Qualitative vs. Quantitative Analysis, Corpus Representativeness, Approaching Quantitative Data. 4. The Use of Corpora in Language Studies: Corpora as Sources of Empirical Data, Corpora in Speech Research, Corpora in Lexical Studies, Corpora and Grammar, Corpora and Semantics, Corpora in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Corpora and Sociolinguistics, Corpora in Stylistics and Text Linguistics, Corpora in the Teaching of Languages and Linguistics, Corpora in Dialectology and Variation Studies, Corpora in Psycholinguistics, Corpora and Cultural Studies, Corpora and Social Psychology. 5. Corpora and Language Engineering: Introduction, What have Corpora got to Offer? Part –of- Speech Analysis, Automated Lexicography, Parsing, Multilingual Corpus Exploitation. Programming and Corpus Linguistics: a. Introduction: A. Programming in Corpus Linguistics: The Computer in Corpus Linguistics, Which Programming Language? Useful Aspects of Java. Road-Map: What is Covered, Other Features of Java. b. Introduction to Basic Programming Concepts: What does a Program Do? How to Express an Algorithm. Control Flow: Sequence, Choice, Multiple Choice, Loop. Variables and Data Types: Numerical Data, Character Data, Composite Data.


McEnery, T.& Wilson, A. 2003: Corpus Linguistics, Edinburgh

^ LNG EL 4.4 Language Universals and Typology

1. Language typology and language universals: types of universals; genetic, typological and typological classifications of language; formal and substantive universals; implicational and non-implicational universals. Morphological types of language- agglutinative, analytical (isolating), synthetic, fusional (inflecting), infixing and polysynthetic (incorporating) language. Aspiration; nasalization; retroflexion; Trubetzkoy’s typology of the vowel systems, person; number; gender; case; aspect and tense. Contribution of typological research to Linguistic theory. 2. Inductive vs. Deductive Approaches. Chomsky’s concept of language universals and parametric variations; word order typology. Greenberg’s word universals for verb-final and verb-medial languages and related features in terms of South Asian languages. 3. Syntactic Typology Word order within a sentence and a noun phrase. Anaphora; monomorphemic vs. polymorphemic anaphors, emphatics, verbal reflexives and reciprocals; long distance binding; pronouns; inclusives-exclusives, The Principle of Binding of Chomsky; relative-correlative clauses; complementation and the quotative; verb be; pro-drop; agreement ; conjunctive participles; the identical subject constraint on CP formation; lexical subjects in CPs; scope of the negative in the CP Construction.; ergativity, dative-genitive subjects. 4. Phonological and Morphological Typology An in – depth study of retroflexion; vowel harmony; aspiration; nasalization; reproductive; echo formation; onomatopoeia; morphological, lexical and periphrastic causatives 5.Convergence and Typology: Linguistic Area, a critical evaluation of the evidence in support of ‘India as a Linguistic Area” (with special reference to the notion developed by Chatterjee, Emeneau, Hock) ; the verb say construction; synchronic evidence for diachronic problems. Convergence; constraints on convergence; constraints in syntactic change in linguistic contact situations; phonetic and phonological, morphological and syntactic features of Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic.


Abbi, A. 1994. Semantic Universals in Indian Languages. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies.

Abbi, A. 1997.(ed.) Languages of Tribal and other Indigenous People of India: The Ethnic Space. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Abbi, A. Gupta, R.S. & Kidwai, A. 2001(ed.) Linguistic Structure and Language Dynamics in South Asia: Motilal Banarsidass.

Arora, H.& Subbarao, K.V. 1989. Convergence and Syntactic Reanalysis: The case of so in Dakkhini. Studies in Linguistic Science. Vol. 19.

Bazell, E. 1985. Linguistic Typology. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.

Bhaskararao, P. (ed.) 2001. Nonnominative Subjects. Tokyo, Japan: ILCAA, Tokyo Universtiy of Foreign Studies, Asahi-cho, Fuchu-shi.

Bhaskarrarao, P. & Subbarao, K.V. (eds.) 2001. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2001. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.

Butt, M., King T.H. & Ramchand G. (eds.) 1994. Theoretical Perspective on Word Order in South Asian Languages. Stanford, C.A.: CSLI.

Comrie, B. 1981. Language Universals and Linguistic Typology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Croft, W. 1990. Typology and Universals. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Emeneau, M.B. 1964. India as a Linguistic area. In. Hymes, D. Language in Culture and Society: A Reader in Linguistics and Anthropology. New York: Harper and Row Publications.

Gair, J., B.C. Subbarao, K.V. & Wali, K. (eds.) 2000. Pronouns and Lexical Anaphors in Selected South AsianLanguages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hawkins, J.A. 1983. Word Order Universal. New York: Academic press.

Hawkins, W. 1994. A Performance Theory of Order and Constituency . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hempel, C.G. 1965. Aspects in Scientific Explanation. New York: Collier-Macmillan.

Hock, H.H. 1975. Substratum influence on (Rig-Vedic) Sanskrit? Studies in Linguistic Science: 5, 76-125. Urbana, I.L.: University of Illinois.

Lehmann W.P. (ed.) 1978. Syntactic Typology: Studies in Phenomenology of Language, Austin: Unversity of Texas Press.

Mahajan, A. 1990. The A/A-bar Distinction and Movement Theory. Ph.D. Dissertation, MIT.

Mahajan, A. 1997. Universal Grammar and Typology of Ergative Languages. In Alexidonm A. and Hall, T.A. (eds.) Studies in Universal Grammar and Typological Variation. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing House Co.

Malinson, G.& Blake B.J. 1981. Language Typology: Cross-linguistic studies in Syntax. Amsterdam. North Holland.

Masica, C.P. 1976. Defining a Linguistic Area: South Asia. Chicago: University Press.

Sapir, E. 1921. Language . New York: Harcourt Brace and World.

Shibatani, M. & Bynon, T. (eds.) 1995. Approaches to Language Typology. Oxford: Clarendon.

Subbarao, K.V. 1997. Linguistic Theory and Syntactic Typology: A Proposal for a Symbolic Relationship. In Proceedings of the International Conference on South Asian Languages. Moscow: Moscow State University.

Subbarao, K.V. 2000. Syntactic Typology and South Asian Languages. In : The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000, (ed.) R. Singh, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.

Subbarao, K.V. & Saxena A. Language Universals: Inductive or Deductive? In Bashir, E. (ed.) Selected Papers from SALA 7. Indian, Bloomington: Indian University Linguistic Club.

Tomlin, R.S. 1986. Basic Word-Orders. London: Croom-Helm.

LNG EL 4.5 Child Language Acquisition

1. Phonological development: Early speech production and perception(categorical perception, word segmentation, babbling) to mature system. 2.Syntactic and semantic bootstrapping Stages of sentence production; emergence of functional categories and projections. 3.Lexical acquisition: Lexical categories and the natural partitions hypothesis (the noun advantage), regular and irregular morphology; lexical mapping. 4. Learnability issues: Development of UG principles (qualification and binding) and parameter setting; diary Studies, large sample studies and longitudinal studies; language acquisition and multilingualism; motherese; emergence of linguistic awareness; acquisition of discourse strategies.


Baker, C.L. & Mc Carthy, J. (eds.) 1981. The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Clark, E.V. 1993. The Lexicon in Acquisition. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Crain, S and Diane Lillo-Martin. 1999. An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Blackwell textbooks in Linguistics.

Ingram, D. 1989. First Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Jusczyk, P. 1997. The Discovery of Spoken Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Lakshmi Bai, B. 2000. Sounds and Words in Early Language Acquisition: A Bilingual Account. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.

Lust, B., Suner, M., and Whitman, J.(eds.) 1994. Syntactic Theory and First Language Acquisition: Cross Linguistic Perspectives. Vol.I: Heads, projections and Learnability; Vol.II: Bindiing, Dependencies and Learnability. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillside.

Rithie, W. and Bhatia, Tej. (eds.) 1999. Handbook of Child Language Acquisition. New York: Academic Press.

LNG EL 4.6 History of Linguistics

1. Linguistic Studies in Ancient Times: (i). Eastern: (a). Indian (i). The Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Shiksha, Pratishakhyas,Nirukata. (ii). Panini, Katyayana, Patanjali. (iii). Bhartrhari and after. (iv). Recognition of Indian Contribution by the West.

(b). Non – Indian: Persian, Arabic, Chinese, Russian etc. (ii). Western: (i). The Grecko-Romans and their Philosophy of Language: Plato, Aristotle. (ii). The Traditional Grammar. (iii). The Renaissance and After. 2. Linguistic Studies in the 18th Century.

3. Linguistic Studies in the 19th Century (i). Schleget, Rask, Grimm, Grassman, Verner, Bopp, Humboldt, Schleter and their Contribution. (ii) Geneva, Copenhagen and Prague schools. (iii) Historical-Comparative Linguistics: The basis of Modern Linguistics. 4. Linguistic studies in the 20th Century: (a). Various schools and Traditions.

(i). Saussure; Geneva, Copenhagen and Prague schools. (ii). The British Tradition.

(iii). The American structuralism. (iv). The Late Fifties. (b). Various Grammatical Models of Linguistic Studies: Tagmemics, Stratificational Grammar, Systemic Grammar, Pragmatics, Transformational Generation Grammar, Case Grammar, Communicative Grammar, Relational Grammar, Functional Grammar. (c). Current Trends and New Dimensions of Theoretical & Applied Linguistics: Generative Phonology, Instrumental Phonetics, Generative Sementics, Neurolinguistics, Textual Linguistics, Communication engineering, speech pathology, Discourse analysis, Body language, Forensic linguistics, Language and Brain, Language Planning. 5. Linguistic Studies in Modern India: (i). Premier Institutions. (ii). Major Works done in various Field by scholars-foreign and Indian. (iii). The Task Ahead.


Allen, W.S. 1953: Phonetics in Ancient India, Oxford Univ. Press.

Pedersin, H 1931: Linguistic Science in the Nineteenth Century.

Waterman, J.T. 1963: Perspectives in Linguistics, Longman.

Dinnen, F.P. 1967: An Introduction to General Linguistics.

Sharma, R.S. 1981: Linguistics Studies in Modern India. Arya Book Depo.

Varshney, R.L.: An Introductory Textbook of Linguistics and Phonetics.

^ LNG EL 4.7 Semiotics

Introduction to Semiotics (Theories of C.S. Peirce and Saussure), Philosophy of Language and Linguistic Philosophy, (Abelard, some thoughts of British Empiricism, French Rationalism and German Schools of Philosophy), (Linguistic Philosophies of Bertrand Russell and Wittgenstein), Semiology in French Structuralism.

Theories of Meaning in Indian Tradition from the point of view of textual interpretation (Vyākarana, Mimāmsā, Nyaya, Baudha, Jaina and Bhartrhari’s Vakyapadiya).

Communication and aesthetics, abhinaya in Bharatanatyasastra, Theories on Literary Semantics (pravrttis, rasa, dhvani, alamkara,Vakrokti and aucitya), Aesthetic theories in Tantra and Saiva systems.


John Fiske, Introduction to Communication Studies, Methuen,1982.

H.S. Gill, Sign and Signification, Bahri Publications

Keir Elam, The Semiotics of Theatre & Drama, Methuen, 1980.

Imis Robert E. (ed.) Semiotics ( An Introductory Reader), Hutchinson, London, 1986.


Kapil Kapoor, Literary Theory: Indian Conceptual Framework.

B.K. Matilal, The Word and the World : India’s Contribution to the Study of Language, Oxford Univ. Press.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Bishnupad Bhattācharya, A Study in Language and Meaning, Progressive Publishers, Calcutta, 1962.

K. Kunjuni Raja, Indian Theories of Meaning, The Adyar Library and Research Centre, Adyar, 1963.

Zabeech, Farhag, Klemke E.D. & Jacobson Arthar, Readings in Semantics, University of Ilinois Press: Illinios, 1974.

Ravi Shankar Nagar, A Critical Study of Vyanjanā, Vandana Prakashan, Delhi.1977.

Harris, Roy 2003. Sassure and his Interpreters, Edinburgh University Press.

LNG EL 4.8 Neurolinguistics

A. Brain-language relationship: Issues in neurolinguistics and linguistic aphasiology; approaches to neurolinguistics and linguistic aphasiology; historical overview.

B. Models of brain-language relationship: Classical connectionist model; hierarchical models, global models, process models; clinical aphasiology and neurolinguistics.

C. Brain pathology and language breakdown: Aphasia and its classification; classical categories; linguistic account; overview of linguistic aphasiology.

D. Dyslexia: Dyslexia and its classification; overview and implications. E. Contemporary issues and trends: Cerebral dominance, lateralization and handedness; overview of contemporary neurolinguistics; implications.


Arbib, A.; D. Caplan.; and J.C. Marshall, (ed.). 1982. Neural Models of Language Processes. New York: Academic Press.

Benson, D.F. 1979. Aphasia, Alexia and Agraphia, New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Caplan, D. (ed.). 1980. Biological Studies of Mental Process. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Caplan, D. 1987. Neurolinguistics and Linguistic Aphasiology. Cambridge: CUP.

Caplan,D. 1997. Language: Structure, Processing and Disorders. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Goodglass, H. 1993. Understanding Aphasia. San Diego: Academic Press.

Gordzinsky, Y. 1990. Theoretical Perspective on Language Deficits. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Jakobson, R. 1968. Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton.

Lesser, R. 1978. Linguistic Investigations of Aphasia. New York: Elsevier.

Men, L. and Obler, L.K. 1990. Agrammatic Aphasia, Amsterdam: Benjamins.


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