Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron icon

Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

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Isey: Westph. creek name, likewise Elsey, Effey, Hülsey, Saley, Postey, all names of swampy bodies of water (Bahlow ON, p. 240).

Isfrid: Germanic pers.n. ^ Ysfred of Lothere, Lippe area 1200, knight Isfrid Balke, Goslar 1370. Godeke Isfert, Reval 1550, Conrad Isfrid, Wehrheim 1535; patr. Isverding in Westph.

Ising (freq. in Hbg.), Isink: LGer.-Westph. patr. (like sh.f. Iseke) of the names with Is(en); see Isbarn. Cf. Westph. pl.ns. like Ising, Isingheim, Isingdorf, Isinc-torp: Istrup. For UGer. compare the pl.n. Ising in Bav.

^ Isler (Ißler): Alem. = Eisler ‘hardware dealer’.

Ismer (Ißmer): UGer.-Bav. contracted form of Ismaier, Ismar, likewise Zellmaier: Zellmer; Huebmaier: Huebmer; Stromaier: Stromer.

Israel: Hebrew ‘god’s fighter’, surname of the patriarch Jacob. In the Middle Ages freq. f.n. of non-Jews, in Westph. also knights’ name; ^ Israhel, Cel. 1189, Lüb. 1301, Peder Israhel schuchwert, Frkf. 1400.

Issel(mann): von der Issel in Westph. (locality), cf. Hesselmann and others; pl.ns. Isselhorst near Gütersloh, Isselburg near Bocholt, Isselbruch near Rees.

Isserstedt: pl.n. near Jena.

Issle(i)b, Issleiber: from Eisleben (in old documents: Islevo, Islebe, Isleiben) or Eßleben (Isileiba). For Issleiber Cf Bubeleber, Fallersleber.

It(t)ensohn (UGer.): metr., ‘son of Frau itta (Ida)’, also Idtensohn; Eidenbenz (Itenbenz); Ellensohn, Gerensohn, Gutensohn, Nesensohn, all SW German-Swiss. Eidensohn; Arnold Ittensun, near Meergburg 1300, Hertel Idenson, near Ravensburg 1375. Hence Itt(en), Ittner (Nbg., Mnch.)

^ Itter (von): name of river and town near Waldeck; see Bahlow ON, p. 241.

Itzenplitz (von): Slav. pl.n.

Itzerott: Hessian pl.n. ending in -rode like Ascherott etc.

Itzig (Jewish) = Isaak, see there. Also Itzigsohn. A pl.n. Itzig in Luxemb.; pl.n. Itzing in Bav.

Itzke, Itzken besides Itze, Itzen is a Fris. f.n. and FN, with the Fris. tz for k, related to Icke, Icken (see there). Itzwerth (Hbg.) is a LGer. pl.n. like Itzstedt; cf. Berenswerth (wert = werder ‘island’).

Iven(s): Fris. patr. of Ive (Iv), also Iwe(n); cf. Iben(s). Saint Ivo was known as the patron saint of lawyers. Yweke is the base form for the patr. Ywekana.

Iversen, Ivers (freq. in Hbg.): Fris. patr. (also Iwersen, Iwers) of Iver (still used in Scandin. as Ivar). Iver Petersen, Flensburg 1601.

Iwan: Slav.-Russ. = Johann [John]. Cf. Iwansky, Iwanow, Iwanoff and others, also Iwandt, Iwohn. Related (in some cases) Iban, cf. the Russian Yban, Silesia 1395. A “dominus Iwan” in Breslau 1301 probably refers to the Arthurian knight Iwein (lwan), which is obvious with the two noble brothers Iwan and Walwan of Proven in Silesia 1296. Variants are lban, Eiban, mostly in noble circles and knights families.: knight Eiban of Pilstein 1312.


Jaacks (freq. in Hbg.): as yet unclear, origin becomes clear when compared with Taaks; both have a Fris. base in the form Tjaaks, contracted from Tjadeke(s), sh.f. for Tj-adebern, Tjadeward (i.e. Dietbern, Dietward, cf. Tjaden: LGer. Dieden); Fris. Tjad- for Thiad- (Diot-) came about through a shift in stress. Likewise Fris. Jabben, Jappen for Tjabben (Tjabbern); Jarck(s) fer Tjark(s), i.e. Tjaderik (Diederich), Tjaards, i.e. Tjadeward (Dietward). Also cf. Jaleff Tyalffes (16th c.) from Tjadeleff (Detlef); Tyade Bogynks, 16th c.

Jaap (freq. in Hbg.): means Fris. Tjap-, Tjab-(Tjabbern), see Jaacks.

Jabbe(n) (Jeverland) see Jaacks: Cf. Onno Tyabbern, a Frisian 1576.

Jabelmann: from Jabel (Meckl., Prignitz).

Jablonski etc.: Slav. name of origin (Jablon: ‘a place with apple trees’); cf. Gablonz: Czech Jablonec.

^ Jabs (freq. in Hbg.) see Jabben and Jaacks.

Jach, Jachmaan (Sil., Lausitz, Bohemia): Czech sh.f. of Johannes, cf. “Johannnes alias Jacha”, Prague 1377, Nicclos Jachman, Liegn. 1380, Merten Jache, Freiberg 1465, Jachnig v. Popschicz 1393 near Grünberg; similarly Mach for Matthias, Stach for Stanislaw. For Jachan (Liegn.) cf. Pechan (Pech-mann) for Peter; for Jach(t)ner cf. Machner, Hachner. Besides Jachmann also Jochmann, for Jachalke cf. Michalke.

Jachenholz: UGer. loc.n. (‘decaying woods, swampy copse’), cf. Jachenbach, Jachenhausen, Jachenau on the Isar River (Bahlow ON, p. 243). Also Jagenholz.

Jack, Jäck (UGer.) = Jakob: Name occurs with various suffixes: Jäckel (Lausitz, Sil., Bohemia): ^ Jekel (Jocob) Bewgentancz, Liegn. 1381; Jäckl(e)in, Jäckle (UGer.-Swab.), Jackl, Jöckl, Jockel (Bav.), Jäggi, Jäggli (Swiss-Alem.); patr. Jackler. With Slav. suffix: Jack(i)sch (Sudeten, U.Lausitz), Jokisch (Sil.): Jakusch (Jakobus) Krösel, Iglau 1397, L. Jokisch (Jokusch), Liegn. 1435. See also Kube, Kopisch, and Köpke. Patr. is UGer. Jackner, Jackler; Jacke = Jack, but cf. Jackensticker [jacket embroiderer], Duderstadt 1438 (Jacke [jacket, coat] appears as loan word around 1400).

^ Jacob, Jacober, Jacobi, Jacobs, Jacobsen, Jacobsohn see Jakob.

Jade: pl.n. in Oldenburg (at the Jade Bay, name of the river J.), originally Gade ‘dirty water’ (Bahlow ON, p. 255).

Jäde, Jädecke (LGer.) = Gäde(ke) = Göde(ke) = Godefrid.

Jadwizak: from Pol. Jadwig = Hedwig (Hadewig), a fem. f.n. Jadwiga, Brsl. 1354.

Jaffé, Jaffa: Hebr. japheh ’nice, pleasant’. A rabbi Mardochai Jafe (Jafa), Prague 1530-1612.

Jaffke see Jaffe.

Jagdspieß: surn. of a hunter, MHG jagespieß; cf. Jaghethus ‘hunting lodge’, Barth 1409. A journeyman smith Jagysen [chase the iron], Heilbronn 1449.

Jagemann: may mean ‘hunting assistant’ (cf. Jagemeister). For Jage see Jagusch.

Jagenlauf (Bav., Aust.): probably loc.n. like Jagenholz. Ulrich der Jogenlauf (vintner), Regensburg 1405.

Jage(n)teufel: a devil of a man, Nicol Jaghendüvel [chase the devil], Ro. 1270. A mayor of Stettin around 1400: Otto Jage(n)teufel. Cf. Bitendüvel, Schietendüvel, Schreckendüvel [bite, shoot, scare the devil], etc.

Jager: UGer. form for Jäger, especially in Aust. (Tyrol). See also Jagdspieß. L.Rhine Jägers. Lat. Venator. Compounds: Gambsjäger, Hasenjäger, Hühnerjäger [chamois, hare, fowl hunter], etc.

Jägg(l)i see Jack.

Jago(w): E Ger., Slav. pl.n. (Pom., Brandenburg). Also Jagau.

^ Jagusch, Jagosch: Slav. pers.n. like Bogusch, Jakusch. Cf. Jagalla, Jagalski, Jagielski, Jagla, etc.

Jahn: LGer. = Johann, also Jahns (freq. in Hbg.). E Ger.-Sil.-Bohemian Jahn like Jahnke represents the Czech Jan (Jana) = Johann or Janek. Cf. Jano de Beckern, Liegn. 1342. LGer. compounds: Fuhljahn, Grotjahn, Guderjahn, Mesterjahn, Schaperjahn, Strackerjahn.

Jähne, Jähnel, Jähnke, Jähnicke, Jähnichen, Jähnig, Jähnisch, Jähner (also without the h): Sil.-Sax. sh.fs. of Johannes. Without umlaut: Jahnel (freq. in Neiße area) beside Jahndel, like Jähnel: Jähndel, cf. Hähnel: Hähndel (Händel): Hahnel; also Jahner beside Jähner (Görlitz); Jahnisch, Jähnisch like Hanisch, Hänisch. Also cf. pl.n. Jahna in Sax. (FN Jahner).

Jä(h)nisch (Sil., Lausitz): derives from Janisch, Janusch, Slav. ah.f. with suffix -isch, -usch from Slav. Jan = Johann.

Jahn(c)ke, Jähnke: E Ger.-Slav. form of Johannes (Czech Janek), also Jan(c)ke, like Stahnke, Stanke = Stanislaw; also cf. Hanke. For Jänke also see Jenke.

Jahr (Hbg.), Jahre, Jahrmann, Jahrke: LGer.-Fris. variants of Gehr(e), Gehrmann, Gehrke, sh.f. of the names with Ger-(Gero, Gereman, Gereward, Gerbern, Germar, already in 1260 also Jermar, Jerieward, Jerbern, etc.); er changed to ar since around 1300.

Jahreis: dial. form for Gareis.

Jahrmark(t): a vendor at fairs or a clown, buffoon. A Jarmark in Iglau 1369.

Jaißle (Joußlin) see Jauß.

Jakob, Jacob, patr. LGer. Jakobs, Jacobs, Jacobsen (freq. in Hbg.), UGer. Jacober, Lat. Jacoby, Jakobi: Hebr. (‘heel holder’, of his brother Esau at birth: Genesis 25.26). The Christian f.n. in the Middle Ages is not the patriarch’s name but that of the apostle Jacobus, whose grave in Spain became the site of pilgrimages: Santiago di Compostella (hence the FN Kumsteller!); the pilgrims were called “Jakobsbrüder” [Jacob’s brothers]. Still a f.n. in Switz. (Jakob: Köbi). Several forms developed: UGer. Jack, Jäck, Jäckle, Jäckel, Jäggli, Jackl, Jockel, Köbi, Rhineld. Köbes; LGer. Köpke, Köppen, etc., E Ger.-Slav. Jack(i)sch, Jockisch, Kopisch, Kupke, Kube, etc., Lith.-E.Pruss. Jakschtat, Jackstadt, Jakschies, Jogschies, Jacobeit, Jacobasch. UGer. patr. is Jakober.

Jalaß: Wend. like Golas, Hollas = ‘bald head’. Hence Jalan(dt) like Golan, Holan(d); Slav. gol- ‘bare’, also bare heath. Cf. Jalow, Jaletzky.

^ Jammer, Jammermann beside Jambor: E Ger.-Slav. like Tschammer beside Tschambor: cf. Jam(b)rowski.

Jander: Pol. form for Andreas: Jander Bowlcze, Liegn. 1437. Jandirke Hamicz, Liegn. 1394. Hence Jandrey (like Wandrey), Jandrich (like Wandrich, Handrich).

Jane(c)ke see Janke, Jahnke.

Janert see Jahner: Jähne.

^ Jänicke, Jähnke see Jähne. Likewise Jänichen (Sax.), Jänchen.

Jänisch, Jänsch like Hänisch, Hänsch is based on Slav. Janusch = Johann (Jan). Freq. in Sil., Lausitz, Sax. Also see Jentsch. Likewise Janisch.

Jank(e) see Jahnke.

Jankowski: Pol. ‘from Jankow’ (place of Jan, Janko).

^ Jankuhn (Lith.-E Pruss.): = Janke, cf. Steppuhn, also Jankunas.

Jann (LGer.): = Johann [John]; cf. Steinjann etc. Hence patr. Janning(s) in Oldenburg.

Jannasch, Janneck, Jannack, Jannusch(ek): Slav.-E Ger. = Jan = Johann [John].

Jannssen see Janssen.

Janoschek see Jannuschek.

Janotta: Pol.-U.Sil.: = Jan.

Janowski: Pol., ‘from Janow’.

Jänsch see Jünisch, Jensch.

Jansen, Janssen (freq. in Hbg., Holstein) beside Jans: patr. of Jan = Johann [John]. Cf. Hansen, Johannsen, Claussen, Petersen, Paulsen, Nielsen, Frenssen, Thomsen, Andersen, Carstensen, all LGer. patrs. common in Schleswig-Holstein, derived from church or saints’ names.

^ Jantke see Janke (like Hantke = Hanke).

Jan(t)zen (freq. in Hbg.) beside Jan(t)z = Janssen.

Janusch(ek), Janus(ke): Slav. sh.f. of Jan (Johann); also Janoschek, Janoske (Noske).

Japp (freq. in Hbg.), Jappe, Jappen, Jap(p)sen, Janke: Fris. sh.f and patr. instead of Tjapke, Tjabben, see Jabben. Cf. Ummo Jappen, Frisian, 16th c. For Tjabeke: Japke cf. Robeke: Röpke; Habeke: Hapke; Sibeke: Sipke.

Jarasinski: from Jarasin (Slav. pl.n.).

Jarchow, Jarchau: pl.n. near Standal.

Jar(c)k (freq. in Hbg.), Jarks beside Tjarks: Fris. Tyaryk (1420) = Tiadrik = Diederich (Dietrich). Cf. Tjaards for Tiadeward (Dietward): Tjart Jongama 1422.

Jafisch, Jarausch see Jarosch.

Jarling: Fris., = Gerling, Garling.

Jarmatz: Ghermatze, Barth 1356; presumably = Jermas = Jeremias (according to Witte, Wendische Zunamen).

Jarmer(s): LGer.-Fris., = Germar(s), see Garmer(s). Sh.f. Jarmes like Garmes. Jermar e.g. Hbg. 1270. Cf. however Slav. Jaromir.

Jarmuth: LGer.-Fris. for Germod (fem. f.n., Hbg., Bremen, Ro., Lübeck around 1300), cf. Jarpurg for Gerburg.

^ Jarnach, Jarnick, Jarnuszak: Slav. pers.n.

Jarosch, Jarisch, Jarick: Slav. sh.f. for Jaroslaw, Jaromir. Cf. Borisch for Borislaw; Bogusch for Bogislaw; Jerosch for Georg or Jeronymus.

Jarr(e), Jarren, Jarr(e)s, Jarsen: Fris. sh.f. and patr. (cf. Jerre, Jerreke, Hbg., Lüb. 1250) belongs to the names with Ger-(Ger-, Jar-), like Gernand, Jarnand; Gering: Jaring; Gerold: Jerrolt, Garrelt (Jarrelt); cf. Harr(e) Harringa with Hero.

Jaschke (Sil.), Jaschek, Jasche: variants of Jeschke, Jeschek, Jesche, sh.f. of Johannes [John]; likewise Haschke, Hasche; cf. Raschke. Jaschke, brother of Derschke Laskowsky 1457. Likewise Jaschan (like Jachan), Jaschen, Jaschik, Jaschok.

Jäschner: see Jaschke, Jasche.

Jasmund: a peninsula of the island of Rügen (NE Ger.).

Jasper, Jaspers, Jaspersen: LGer.-Fris. form for Kaspar (Caspers, Caspersen), changed (g- to lenis j-) from Gasper. Still 1560: Jasper in Ranzow near Flensburg, Jasper Hiltrop near Dortmund.

Jaspis (Sax. theologian family): surname for a jeweler, gem dealer.

Jass, Jasse, Jassmann, Jassinski, Jassny (Berlin): of Slav. origin, cf. pl.n. Jassow. But Beste Jass, Ulm 1530 = “Sant Jas”, see Jost.

^ Jaster (Fris., also Jester) see Gaster.

Jastram (Gastram), Jestram: Slav. pl.n. Jastremsky, Jastreu. Pl.ns. Kloddram, Pribram, Pausram, etc.

Jatho, Jatow: Slav. pl.n., cf. Gatow in Brandenburg.

Jatzke: pl.n. in W Pom., cf. pl.n. Jatznik also there, from pers.n. Jatz, Jatzek, Jatzke. Jatzwauk see Wjatzlaw.

Jatzwauk: Serbian = Wjatzeslawek (pers.n. Watzlaw).

Jauch (UGer.; Würt., Switz.): from field n. MHG juch, juchart, jochart (a field measure), cf. 1564 “ein jauchart genant die Jauch” [a j. called Jauch]; C. im Juche 1330. Jörg Jauchlin 1479.

Jauck, Jauckens (Fris.) see Gauck: Cf. Hidde Gauchen 15th c. In Hbg. also Jauche(n).

Jauer, Jauert: Slav. pl.n. near Liegn. Nikolaus Großer from J. called himself N. Jauer (Prof. in Prague 1381). Wend-Czech javor = ‘maple’. Cf. Jaworski. Hence also Jauernick, Jauernig (Javomik): pl.n. near Görlitz.

Jaufer, Jaufmann: hobo, travelling entertainer (MHG jûfer, jûfkint). But Jaufner: from the Jaufen Farmstead in Tyrol (Rhaeto-Romanio juf = Lat. jugum ‘yoke’). Cf. Juffner.

Jauschke see Juschke.

Jauß (Würt.) see Jos, Jost. Jaus Vochentzer, Stuttg. 1520. Cf. Jausenhans, Josenhans.

Jaworski see Jauer.

Jebe, Jeben, Jebsen see Jepsen.

Jecht (E Ger.) beside Jech(e): probably a variant of Jach (Slav. sh.f. of Johann). Cf. Pech, Pecht for Peter. A pl.n. Jecha on the Wipper River.

^ Jeck (UGer.), Jeckel (Sil.) see Jäck, Jäckel.

Jedamski (E Ger.-Pol.): a variant of Adamski.

Jeddicke, Jedding, Jedde: Fris. variants of Geddeke, Gedding, Gedde, see there. Cf. Herman Gedde, Attendorn 1437, Gedeke, Stade 1337. For the doubling of dd cf. Ede: Edde. A Gedulf from Bruges listed in the Bremen Urkundenbuch [doc. register].

Jedele (Swab.-Alem.): based on Üedele = Uodel-, Ulrich, with a shift of stress from - to -e-, as in Jehle from Üele.

Jedeman (LGer.) see Gedemann. Corrupted: Jedermann (Hbg.).

Jeep (Fris.) see Jepsen, Jebe.

Jeffke see Geffke (Geveke).

Jeggli (Swiss) see Jack, Jakob.

Jeglinski: pl.n. Jeglinnen in E Prussia.

Jehle, Jehl (UGer., Würt-Baden) see Jedele.

Jehmlich (Lüb.) see Gehmlich.

Jehne, Jehnig (E CentrGer.) see Jähne, Jähnig.

Jehring (LGer.-Fris.) see Gehring.

Jeinsen (von): pl.n. near Elze, Hannover (doc. as Genhuson, from gen ‘dirty water’: Bahlow ON, p. 161).

Jeitteles (Jewish): formed like Pinkeles, Moscheles.

Jelinek (Jellinek), Jelonek, Jelinski, Jelen: all contain Slav. jelen ‘stag’ (Lith. eln ‘elk’). Jelke: Fris. f.n. (Geleke, Jeleke) see Gelke, Gelken (Hbg.). Reyneke Jelike, Stade 1300. Jelle, Jellerichs (Fris.): from Gelderich or Geldolf which occurred around 1300 in Westph., L.Rhine; geld- ‘to be valid, worth’). Still a f.n.: Jelle Tjaden, Hbg. 1965. Geldericus Crumminga, Emden 1614.

Jellinek see Jelinek.

Jeltsch: Slav. pl.n. near Ohlau, Sil. (von Jelcz, Gelcz, 14th c. in Brsl.).

Jendrich (Gendrich), Jendrach (Jendraszik), Jendrusch, etc.: Wend. forms for Heinrich (likewise Wendrich). Also Jindrich. Cf. Czech Jindrzich Binth, Leitomischl 1324, Gündersich Chalben, Glatz 1494.

Jenfeldt (Hbg.): pl.n. near Hbg.

Jenichen see Jämchen.

Jenisch (Sil.) see Jähnisch. Hence Jenischewski.

Jenke, Jenkel (freq.): E Ger.-Slav. sh.f. for Johannes, beside patr. Jenkner, also contained in pl.ns. like Jenkau, Jenkewitz. Cf. Jenco Pelca, U.Sax. 1316. Jenko furman, Görlitz 1472.

Jenne: UGer.-Alem. sh.f. for Johannes (Jennin = Johann Ritter, Basel 1290), also Jennemann; Swiss Jenni (fisher boy in Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell).

Jenner (Jennert): UGer. (MHG) = ‘January’. Wernli Jenner, Alsace 1406. Cf. Jennerjahn.

Jen(n)ewein (Tyrol), Genewein, Gendebien: Saint (In)genuinus was bishop of Brixen, Tyrol, hence the name still in use there as f.n. (Ingenuin Koch 1800).

Jenning (Hbg.): like Henning LGer. patr. of Johannes.

Jennrich see Jendrich.

Jens, Jensen (freq. in Hbg., Holstein), also Jenss(en): popular sh.f. or patr. of Johannes (also cf. Jansen, Johannsen) in area around Hbg. up to Denmark. ^ Jens Henningsen, Flensburg 1593. Jens Baggesen, Danish writer.

Jensch (Jenschke) see Jentsch.

Jentge(n)s (L.Rhine): patr. of Johannes. Cf. Johäntgen, Johäntjes.

Jentsch, Jentzsch (Sax., Lausitz): Slav. sh.f. of Johannes. As early as 1300: Jenscho (de Gorlicz, Brsl.). Also cf. Jähnisch.

Jen(t)z, Jen(t)zen (freq. in Hbg., Holstein): see Jantz, Jantzen.

Jepsen (Jebsen): freq. in Hbg., Holstein; patr. of Jepp, Jeppe, Danish = Jacob. Cf. Andreas Jacobesson (Jebson), Dane (1370 in Lübeck Urkundenbuch 4 [doc. register]). Hence Jeppe Schroder, Kiel 1446, Carsten Jepsen, Flensburg 1593.

Jerche (Jerke): Slav. form for Georg, cf. Jerchenthal = Georgenthal. Knight Jerke von Mussyn, Sil. 14th c.

Jerchel: Slav. pl.n. (3 times in Altmark, Brandenburg).

Jeremias (Jeremies, Jermis, Slav. Jermas, Jarmatz): Hebrew Jirmejahu ‘God gives’, prophet of the Old Testament. As a biblical f.n. not used before the Reformation.

Jerg(er): UGer. = Georg. Jerg Kächeli, Baden 1452.

Jericho(w), Jerichau: pl.n. near Tangermilnde.

Jering see Gehring.

Jerok (Gerok), Jeroch, Jerosch (Jeroschewitz); Jerisch, Jerich: Wendish sh.f. of Georg (see Jerche) or Jeronimus (Jeromin): pl.n. Jeroslawicz: Jerasselwitz. See also Gerok.

Jerratsch see Gerratsch.

Jerrentrup: Westph. pl.n. ending in -torp ‘village’ (Ger. Dorf).

Jerrolt (Fris.) see Gerold.

Jersch(ke): Czech sh.f. Jerzyk for Georg (Jersik Podiebrad, King of Bohemia). Cf. Kuba Jersicke, near Brieg 1596.

Jerxsen: pl.n. Jerxen near Detmold, Jerxheim near Helmstedt.

Jeschke, Jaschke (also Jesche, Jäsche, patr. Jeschner): freq. Slav.-Ger. sh.f. of Johannes, likewise Jeschek; U.Sil. Jaschke, Jaschek, Jasche. Cf. pl.n. Jeschkendorf near Liegnitz. Jeschke anezele (‘ohne Seele’= without a soul), Liegnitz 1372, Jesco Beme [the Bohemian], Liegnitz 1372, Jesco Cerstani, Liegrütz 1324, Jesco Dobirgost, Brieg 1320. Matthes Jeschke (Jaschke), Brsl. 1420. Jesko (Joh.) Piessek, near Zittau 1373. Further documentation (also for the variant Jeschal, Jeschar) by Eberhard Jeschal in Jahrbuch der Universität Breslau 9, 1964, psp. 7-13). For Jeschonnek cf. Skowronnek.

Jeserich: pl.n. Jeserig (twice in Brandenburg), from Slav. jeser ‘pond’, cf. pl.n. Jeseritz.

Jeske see Jeschke.

Jesper(sen) see Jasper(sen).

Jess, Jesse, Jessen (freq. in Hbg., Schleswig-Holstein): Danish variant of Jens, Jensen = Johannes [John]. Jes Jürgensen, Flensburg 1604, Erick Jessen, Flensburg 1599. Cf. Jes Hardens in Th. Storm’s novella Schimmelreiter. A pl.n. Jessen (twice in Lausitz area) is of Slavic origin, cf. Jessenitz. The FN Jessel is related.

^ Jester, Jesterding (Fris.) like Jaster see Gaster.

Jestram, Jestrernski see Jastram.

Jestrich see Gestrich.

Jetzlaff (Pom.): Slav. pers.n., also -slaw ‘fame’ as in Jetslaw; similarly Retzlaff, Tetzlaff. Hence Jetzkewitz, Jetschke, Jetschat, Jetschmann.

^ Jeuck see Geuke.

Jeurissen see Jörissen.

Jeute (Bav.): = Jüte: Jutta; Jewte, Görlitz 1463. Friedrich Jeutensun [son of Jeute, Jutta], Bav. 1293. Jewtener.

Jeve (Hbg.) = Gave (Gevehard), see Geeve. Jeziorsky, see Jeserich.

Jhering (Fris.) see Gehring.

Jippe (Jibben): Fris. f.n., cf. Jipp.

Jilek: Czech-Wendish jil ‘loam, clay’, cf. pl.n. Jilove in Bohemia.

Jindrich see Jendrich.

Jipp (Hbg., Holstein) see Jepp and Jibbe.

Jiptner, Jüptner see Joppe.

Jirzik (besides Jirek, Jirak, Jirka, Jira): Slav. sh.f. of Georg. Cf. Duke. Georg (Jitzik) of Podiebrad; Girczik of Cunstadt, Glatz 1556. See also Jerschke.

^ Jitter (Jüttler) see Jüttner.

Joachim (Joachimi), LGer. patr. Jochim(s), Jochimsen, Jochens, besides Jochem, Jochum; today LGer. Jochen: name of a biblical king (Hebrew ‘God encourages’), did not appear as f.n. until the 15th c. with the prince electors of Brandenburg (Joachim I etc.) and subsequently spread with the Reformation (Joh. Fischart reports “Brandenburgers are called Jochim”). In Prenzlau around 1600: Jochim, Achim, Chim! (the variants are due to three different word stresses).

Joas (Bav., freq. in Mnch, Nbg.): dialect form for Joos = Jost, likewise in the pl.n. Joasschwaig in the Bav. part of Swabia; also Joast, cf. Joas Alpershofer, in the same area 1427.

Jobmann, Joh-: the biblical sufferer Job (since Luther’s Bible translation the German form of the name is Hiob; Lat. Joh, Hebrew Ijob); patron of lepers. LGer. Jöbken, Rhineld. Jöbgen, Jöbges.

Jobst, Jobs, Jobske, Jöbstl: combination of Job (Hiob) and Jost (Jodocus), cf. Duke Jo(b)st or Jodocus of Moravia around 1400; and Hieronymus Jobst in the work of Wilhelm Busch, Die Jobsiade; also Luther’s friend Jobst Koch (Justus Jonas). Jobst = Jodocus Zenker, Zwickau 1471-83.

Joch (UGer.) see Jauch. Michel Joch (Jouch), Freiburg 1565.

Jochens (LGer. patr.) see Joachim.

Jöcher, Jocher (UGer.): dwelling near a mountain ridge or pass; Herman am Joch, Tyrol 1484, Chuonrad Jocher, Tyrol 1367.

Jochheim: corrupted from Jocham, Jochem, Jochim = Joachim. See there.

Jochim(sen) (freq. in Hbg., Holstein), see Joachim: Joachimsohn is Jewish, Joachimski, Joachimcek is E Ger.-Slav., also Jochintke (Sil.).

Jochmann (Lausitz area): a dialect variant of Jachmann, see there. Cf. Lachmann: Lochmann; Hache: Hoche, Jacof. Jokof.

Jochum(sen) see Joachim.

Jockel, Jöckl (UGer.-Bav.) see Jakob. Cf. Jokisch.

^ Jöde, Jödicke (LGer.) see Göde, Göedeke.

Jodeit, Jodies (Lith.) = Jodocus.

Joder (Jöderli): i.e. Theodor(us), patron saint of the W part of Switz. Cf. Wilhelm von Sente Joder, Basel 12th c. (see Socin); Jöderli, Baden in Aargau 15th c. (See also Schweizerisches Idiotikon, III, 12)

Jodocus see Jost. Jobst.

Jogschies (Lith.) See Jokisch.

Johannes (Greek-Lat. form of the Hebrew Jochanan ‘God is gracious’): refers to John the Baptist (Matth. 2:11); all baptistries were dedicated to him. Numerous sh.fs. show that Johannes [John] was the most frequent Christian (baptismal) name at the end of the Middle Ages (thus “Hans and Grete” now like the older “Hinz und Kunz” fer Heinrich [Henry] and Konrad [equivalent to “Tom, Dick and Harry“]). For more information: Bahlow VN, p. 56. The FN mostly appears as patr.: LGer. Johannsen (Hbg., Holstein), Johanning (Johenning, cf. Henning), L.Rhine Johäntges. Hence Johann (Littjohann, Stammerjohann, etc.). Renkenjohanns (Fris.) is actually Johannes Renken (Reineken) 1681. Contracted: LGer. Jahn (Strackerjahn), Harmjanz (= Johannes Harmen 1681, patr. Jansen, Jensen (Schleswig-Holstein), Jantzen (L.Rhine area); also Hans (Junghans, Elsenhans), Hansen; UGer. Hansel(mann), Hensel, Hensler, Rhineld. Hensgen. Otherwise see the sh.fs. Henne, Henning, Henneke, Hähnel, Händel, Henle, also E Ger.-Sil. Hänisch, Jänisch, Hanke, Jahnke, Jänicke, Hentschel, Jeschke, Jaschke, Haschke, Jachmann, Jochmann, John. UGer. Hannemann, Jenne(mann), Jenner; Rhineld. Jonen, patr. Johnsen (Swed. Jönsson).

Johanning (Westph. patr.) see Johannes (Johann Johanning, Lippe area 1590).

Johannser (UGer.): from the pl.n. St. Johann (freq. occurrences).

Johler (UGer.): in old documents: Joheler, Jöheler (Konstanz around 1200), from Johel = Johann; Rudolf Joheli, Villingen 1225, Sigmund Johl, Iglau 1411. Johl Hassel, Mies 1402.

Johlke (E Ger.-Slav.) see Gohlke. Cf. Jühlke: Gühlke.

John (freq., mostly E Ger-Slav. but also LGer.): cf. Johns, Johnsen (freq. in Hbg.) = Johannes. Also Johnke, Jöhnk(e), likewise Sohnke, Söhnke, Fris. also Joontjes for Jonekes; L.Rhine Johnen; UGer. (Baden) Johner. Cf. Sil. Jone (Johann) of Boronicz, Bral. 1351. Peter Jone, Liegnitz 1404, Jone (Jenechin) von der:Rode, Görtitz 1330; Johnel, Görlitz.

Johst, Joisten see Jost.

Jok(i)sch, Jokusch (Sil., Lausitz area): sh.f. of Jokof = Jakob with Slav. suffix, ^ Jokusch Redlicz, Öls 1467, Lorenz Jokisch (Jokusch), Liegnitz 1435. Also cf. Jack(i)sch; Lith. Jockschies.

Jolfs, Julfs: Fris. patr. of Jolleff 1420, i.e. Godlef (cf. Folef, Fulf = Folk-lef); related to Jülfs, cf. Lülfs (Ludlefs, Ludolfs).

Jöllenbeck: pl.n. (on the Jölle River, tributary of the Weser, S of Minden), as creek name (Julenbeke ‘dirty creek’) also near Bielefeld.

Jonas (Hebrew ‘dove’): biblical name which became popular during the Reformation (the prophet Jonah in the belly of the whale); as FN sometimes Jewish (especially in Vienna) and E Ger., where Slav. Jon- (= Johannes) is involved: cf. Jonasch, Jonischkeit (Lith.), Joneleit, Jonescheit, Joneweit, Jonat (all Lith-E Pruss.), Jonietz, Jonatzki, Jonek, Jonentz, and others; all these probably derive from Johannes [John]! Jonasson is Scandin. But Justus Jonas (Luther’s friend) was originally called Jobst Koch. For statistical survey of distribution see Brech., p. 777.

Jonathas (Jonathan, Hebrew = ‘gift of God’; son of Saul, friend of King David): name occurred already 1362 in Westph.: dominus [sir] Jonathas; otherwise Jonathan as in Jonathan Krause (composer of church hymns), Liegnitz 1701.

^ Jönsson (freq. Swed.): = Johannsen, Johannsson; like Erichson imported in modern times.

Joost, Joos See Jost.

Jopp (UGer.) see Jeppich: appears as f.n. in Augsburg 1486: Jopp (Job) Meutting.

Joppe, Juppe, Jüptner (Sil.): surname of jacket makers [Joppe = ‘jacket’; cf. Hensel mit der yopen = Hensel yope, Brsl. 1359, like Uotz mit der juppen, Ertingen in Würt. 1335. In Brsl. also Sebenyope (Siebenjoppen = ‘seven jackets’), cf. Simeock (= Siebenrock; Rock jacket’) and Nitz Yopener 1385 (like Juppener, Merseburg 1508). Hence Juppenlatz (Latz ‘fly, flap’ on a garment).

Joppich (Sil.), also Jopke, Jobke: Slavic Jobek = Jakob (thus recorded in documents in Sillein 1424); Job did not come into use until the Reformation.

Jorbandt, Jorbahn see Jurban (Urban).

Jörck (Hbg., Ro.): Fris. = Georg. Cf. pl.n. Jork near Hbg.

Jorczyk, Jurczik: Slav.= Georg.

Jordan (sometimes Jewish); LGer. Jordans, Jördens: the name of the holy river became popular as f.n. through the Crusades. Count ^ Jordan, Öls 1147, Jordanus, Col. 1159; around 1275 the name occurred freq. in Ro., Lüb., Hbg., Stralsund; Jorden, Jordens (a priest), Barth 1426. But Jordt (Hbg., Kiel, Flensburg) is probably Fris. like Gord (= Godert from Godehard).

Jores, Jöres, Jörs (Fris.), Jorissen (Rhineland), see Jürs (= Georg).

Jörg: UGer. (Alem.-Swab.) form of the saint’s name Georg, cf. Jörg Frundsberg (leader of mercenaries in the late Middle Ages), “Junker ^ Jörg” (nickname for Luther when banned to the Wartburg castle), Jörg Wickram (town clerk of Colmar in Alsace). LGer. Jörgensen (Flensburg, Kiel, Hbg.) besides Jürgen(sen); Jörges see Jürges. Jörger is UGer.

Jörn, Jörendt, Jöhrens (Fris.): = Jörgen, likewise Jürn = Jürgen (Georg). Cf. Jörn Uhl, novel by Frenssen. Likewise Jörs = Jürs, see there. Jorre, Jorritsma (Fris.).

^ Jorsch, Jursch (Wendish) see Jurisch. Cf. Jorczyk.

Josenhans (Würt.) see Jost. Cf. Elsenhans.

Joseph (Hebrew ‘may God increase’): name of Saint Joseph (spouse of Mary) in use only since the Reformation (as Catholic f.n. not until the 18th c., see Bahlow VN, p. 57). However the Jewish f.n. in the Middle Ages is based on the patriarch of the Old Testament (son of Jacob and Rachel); hence Jewish FNs like Josephy, Josephson, cf. Jacobsohn. UGer. patr. Josepher, Fris. Josefs, Lith.-E Pruss. Josupeit, Josuweit.

Jost (L.Rhine Josten, Joisten, Jostes, Jösting; UGer. Johst, Joos, Jösel, Jostel; influenced by the biblical Joh: Jobst, see there): means Saint Jodocus (a Celtic name), a pilgrims’ patron saint in Picardie (St. Josse sur Mer near Calais), 7th c. Popular in the Middle Ages between L.Rhine and S Germany (also Bav. Joas, Alem. Joos, Swab. Jaus). Jost (Jodocus) Hosebendel, Liegnitz 1346. Jodocus vulgo Jos [J. commonly Jos] Reichlin, Konstanz 1380. For more information see Jost Trier, Der heilige Jodocus, 1924. Compounds: Jostarndt (LGer.), Jobstmeier, Josenhans (Würt., also Jausenhans), Hackenjos and others. See also Just.

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