Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron icon

Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron


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Jovers see Govers.

Juchem(s) see Joachim. Likewise Juchheim (Jochheim).

Juch(h)off: Westph. farmstead name, likewise Braukhoff, Moorhoff, etc.; for the water word juch see Bahlow ON, pp. 244-45.

^ Juckoff (sh.f. Jucksch): Wend-Sil. Jokuff = Jakob. Cf. Juckel in Moravia.

Jückstock: Slav. pl.n. like Wittstock, Rottstock.

Jud, Judt, etc.: UGer. and Rhineld., an early surname also for non-Jews (probably pointing to relations with Jews), cf. Sigebot gen. der ^ Jude [called the Jew], Bamberg 1178, Emicho Judeus (judge), Worms 1198. Also Jüdl. Compounds: Judenbart [Jew’s beard], Judenfeind [Jew hater], Judenfraß [Jews’ grub], Judenhut [Jew’s hat], Judenspieß [Jew’s lance], Judenherzog [Jews’ duke], Judenkönig [king of the Jews], Judenschwager [Jew’s relative, brother-in-law].

Judith (f.n. and FN): literally ‘woman from Jehud’; the biblical figure Judith, who sacrificed her honor in order to rescue her hometown by killing the Assyrian general Holofernes in his sleep, was a popular figure in literature as early as the 12th c. (also cf. the works of Hans Sachs 1551, Martin Opitz 1635, Friedrich Hebbel 1840). See also Jutta, Jüttner.

^ Jugler (freq. in Sax.): from Jugel in Ore Mtn. area.

Juhl, Juhls (Hbg., Flensburg): Dan. Juul, Juuls.

Jühlke, Jülke, Julke (E Ger-Slav.) see Guhlke.

Jühne see Jünemann.

Ju(h)nke, Junick: early Slav. Junek (Czech Jinek; Junosch, Jinosch).

Juhre, Juhrke, Juhrich: E Ger.-Wend. variants of Georg (Czech Juri). Also cf. Jur- and Gut- (Guhr-).

Jührend, Jöhrend (Fris.) see Jürn.

Jührs see Jürs.

^ Jülfs, Jühlfs (Fris.) See Jolfs.

Jülich, Jülicher, Gülicher. from Jülich in Rhineland.

Julius (f.n. and FN): as f.n. was used for the first time in the royal house of the Guelfs 1528, name was taken from Roman history (Julius Caesar!) following the spirit of the Humanists (cf. Duke Heinrich Julius of Brunswick). Enlarged form is Julian (cf. the enemy of the Christians, Julianus Apostata).

Jülke see Jühlke.

Jumpertz (Rhineland) see Gumpertz.

Jumpfer see Jungfer.

Juncke, Jüncke, patr. Juncken(s), Jünken: LGer.Tris. (also Jönk, Jöhnke), pers.n. like Sunken, Söhnke, Sönksen.

Juncker, L.Rhine Junkers: MHG juncherre ‘young noble, not yet knighted’. Martin Junckherre, Olmütz.

Jundt (freq. in Basel): U.Rhine metr. (Junta = Judinta, Judith: for more information see E. Schröder, p. 73). Cf. Volmarus vron Junten = V. filius Junta [Volmar son of Junta], Basel 1290, Hamman Jüntlin, near Breisach 1434.

Jünemann (freq. in Hbg.): from Jüne (= Jühnde) near Göttingen.

Jung(e): [young] junior as opposed to senior, the father. UGer. also Junk. Latinized Jungius. Jungmann, Junghans, Jungnickel, Jungnitsch, Jungelaus, Junghahn, Junghänel, Junghenn (= Johann!), Jungandreas, Jungklaß (Jungglaß). Jungbluth. Jungverdorben [spoiled when young], (Frühverdorben, Ganzverdorben). Also Junger, Jungermann, Jüngst [the youngest].

Jungfer, Jumpfer: contracted from Jungfrau [young woman], i.e. ‘young (noble) lady’. Surname for people in the service of a noble lady (cf. Jungfrauwendienst [dienst =‘service’], Frkf. 1495, Juncvrowendiner [servant of a lady], Juncvroweczucht, a “Meistersinger”, both Brsl.), in some cases name for (illegitimate) son of a noble lady: Gotfrid der juncvrowen sun around 1200 in U.Rhine area. Henne mit der juncvrowen, Holstein 1343. Dudo zer Juncfrowen (house name), Mainz 1293, Albertus Juncvrowe, Col. 1180, Arnold Juncvraue, Ro. 1284, Joh. Juncfrowe, Han. 1353, Vitze Junckfer, Liegnitz 1545.

Junginger: from Jungingen in Würt.

Jüngling: minor, son under age, cf. Hans Stoltz Jüngeling, etwas Jancke Stoltz nachgelassener Sohn [the son of the late Jancke Stoltz], Sil. 1497.

^ Junk see Junck and Jung. Junker see Juncker.

Junt, Jüntlin see Jundt.

Juppe, Jüptner see Joppe.

Jur, Jura, Juraschek, Jureit, Juretzka, see Jurisch.

Jurban (Wend.) see Urban.

Jürgen, Jürgens(en): popular LGer. form of Georg, see there. Also Jürr(i)e(n)s, Jürges; Fris. Jürs, Jürn. The genitive form ending in -en stems from combinations like St. Jürgen-Hospital and others. Jurgeit, Jurgschat are Lith-E Pruss.

Jur(i)sch (Dresden, Cottbus), Jurick, Jurich etc. are Wendish sh.fs. of Georg; see also Jur(at), Jurinke, Jurkschat, Jurkat, Jurkuweit (Lith.).

^ Jürjens see Jürgens. For the form cf. “St. Jurian (Jurien, Jurgen)” in Stettin.

Jürn (Fris.), Jürs (Fris., freq. in Hbg.) see Jürgen, Georg. Cf. Gecrius, Ghorius, Jorius, Jurius quite freq. in Ro., Lüb., etc. around 1250.

Jursch (Wend.) see Jurisch. Cf. Jursik Haldan, Prague 1378.

Juschke, Juschka, Juschkat, Juschkus (Tilsit): Lith. sh.f. of Georg, see Jurkat.

Just (Sil., Lausitz, Sax., also UGer.): a dialect variant of Jost (Jodocus, see Jost); “eine vart czu zende Just” [a journey to Saint Just], Glatz 1371, there also Just (Jost) Witwer 1440, Just (Jost) Brunner 1491. Cf. Jüstel (Bamberg). The Humanists changed it to Justus (hence Justus Jonas, Luther’s friend, whose original name was Jobst Koch); likewise Justus (Jodocus) Trautvetter. But Justus Möser (1720) and Justus Liebig carried the Latin pers.n. Justus (‘the just one’). Derived from it: Justin(us), martyr, a popular name with the pietists (Justinus Kerner 1786). The FN Justin derives from the pl.n. in Pomerania.

Jüterbock: Slav. pl.n. Jüterbog in Brandenburg; cf. Slav. pl.n. Mühlbock in Lausitz area.

Jütersonke (U.Sax.): from Pol. Jutrzenka ‘morning star’.

Jutta, Jutte, Mitte (LGer. Jütteke): around 1200-1400 very popular variant of Juditha (see Judith), especially in noble families and knights’ circles, subsequently also with the burghers (numerous cases in E. Thielecke, Die alttestamentlichen Pers. N., 1935, p. 43; for Silesia see Bahlow SN, p. 62). Julteke Sünders, Drübeck 1393, Jutta tunc meretrix [then a prostitute], Liegnitz 1341; as FN: Peter Jütte, Sorau 1381. Metr.: Hannus Jütten(er), Liegnitz 1438 (nowadays: Jüttner: freq. in Sil.), councillor Joh. filius (domine) Jutten [Joh., son of Lady Jutta], Ro. 1264, cf. Juttenhans, Lorsch 1512, Ebeling Jutteman, Han. 1451 (now Jüttemann).

Jutz (Switz., Würt.), Jutzy, Jütz: UGer.-Alem. for Jutte (See there). Cf. Jutz Foderlin, Jutz Lamprocht 1357 (women from Friedingen in Würt.).


K

Kaa(c)k (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. form variant for Kock (Koch) ‘cook’; Tyle kake (kok), Barth 1461, Jacob kakemester, Barth 1490. Cf. Haack for Hoke and Knaack for Knoke. Likewise Kaakschlief for koke-slef ‘cooking spoon’!

Kaakschhef (Hbg.): MLG koke-slef ‘cooking spoon’, surname for a cook, see Kaack.

Kaacksteen, Ka(c)kstein (Hbg., Ro.): MLG kâk-stên ‘stone pillory, punishing post’ (in the Middle Ages). Surname formed after the dwelling place: Heyse byme kake ‘by the pillory’ (and his wife: de Kakeheysesche), Haldsl. 1348. Cf. 1561 in Flensburg: up dem Kake gestupet [punished at the pillory].

Kaap(ke): LGer. = Kopeke, see- Köpke.

Kabel (freq. in Hbg.): MLG = ‘ship’s rope, anchor rope’, surname for a ropemaker, Kabelmacher, Kawelmacher (vital trade in the North Sea port cities). Joh. ^ Kavel (Kabel), Lüb. 1327. Also Langkabel, Langkawel. A pl.n. Kabel near Hagen.

Kabelitz: Slav. pl.n.

Kaben see Kaven.

Käbernick, Kipernick: Slav. pl.n., see Kopernik.

Kabig see Kappus.

Kab(i)sch: E Ger-Slav., probably like Kob(i)sch = Jakob; cf. Kabitzke: Kobitzke, Kabusch (Lith. Kabuschat) like Kohusch.

Kabold: in LGer. area recorded as surname, Joh. Kaboldus, Ro. around 1250 (cf. pl.n. Kavelstorf in Meckl., which was Kabeldestorp 1284), Lod. ^ Kabold, Stralsund 1288, Barth 1475, Anklam 1512; also in Westph.. Heinrich Kavolt 1319.

Kaboth, Kabuth, Kabath (Slav.): cf. Kabisch. For suffixes -at, -ot, -ut cf. Borat, Borut (Botislaw) and others. Also note Czech Kabat ‘jacket’ (kabatnik ‘tailor’). A pl.n. Kabott near Bromberg.

Kächler, Kachler (MHG kacheler): Alem.-Swab. = ‘potter’ (term still in use in Alsace, Switz., Tyrol). Theodericus Kachelere, Alsace 1290. Hence Kachel, Kächele (from MHG kachel ‘earthenware, clay pot’): Jerg Kächeli, Markdorf in Baden 1452.

Käckenhoff (LGer.) = Küchenhoff, see there.

Käck(en)meister (LGer.) = Küchenmeister = ‘chef, kitchen manager’. Cf. Käck (LGer.) ‘kitchen’. Henning Kokemester, Haldsl. around 1400, J. Kakemester, Barth 1490.

Kä(e)ker (Hbg., Ro., Wismar): = MLG Köker ‘quiver, container’. Cf. Schittkäker (Schüddeköker). Henning Koker, Ro. 1320, Henneke Koker, Hbg. 1359, Eler Koker, Kösl:in 1327. Hence lichtkaker ‘container for candles’. See also Hermann Bothe’s collection of Low German idioms De Köker, around 1520.

Kaczinarek, Kaczmarczyk, Pol. Kretschmar [village tavern owner], from Pol. karczmar ‘village pub’, Kretscham (Sil.-Bohemian),

Kadel (UGer.): MHG kadel ‘soot, dirt’ (from Slavic); Wenczlaw Kadel, Moravia 1408. Also K(h)odl.

Käding (freq. in Hbg.) see Keding.

Kadner: from Kaaden on the Eger River (Sudeten area), Nic. Kadaner, Deutsch-Brod 1382, Nitsche vom Cadan, Liegnitz 1372. Likewise Kaden, Kadisch (like Leipisch from Leipa, Glogisch from Glogau) and Kade (also pl.n. near Genthin). Also cf. pl.n. Kaden in Westerwald area.

Kadolt (UGer.): old pers.n. (according to F.Stark probably not of German but Celtic origin), cf. Cadoldus, Austria 12th c., Brünn 1354, Jekl Cadolt, Prague 1363, Conred Kadoldus, Speyer 1271.

Kadow: pl.n. in Meckl., Pom.

Kaf(e)nimm (Bav.-Aust.) = Kaufmann ‘merchant’.

Käfer, Käferle: MHG kefer ‘beetle’. cf. Kefermündt, Iglau 1366. Rueßkäfer see Rußwurm.

Kafka (Bohemia): Slav. = ‘jackdaw’, (bird). Also Jewish (e.g. the writer Franz Kafka). Kaf(f)sack (Wuppertal): MLG kaf ‘chaff’, nickname for peasants, cf. Strohsack [straw sack], Habersack [oats sack], Hopfensack [hop sack], Bohnsack [bean sack].

^ Kaftan: long sleeved garment, caftan (Turkish word).

Kage, Kag (UGer.): ‘cabbage trunk’. Albrecht der Kage, Alsace 1284. Alem. also Kägi (Switz.), Käglin (Würt.).

Käg(e)bein, Kege(n)bein: ‘person with limp’ (from MHG kogen ‘to drag’).

Kagel, Kageler, Kagelmacher, Kagelmann: LGer. for older Kogel, Kogeler, UGer. Kugler (MHG gugler), for the manufacturer of hoods (on coats or monks’ robes), from Lat. cuculla. Wolder Kogeler 1388, Nic. Kageler, Greifswald 1380. Cf. Linnekogel, Riefkogel, Rodekogel.

Kager, Kagerer (UGer., freq. in Bav.): from the loc.n. Kag, Kagen, Kager (freq. in Bav. and Aust.). Also Kagerbauer, Kagerhuber.

Kagerah (Hbg.): place name.

Kah, Kahe, Kalunann (UGer., Baden): probably name of a location.

Kä(h)ding see Keding.

Kahl, Kahle (freq.): bald, baldhead, cf. R. Calekop, Lüb. 1325, Kalefend (likewise Grotefend), Kalheymich, Liegnitz 1372. In Silesia and Lausitz also with “strong” ending: Kahler, mostly Kahlert (with secondary -t): Nickel Kaler, Glatz 1384, Frenczel Kaler, Görlitz 1434. Cf. Kleiner(t), Rother(t), etc. (Bahlow SN, p. 27). Hence Vornkahl [bald in front]. Kahl(e)mann: Kuncze Caleman, Zittau 1381.

Kahlandt: member of a Kaland Fraternity: see A. Götze, p. 11.

Kahlau: pl.n. in E.Prussia, also in Guhrau district in Sil., Calau in Lausitz. Mertin Kalaw, Görlitz 1417. In some cases Kahler may derive from pl.n., cf. Grunert from Grunau.

Kahlbetzer like Kalbitz(er): from Calbitz in Sax.; cf. Kahlweit: Kalweit.

Kahlbohm, Kahlbaum (Hbg.): named after the dwelling place [kahl = ‘bald’]. (Cf. Kahlbrock, Kahlfeld), unless = Kohlbaum which means the pole of the charcoal burner (to stoke the fire); cf. related LGer. Kahlbrandt (Hbg.) besides Kohlbrandt (Kolebrant, Kalebrant around 1300 in Ro., Stralsund, etc.) and Kahlfeuer (Hbg.) all mean ‘coal fire’.

^ Kahlen see Kalen.

Kahler(t) see Kahl.

Kähler (LGer., Meckl.) = Köhler [charcoal burner]. CL Käkeruneister, Gädeke, Däbeler, and others.

Kahlisch see Kalisch.

Kahlke (freq. in Hbg.): LGer. = Kahle [the bald one].

Kahlstorff (Hbg.): pl.n. near Ülzen.

Kahlweit see Kallweit.

Kahn (freq. in Hbg.): surname of a bargeman, cf. Joh. Soltkane, Hbg. 1307 (‘salt barge’) and Bertram Canere, Hbg. 1255. Tid Kaneman, Ro. 1302, Kanenvörer [barge driver], Stettin 1345, Kanemaker [boat maker]; “Kahn” is a LGer. word meaning ‘boat, barge’. Also Kahnke, Kahns, Kahnes (Hbg.), where however the Fris pers.n. may be involved: cf. Hidde Kaneken, Friesland 1442 (see Stark, p. 170). See also Jewish Kahn Cohn. Nic. Langhecane, Meckl. 1374.

Kahnenbley, Kahnebley (Hbg.): cf. Kanenblok ‘timber for barges’.

^ Kahrs (Hbg.) = Macarius, likewise Lahrs Hilarius.

Kaib (UGer.), Keib, Kaibel, Keibel: (from MHG keibe ‘mean person, carrion, corpse’). Formerly used as a scolding word. Otto Kaib, Würt. 1286. Cf. Kaibengraben [Graben = ‘ditch’], Kaibenloch [Loch = ‘hole’], Kaibenacker [Acker = ‘field’].

Kaifel, Kaifler (UGer.) see Käufel, Käufler.

Kain (Tyrol): dialect form for Kuenz = Konrad, cf. Kainzwalder (Tyrol) from Kuenzwald; likewise Kaindl = Kuenel, sh.f of Kainradl = Konrad.

^ Kaisen (Bremen): Fris. patr. of Kay (freq. in Hbg.).

Kaisenberg: UGer. pl.n.

Kaiser, Kayser (UGer.), Keyser, Keiser, Rhineld. Keysers: non-regional freq. surname, also for peasants (likewise König, Herzog, and others), in some cases adopted through house names: domus dicta [the house called] zume Keiser, Worm 1320, there also Jacob Keyser 1279; for more information see A. Götze, p. 68. Menczel Keyser, Striegau 14th c., Elbel Keyser, Eger 1395.

Käker see Kicker.

Kakerbeck (Hbg.): pl.n. (Stade and Wittingen) = ‘dirty creek’.

Kakosch, Kakuschke: Slav. probably Kokoschka, Kokoschke ‘little rooster’.

Kaland, Kalander see Kahland. Diderek Kalander, Han. 1346.

Kalb, LGer. Kalf, also Kälble (Swab.): [calf] peasant name like Rind [ox, cow] Ochs, Öchsle [litle ox]. albfleisch [calf meat, veal] refers to a butcher (also Rindfleisch), likewise Kalbfell [calf skin] (Jerg Kalbfell, butcher in Reutlingen). Hence Kalbskopf [calf’s head], Kalbsfuß [calf’s foot). A butcher celled Keibertot [calves dead] in Worms 1304. A tanner Kalbleder [calf leather] in Reutlingen 1345. But Calvesoge, Stralsund 1310 (‘dumb eye’). A knight Erland Kalf and his son Jacob Kalf in Holstein 1372. Barthold Sumerkalf Lippe 1358.

Kalbe, Kalben (von): pl.n. Calbe on the Saale River (in old documents Claiver, a prehistoric river name. see Bahlow ON, p. 247.

Kalberlah: pl.n. near Githorn (-lah, -loh ‘woods’), see Bahlow ON, p. 247.

Kalbitz(er) see Kahlbetzer.

Kalbreyer, Kallbreier (UGer.): Breyer = Bräuer; Kall- probably a field name, cf. Merbreyer, Wienbreyer.

^ Kalch- (UGer.) see Kalk-.

Kaldaun [tripe]: surname of the tripe maker and dealer (Bere Caldune, Haldsl. 1400).

Kalde(n): from Kalden (Calden) NE of Kassel; prehistoric creek name, cf. the Kalde creeks in Spessart and Schmalkalde in Thur. etc. (Bahlow ON, p. 248).

^ Kalder: pl.n. Kaldern near Marburg (Godebold Kaldere, Aschaffenburg 1213).

Kaldewey, Kaldewei see Koldewey.

Kalefendt (Hbg.) see Fendt.

Kalen, Kahlen: Slav. pl.n. in Meckl., Pom. Likewise Kalo(w), kal ‘swamp’, cf. Kaliwoda ‘swamp water’.

Kalf(f) see Kalb.

Kaliebe: Albert Kalibe, Stralsund 1307. Otte van Calliben, Haldsl. 1400. Name derived from Slav. pl.n. (cf. koliba ‘shack’).

Kalinke (Kalina): Slav. ‘viburnum, snowball’ (shrub), hence in Silesia: Kalinkenbeere [K. berry].

Kalisch, Kalischer: Slav. pl.n. (Poland).

Kalkbrenner (LGer. -berner), Kalkofen: names for men working at a lime kiln (Wilhelm zem Kalkoven, Basel 1298), UGer. also Kalker, Kalcher [Kalk = ‘chalk, lime’] (cf. Kalchgruber in Tyrol; im Kalch or im Lett, im Lehm [clay]). Hence Kalklösch; Kalkoff [Kalk brennen or löschen = ‘to burn or slake lime’].

Kalkreuth (von): pl.n. in Sil. and Sax., is one of the Franconian names ending in -reut ‘a clearing’: Kalchreuth near Nbg. (W. Katckreuter, Nbg. 1520).

Kallbreier see Kalbreyer.

Kallenbach: pl.n. in Thur. and Westph.; also Kalmbach on the Enz River, was called Calenbach in 1110. Cf. Kallenberg, Kallenborn, Kallenhardt, Kallenbrock.

Kal(l)hardt: MHG. kal-hart ‘babbler, blabbermouth’ (kallen ‘to talk loudly’); “vil kalhart und klapperleut zerstören manche guote freud” [many blabs and babblers often spoil the fun] (from Sebastian Frank, Sprichwörter 2, 192b). Eberhard Kalhart, Eger 1387. Also cf. Kaller(t): Blasius Kallert 1570; but see Kahler(t).

Kallies: pl.n. in Pomerania.

Kallmann (also Jewish: besides Callomon, Calmanowitz): as early as 1376 in Baden a Kalman Jew. Cf. Uman: Salomon. But name of origin: Hermen Kalleman, Bremen 1476 and Joh. de Calle, Bremen 1313; see Kallmeyer.

Kallmeyer (Westph.): Kalle is a water word and pl.n. (Calne ‘dirty water’; see Bahlow ON, p. 248).

Kallmorgen, Kollmorgen (Hbg.): Kaldemorgen (Essen). also field name. Cf. Albrecht Kaldenacht [cold night], Frkf. 1397.

**Kallweit (E Prus.-Lith.); but for Callwey see Kaldewey, Koldewey.

^ Kalm (von): pl.n. Kalme near Wolfenbüttel.

Kalo(w) see Kalen.

Kalteis (UGer.): ‘cold iron’ (name of a blacksmith), cf. Gareis. Albert Kaltysen, Vaihingen 1265, U. Chalteisen, Eger 1323.

Kalthoff, Kaldenhoff. Westph. farmstead name. Kaltenböck (Bav.) = Kaltenbacher. Cf. Kaldcherberger, Brsl. 1387, Calderwirt, Kolin 1382, Kalderleytgebe (tavern owner who sells cider or fruit wine), Olmütz 1409.

Kaltschnädt: coppersmith, in some cases Kalkschmidt is involved, cf. Hensel Kaltsmid (Kalichsmit!), Deutsch-Brod 1385.

Kalweit see Kallweit.

Kambs (Ro.) see Kamps.

Kameke (von): E Ger.-Slav., also Kamke.

Kamin: E Ger.-Slav. pl.n., hence Kaminski.

Kamlade (Hbg.): loc.n. like Kandab (see Kalberlah); kam- ‘swamp, dirty water’ (see Bahlow ON, p. 249).

Kammanm (Westph., freq. in Hbg.), Kammeyer in Hbg.: contrected from Kampamm, Kamp-e-yer (Kampfmeyer), named after the dwelling place by the field (^ Kamp = ‘field’), freq. in the farm region of Westphalia. See also Kamp, Kampf, Kimpffler.

Kämmel, Kemmel, Keinmle (UGer.) MHG kembel, kemmel, kammel ‘camel’. Also house name zum Kämbel (still today in Zurich). Burkart Kameli (Kemlin), Konstanz 1346-49.

Kammer (UGer.) = Kammerer ‘treasurer’, unless = Karnber ‘comb maker’. Weigel Kammer, Iglau 1367, Jehel Cammer(er), Budweis 1396.

Kämmer, Kemmer (UGer.-Sil.): Wollkämmer ‘wool comber, fuller’ (MHG kemmer) unless = Kämmerer ‘treasurer’. Rütsch kemmer, Liegnitz 1372.

Kämmerer, UGer. Kammer(er), Humanist form: [Kammer = ‘chamber’] Camerarius: administrator of the revenues in the treasury (at courts, in communities and monasteries). Hence Kammermeister, Kammerschreiber [clerk], Kammerknecht [servant], Kammerwächter [guard] at the above mentioned institutions. Kämmeding (MHG kemerlinc ‘chamberlain’).

^ Kammin: Slav. pl.n. in Pom. and Meckl.

Kam(m)ler, Kim(rn)ler (Brsl., Dresden): see Kamsetzer. But according to Deutsches Wörterbuch 5, 133 = ‘wool comber, fuller’.

Kamp, standard German Kampf: in NW Germany, especially in Westph. a freq. field name, Kamp = ‘field’. Hence Kampatann, Kammann, cf. Distelkamm [thistle field], Rohkamm (Rodekamp), Kamchulte, Kamphenkel, Kampfhenkel (Henkel = Heinrich, Henrich), Kampfmeyer and others. Also compounds like Surkamp, Kulenkampf, Kreuzkamm. Likewise Westph. derivations ending in -er (cf. Büscher, Hölter): Kamper, Kämper, Kempor, Kimpfer along with Bohnenkämper, Strotkomper, Holzenkämpfer. L.Rhine-Westph. also Ingenkamp (“in dem Kamp”), Uppenkamp [on the field], Kempgen. Also cf. pl.ns. Kampe in Oldenburg, Kampen in Schleswig-Holstein, Campen, and others.

Kamp(f)rath: = UGer. (MHG) kampradt ‘cogwheel of a mill’ (cf. Hans Müller der Junge [the young, junior], des Kamprats Sohn, Würt. 1438).

Kämpf (UGer.), Kempf, Kömpf (Bav.); Kämpfl, Kempfle: ‘dueller’ (by profession: in legal affairs or at fairs); see Fechter, Schirmer. Friczsche Kempf, Eger 1392, Jacob Kempf, Strasb. 1259.

Kamps, Kamptz (von): Slav. pl.n. (Tessemar von Campiz, Meckl. 1286), Kambs (twice in Meckl.).

Kampstra, Camstra: Fris. see Deikstra. Take Camstra 1420.

Kamrad, Cammerath (E Ger.) see Gamradt. Cf. Pesolt Kamerat, Budweis 1368.

Kanksetzer (UGer.): ‘fireplace builder, stove and furnace fitter’ (from MHG kämin, kémin ‘chimney, cooking stove’). Kamensetzer, Augsburg 1349, Um 1455, Cammelseczer, Prague and Zwickau 1417, Kemelseczer, Iglau 1393, Fulda 1569.

Kändler, Kendler (UGer.): [person who makes pitchers] MHG kandel ‘pitcher’, KandIgießer, Nbg. 1450. Cf. Kandlbinder. Thomas Kandler, Außig 1328. In Moravia Kondler 1400. But Kandelbächle (near the Kandel Mtn.: mons Kanden) see Bahlow ON, p. 249. Hence Kandelhardt.

Kander: refers to pl.n. Kandern near Lörrach (Uli Kander 1312).

Kaneel (LGer.): ‘cinnamon’ (sticks or rolled), surname of a spice grocer, likewise Muskat, Kardamom and others. (Hinrich Kanel, Stralaund 1341).

Kanetscheider, Kantschieder (Tyrol): name of a farmstead, probably from Latin canneceturn ‘reed’ (Lat. canna).

Kaninck (Hbg.): Fris. patr., cf. Hidde Kaneken 1442 (see Stark, p, 170).

Kanitz: Slav. pl.n., cf. Canitz in Sax. (J. Ganitz, Görlitz 1409).

Kankel: pl.n. in Meckl. (Ro. 1279); cf. Lith. Kankeleit. Kankelfitz: Slav. pl.n. near Stettin.

Kann(e)gießer, LGer. Cannegieter, Cannegeter [Kanne = ‘pitcher’]: belonging to the trade of the tinsmiths or pewterers (cf. UGer. Kündler, Swab. Kantengießer, Augsburg 1389, Bav. Kandelgießer, Nbg. 1450). There is a Kannengießer Street in Brunswick. Kannengetere, Breinen 1339, Greifswald 1372, Stralsund 1300; Gebhard der kannengißer, Liegnitz 1372, see Bahlow, Liegnitzer Familiennamen, p. 139. Cune mit der kannen, Brsl. 1356, a tavern owner Henkele zu der kannen, Frankfurt 1332; Gerung kanne, Augsburg 1325. Related are Kann (Hbg.) besides Halfkann (Halbekann), Lösekann (also Lösekros, with a spout).

Kannenberg: freq. pl.n. in N Germany.

Kannewurf: pl.n. Kannawurf on the Unstrut River. Albert von K. 1245.

Kanter, Kanther, Kanters (LGer.-UGer.-Rhineld.): Lat. cantor ‘cantor’ (Arnold cantor, Ro. 1298). Cf. Singer. Andreas Kanther, Stuttgart 1498.

Kant(h): freq. in Brsl. (Hensel von Kant around 1320 etc.), from pl.n. Kanth in Sil.

Kantha(c)k: ‘cant hook’, iron hook for lifting boxes; surname of a loader, packer. Also cf. Dreikant, Vierkant, Kantwerk.

^ Kantler (UGer.) besides Kantel see Kändler.

Kantner see Kentner.

Kantsteen: = Kantstein [curb], probably surname for masons.

Kantzow: pl.n. in Meckl. name is known through the Pomeranian chronicle writer Thomas K., a contemporary of Martin Luther.

^ Kanz (UGer.): probably means scruff of the neck. Eberhard Kanz, Tauber area 1288.

Kanzler, Kenzler: head of a (medieval) chancellery (from Lat. cancellarius).

Kapaun, Kappuhn, Kaphahn (Greek kapon): ‘castrated rooster’ (MHG kappün, also = ‘castrated man, eunuch’), the latter form, Kaphahn, was thought to be related to “Hahn”; Hear. Capün, Ro. 1280 (also Hbg., Greifswald). See Kaphengst [Hengst = ‘stallion’], Kaphammel [Hammel = ‘ram’].

Käpernick = Köpernick, see Kopernicus.

Kapf, Kapfer (Kapferer): UGer. (Würt., Baden, Bav.), means dwelling place near the top of a mountain or hill [^ Kapf = ‘peak’], cf. pl.n. Biedeakapf (today Biedenkopf in Hesse). Hans ab dem Kapf 1381.

Kapfinger: pl.n. Kapfing in Bav., Tyrol.

Kaphengst, Kaphingst (LGer.): ‘castrated stallion, gelding’, occupational surname of a castrator. Cf. Kapaun. Kophamel.

^ Kaplan: actually means chapel priest, Hinrich Cappelan, Lüb.

Kapp (UGer.), Kappe, Käppel(e): Kappenmacher, Kappenschneider, Kapplmacher, originally meant tailor or manufacturer of coats with a hood (from MHG kappe = kogel ‘coat or robe with a heod, also travel coat, peasant smock; cap, fool’s cap’). Hence Weißkapp, Hautkappe. Heintz Kapp, near Wiesloch 135 1. Heinrich Käppli, Konstanz 1358, Bertold Kappenüpfel, Stuttgart 1304, Joh. Kappentanz, Speyer 1496. But also cf. MHG kappe ‘capon’: kappengülte ‘capon tax’ [when taxes were paid in natural goods].

Kappelmann: from pl.n. Kappel, Cappel, Kappeln (especially in NW Germany).

Kappler (UGer.): Lat. capellarius, also Kappelheff: priest of a chapel, or living near a chapel (R. bi der Chappel, Regensburg 1272).

Kappus, Kappes: surname of a cabbage farmer, from MHG kabeß ‘cabbage head’, (which in turn comes from Lat. caput ‘head’). Thid. Cabuz, Ro. 1277, Heyleman Cappuß, Mainz 1320, Kappshempt, Glatz 1476.

Karbe: MHG karwo ‘field caraway’.

Karch(er), Kärcher, Kercher (Würt., Baden, Alsace): ‘carter, transporter’, cf. Weinkercher; also Kaffer, Kärrler, (Swab. Ochsenkärrler): Ulrich Karreler 1281. Cunrad Kanicher, Speyer 1248. MHG karrech = Lat. carruca ‘cart’.

Kardemom: surname of a spice grocer or dealer. Joh. Cardemoume, Lilb. 1334, Hermann Kanel (see there), Lüb.

Kardinal: cf. Bischof, Papst and others. In Col. as early as 1135: Hartman K.

Karge, Kärgel (UGer.-Sil.); also Karger, Kerger (Sil.): MHG karc ‘cunning, sly’ (Berhtunc was listic unde karc), later also ‘stingy, ungenerous’ (karger vilz [niggard], abusive word in the Shrove Tide plays). Hs. Chr. Kärgel, Sil. writer. Heinczel Kergel, Prague 1321, Nio. Karger, Olmütz 1361; Wigand Karge, Hesse 1265.

Karius, Karies, Karges: saint’s name (Macarius the Great, Greek ‘the blessed’). Originated as a Ln. in the 15th-16th centuries: ^ Charius Balduf, Ravensburg 1504, Kanies, Karges Quedlinburg 1598. Cf. Joh. Keris (Kaiisii), Worms 1304 (Charisius was also a saint’s name). But E Ger. Charisiuß (Danzig) occurs 1556 in old documents as Karisse and comes from the pl.n. Karisch in Sil. Cf. Krokisius (in West Prussia and Sil.) for Krokisch: from Krakau.

Kar(c)k: (LGer.) = Kerk, named after the dwelling place; Biderkarken [by the church]; Bachterkarche [behind the church], Lüneburg 1303; cf. Karkhoff. Kerkhoff. Karkmeyer (Westph.): administrator of church property.

Karl: the name of Charlemagne (original meaning ‘free man’) at the time of the Carolingians was popular with royal and noble families but never with the common people in the Middle Ages, thus it is rare today as a FN (Rhineld. and UGer.). As Ln. it became popular again through the chivalric literature and the Romantics (see Bahlow, VN, p. 59). Karlmann is still a Catholic f.n.

Karmann, Karer, Kahr (UGer.): the term ^ Kar in Tyrol refers to a basin in a valley used as pasture; thus the region Karer Wald and others in Tyrol. But cf. MHG MLG kar ‘container, bowl, basket’: Albert Car, Ro. 1299, Nadelkar, Wetzlar 1339. Karmecher, Brsl. 14th c.

Karnap: MLG ‘bay (window), oriel’. A street in Harburg (Hbg.) and a woods near Lauenburg; pl.n. near Essen bear the name. Markward Karnap, Kiel 1340.

Karnatz (freq. in Ro.): Wendish pl.n. like Kolbatz and others; of Karnin, Karnitz.

Karnführ: (Magdeburg, Goslar) ‘carter, wagon driver’. Cord Karenvörer, Wernigerode 1348. Cf. Kameschaver [cart pusher], Lüb. 1346, Karnendriver, Bremen 1363.

Karnöffel, Korneffel: a medieval card game (Cf. Hans Kailenspiel 1448). Heinz Karnüffel, Stuttgart 1450. Similar names Fifundetwe, Quaterdri.

Karow, Carow (freq. in Stettin): Wendish pl.n. in Meckl., Pom., Brandenburg.

Karpenkiel: (Wismar) ‘carp pond’. Karpenpoel, Dortmund 1391. Also Karpenmül [carp mouth], Jena 1537, Karpensnavel [carp beak], Westph. 1294.

Karpf (UGer.), Karpe (LGer.): ‘carp’, surname of a fishmonger (Karpe, Ro. 1257), likewise Bars, Stör, Stint, Schlei, Schlie, Schnäpel, Gründel and others, all German names of fish. Hence Karpenkiel, Karpenvol, Karpenmaul; (cf. the knight Emocho Karpe, near Mainz 1270).

Kar(ra)batsch: ‘lashing whip’ (Czech-Pol., likewise Ger. Peitsche, Knute, Kantschu for whip are all Slavic words).

Karrer (UGer.): ‘carter’, Conrad ^ Karrer (Karrenknecht), Würt. 1430-40. See also Karcher, Kirner, Kerner. Cf. Stürzekarn [tip the cart] (Störtekare, Greifswald 1300); Karrebuc, Ro. 1273 (and Lüb.).




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