Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron icon

Aar: the old term for Ger. Adler (adel ar) and means ‘eagle’: Frid dictus [called] Ar, near Konstanz 1258. See Ahr. Aaron

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Geeve = Geve (LGer.) = Gevehard. In old Hbg., Ro., Bremen around 1250-1300. ^ Geve, Geveke besides Gevehard; cf. Gevers, Geffken, Geffe, Geffert.

Geffe, Geffken (Hbg., Bremen), doc. as Geve, Geveke(n), besides Geffert, Geffers-- all mean Gebhard (LGer. Gevehard, Gevert, Gevers). Still 1584 Achim Geveke in Meckl. See also Geeve, Gewe, Gewecke. Similar Leveke, Lethard, Leffert.

Geflitter (UGer.): MHG gevlitter ‘giggling’, vlittern ‘to whisper, to caress’.

Gefüge: MHG gevüege ‘skilled, skillful’; cf. the brothers Gefüge, Tentschel near Liegnitz 1478. David Gefüge, steward at a ducal court, Liegnitz 1523. Opposite: Fridrich Ungevüge, Bamberg 1260.

Gegenbauer (UGer.): farmer or villager living across from another.

Gegg, Geggle (UGer.) see Geck.

Gegner (UGer.): ‘from the surrounding area’ (MHG gegene). Eberhard Geginer, Mengen, Würt., 1280.

Geh(auf): UGer., see Gäch, Gächauf.

Geheeb: MHG gehebe ‘important; well-meaning’.

Gehl, Gehle (freq. in Hbg.) reveals itself to be an old Fris. pers.n. through the variants Gehlke(n), Gehlsen, Gehls, Gehling(s); doc. in Stade, Bremen etc. around 1300 along with Geleke, Geleken, Jeleke, Jeleken (first name Jelke in Friesland), today also Gelke(n), sh.f. of Geilmar, Gelmar, Geilbern, Gelbern.

Gehlen (von), Hbg.: from the field name and pl.n. Gehle, Geel, which means moist lowland in the LGer.-Westph. area; Bahlow ON, p. 160; also the name Gehlmann. But see also Gehl.

Gehler, Gehlert (Sax., U.Lausitz, Sil.): doc. as Gehlhaar ‘yellow hair, blond head’, e.g. Bartusch ^ Geler (Gelhor), Görlitz 1422-46. The base form of the name is the strong adjective Geler (a yellow-haired pers., MHG gel ‘yellow’); analogous are Kaler [kahl = ‘bald’] (Kahler, Kahlert), Kleiner (Kleinert), Großer (Großert) etc., all in the same E Centr.-Ger. area from Thuringia to Silesia. For more information see Bahlow SN, pp. 128-129. Cf. also Gel Michel, Brsl. 14th c., Mertin and Nicze Gele (brothers), Brsl. 1346. Gele was also a sh.f. of Gertrud (Liegnitz 1397, Brsl. 1345), from it derives the metronym. Hannus der Gelen [H. of the yellow-haired woman], Liegnitz 1381, H. Gelen son, Lahn area 1383.

Gehlha(a)r, Geelhaar, Gelhaar (espec. E Centr.-Ger.): the blond one, see also Gehler. A donkey driver mit dem gelen har [with the yellow hair], Jena 1426. Martin Gelhar (Gelhard!), Leipzig 1446, Andr. Gelhar, Merseburg 1502, Eckehart Gelhor, Brsl. 1351, Bartusch Geler (Gelhor), Görlitz 1426, Michel Gelert, Jena 1514. The secondary form Gehlhardt relates to Gehlert like Schweighardt to Schweickert (Swidger); this happened by way of analogy since the suffix -hart of pers.ns. changed to -ert as in Eckert from Eckhart (Bahlow Teuthonista 3, p. 33).

Gehlhose, Gehlhaas, Gehlärmel see Hose, Ärmel.

Gehlich, Gehlig (Sax.): unrounded form of Göhlich = Göhlke = Golick (Wendish ‘the bald one’).

^ Gehlken, Gehlsen see Gehl.

Gehm (E Ger.): cf. pl.n. Gehmkendorf in Meckl. (Slavic like Dalekendorp, Malekendorp).

Gehmlich, Gämlich: MLG gemelik, MHG gemelich ‘waggish, roguish’. Johann Gemelike, Ro. 1294, Cunrad Gemelich, Col. 1192, H. Gämelich, Allgäu area 1451.

Gehr, Gehre (Hbg.), also Gehrs, Geers, Gehrke = Gero = Gerhard, Gerwin, Gerbert, etc. UGer. Gerle, Gerlin. See also Geer, Geeren, Geers (Grotegeers), Geertje (Fris. for Gerke). Margrave Gere, a hero at the Nibelungen court at Worms, was modelled on the historic Gero who fought for Emperor Otto I against the Slavs. Cf. UGer. Aberlin Geren sun, Würt. 1350.

Gehrbrecht see Garbers.

Gehrdau see Gerdau.

Gehrer (UGer.): derived from the field name Gere. Cf. “der Gerer”, Eßlingen 1349.

Gehrholz, Gehrels see Gerolds.

Gehring, Gering: a popular pers.n. in the Middle Ages: Gerung (UGer.) or Gering (LGer.), with the patron. ending -ing or -ung (arch.). LGer. Gering appears also in Fris. as Jering, now Jhering. Cf. ^ Gering, Bremen 1350, Ro. 1270 (besides Gerung). Ge(h)rigk, Gehrich ist E Centr.-Ger.

Gehrke, Gehrken(s): in the Middle Ages popular sh.f. of Gerhard (Gerbrecht, Gerwin, Gerbrand, Gerbod, Gerwig, Germar and similar); doc. as Gereke, which in some cases changed to Garke(n), see there. Gehricke is E LGer. Gereke (Gerhard), a Pole, in Lüb. 1346.

Gehrlein, Gerle (UGer.). sh.f. of Gerhard, doc. as Gerli(n); Gerlo = Gerlach from the U. Rhine area (Socin, p. 17).

Ge(h)rmann (freq. in Hbg.): doc. Gereman around 1250-1300 (Hbg., Lüb., Ro.), i.e. Gerhard, Gerwig and similar names. Cf. Thiedemann, Wilmann, Wichmann.

Gehrt, Gehrs, Ge(h)rtz: LGer. contraction of Gerhart. Gherd de Plawe, Greifswald 1391. Gerd is still a first name today. Cf. Geerdts, Gerdes (FNs).

^ Gehse see Geese = Giese.

Gehwolf (Bav.): doc. Gebolf (from Gebolfhoven), Bav. 1147, Dytl Gewolf Brünn 1345, 1365; -w- stands for -b- in Bavarian, compare Gotbold: Gotwold (Bahlow SN, p. 39).

Geib (Pal.): old word for ‘dirt, decay’ (cf. pl.n. Geibenstetten).

Geibel: the name of the writer Emanuel Geibel is from the Pal.-Saar area, cf. Geib. Variants: Keibel, Keib.

Geick, Gei(c)ke (Hbg.): Fris. pers.n., patr. Geyken, Gaiken, cf. Gayko Lyursna 1443, Allardus Gaicama 1499 (Stark, pp. 175, 183).

Geider, Geidel (UGer.): unrounded form of Geuder, Geudel = MHG giuder, giudel ‘braggard, squanderer’ (cf. also Gauder). Georg Geuder (Geider), Upper Pal. 1561, 1563; Cunz Geuder 1380; Albrecht Giuder, Pfullendorf 1271, Walther Güdel, Würt. 1293.

Geier, Geyer, Gayer (UGer.): may refer to the character of a person [Geier = ‘vulture’] (e.g. as name of a knight: Friedrich Gîr zu Girsberg, near Zurich 1255), or may derive from a house name (as in Basel 1356 “zem Gyren”, in Col. 1197: hence the family Geyer of Schweppenburg). The pl.n. Geyer near Zwickau was the origin of the FN of Walther vom Geyer, Freiberg 1466. Cf. Meußgeier, Meisgeier [= ‘mouse vulture, hawk’] in Thur. and Franconia.

Geiger (UGer., Stuttg., Mnch., freq. in Vienna): MHG gîger ‘violinist, fiddler’. Also Geig(e)le (Swab.): Rudi mit dem Giglin [with the little violin], Zurich 1357, there also a woman Vren Zergigen (from a house name). Also Geigerl; Geigenfeind [Feind = ‘enemy’] in Regensburg; Gigenhals [Hals = ‘neck’], near Salem 1222, Gigenschatz [Schatz = ‘treasure’], near Salem 1399, Gigennagel [violin nail], Heilbronn 1409. Also Gaiger, Olmütz 1413, with an –ai- for –î- (likewise Gayer besides Geyer), hence: Gaigl (Mnch.).

Geike (Hbg.) see Geick.

Geil, Gail (UGer.): MHG geil ‘boisterous, rollicking’. The same: Geiler, Geilfuß.

Geiler, Geilert, Gailer (UGer.) = Geil. Name is known through the preacher in the Strasbourg cathedral, Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg, around 1500; MHG giler also means ‘beggar’ (cf. Luke 11:8).

Geiling (Hbg.): MLG geilink ‘thrush’ (Geyling, Lüneburg 1293, Hbg. 1298, Lüb. around 1300, Barth 1390, Frkf. 1399).

Geds: (Bremen) see Gehls.

Gein (Hbg.): cf. Gein (name of a body of water in the Netherlands) and forest called Gehn (^ Gene) near Bramsche (Bahlow ON, p. 160). Pl.n. Geyen near Col.: Wolter von Gheyne, Stralsund 1309.

Geinitz: pl.n. Geunitz in Thur.

Geipel, Geippel, Geipelt: doc. Gipel (only in old Frkf. around 1350-1400), obviously a sh.f. of Gilprecht (Giselbrecht): Gilbracht, Frkf. 1387, also Gyppel, Sypeln dichter [grandchild of Sypel] 1367, Gipel Heydorn, Gipel Auge 1387, Gipel Schiltknecht 1396. Cf. similar forms in the following names: Diepel, Sipel, Happel, Rupel, Apel – all in old Frkf.

Geise see LGer. Giese. Hempe Geyze, Liegnitz 1369.

Geiselbrecht (Bav.): old Ger. pers.n. Giselbrecht (gisel ‘noble offspring, hostage’ brecht, berht ‘shining’).

Geiseler, Geisel, Geiselmann, see Geisler. Chunrad Gisel, Bav. 1354, Berlt Giselman, Kassel 1418, Geisel Patlauner, Iglau 1363.

Geiselhard (freq. in Stuttg.): Gyselhart, Stuttg. 1354, Cuncz Giselhart, Würzburg 1409. Cf. pl.n. Geißelhardt and Geiselharz in Würt. (1275 curia ad Giselhartes dicta = ‘officially under the jurisdiction (court) of Giselhart’).

Geishecker (Col.): ‘goat butcher’.

Geising(er): from the UGer. pl.n. Geising(en), old: Gisingen.

Geisler (freq. in Sax., Sil., Bav., Aust.): according to documents derived from Giselher, Giseler, a definite influence of the MHG Nibelungenlied in the E Centr-Ger. area: of Kriemhild’s 3 brothers Gunther, Gernot, Giselher, the kings of the Burgundians, the youngest was the most popular one. Gyseler Smalcztasche, Glatz 1329, Gislerus de Gorlicz 1266, Symon Gyseler (Geiselher), Liegnitz 1423-35, Nikel Geyseler, Eger 1395, Cuncz Geysler, Iglau 1359. For LGer. area see Gieseler.

Geislhöringer (Bav.): from Geiselhöring in Bav. (‘Giselher’s settlement’).

Geismar, Geysmer: pl.n. in Thur. and Hesse. For more information see Bahlow ON, p. 162).

Geiß (UGer.), Gaiß (UGer.) [‘goat’] means goatsherd (Gaißer, Geißer). Cf. Wilhelm Gaißer (Gaiß, Gaißlin), Stuttg. 1481. Gobel zum Geißhorn, Speyer 1461. Hans Gaißman (Gaißeler), Augsburg 1430.

Geißel (UGer.) = Geisel = Giselher, Giselbrecht; see Geißelbrecht.

Geißelbrecht (UGer., Mnch.) Geiselbrecht, Giselbrecht. See there.

Geißer (UGer., Bav., Würt., Switz.), also Gaißer, see Geiß.

Geißler see Geisler.

Geist (UGer.): in most cases probably a distorted form of Geiß ‘goat’, e.g. in Nbg. 1569-70: Martin Geist (Geiß). Cf. also Geisthirt for Geißhirt [goatsherd], Schmalkalden 1672; Ziegengeis(t) = Ziehengast! See also Geest. (Auf der Geist = up der Geist; Geistmann, Geistmeier; van Geisten; pl.n Geist). But cf. also Geist [spirit] and Heilgeist (house name), Frkf 1350, Werntzel Gaist, Bav. 1383, Geysthant, Braunau 1413, Geistemphel, Olmütz 1404.

Geistbeck: cf. pl.n. Geistenbeck near Düsseldorf. MLG ge(i)st ‘deposit, sediment’.

Geister, Geistert (Sil.): see Geist.

Geistler = Geisler.

Geith (freq. in Mnch.): probably from MHG gît ‘greed, stinginess’. Stephan Geitt, Moravia 1414, Hans Geit, Künzelsau 1485.

Geit(h)ner (Thur., Sax., Sil.): from Geithain in Sax. Nic. Geytaner, Prague 1363, Mertin (vom) Gythan, Liegnitz 1372 (compare Zeitner from Zeithain in Sax.: H. v. Czythen, Liegnitz 1372).

^ Gelb, Gelbhaar, Gelbkopf see Gehlhaar.

Gelbart(h), Gelbard [yellow beard] (Frkf., Würzburg) like Gelhaar [yellow hair] from MLG gel, gelwes ‘yellow’. Cf. also Rotbart [red beard], Schwarzbart [black beard], Buntebart [colorful beard].

Gelbern (Hbg. 1252) see Gelke.

Gelbert, Gelbrecht (West Ger.) like Gilbert, Gilbrecht see there. Knight Gelbrecht in Friedberg in Hesse, 1483.

Gelbke, Gelpke (Eastphalia) is contracted from Gel-beke, likewise Selbke from Selbeke and Velpke from Velbeke, all mean ‘swamp or bog creek’ (Bahlow ON). Arpke, Harbke, Lobke, Wiepke (Brunswick area).

Gelder(mann): Geller(mann): from Geldern on the L.Rhine. Mostly Geller (Col. and Aachen). Also ‘from Geldern’ (Dutch province), doc. ^ Gelre, Geler: the –d- is only an inserted gliding sound between “l” and “r”. Joh. von Gelre = Joh. Geller, 1560. The -t in Gellert is secondary, originally Geller (both occur in Col., Aachen freq.). For interpretation: Bahlow ON, p. 163).

Geldner (UGer.-Bav.-Sil.): apparently an unrounded form of Göldner, like Gellner from Göllner, meaning the gold worker, see Göldner. Jeclin Geldner de Ylaw, Prague 1329. However the name Geldenbott (Franconia) brings up MHG gelte ‘tax or rent owed’, MHG geltaere ‘debtor’; cf. Geltenprein, Nikolsbg. 1414 (zinse Grützkorn = ‘pay [tax] in groats’); Geltkäse, Überlingen 1275, (‘tax cheese’); Geldochse (‘tax ox’); Braunau in Bohemia 1407 [all indicating taxes paid in kind: grains for gruel, grits, cheese, oxen]. But Geltfuß, Aussig 1408, means like Goldfuß, Silberfuß: the rich man.

Geldolf: now obsolete pers.n., which was still recorded in Werden/Ruhr and in Brsl. in 1300; pl.n. Geldofshusen: now Gölshausen near Bretten, Geltofing near Straubing. Geldolf Spede, Xanten 1390. Hence Gelderich Crumminga, Emden 1614: Fris. Jellerich and dominus [sir] Geltmar, Bremen 1301 (Bremen 1486: Geltmers).

Geldschläger (Hbg.):. probably = ‘coiner, minter’ (counterfeiter?). Cf. Öhlschläger, Repschläger, etc. Also Geldmacher; but Geldsetzer probably = ‘price fixer’, cf. Habersetzer [haber = ‘oats’], Setzkorn.

Gelfert, Gelfart, Gelfort, Gölfert = Gelfrat, reminiscent of the Nibelungen legend as far east as Silesia, where in the 14th c. a pair of noble brothers, Gunther and Gelfrat appear [Doc. Reg. of Liegnitz], also a knight Gelfrat of Hugwicz 1290; a knight Gelfrat of Rechenberg, Öls. 1312; as early as 1140 there was a priest Gelfradus in Mainz, a toll gatherer Gelfradus in Strasbg. 1123 (Socin). As FN 1296 near Calw: Albert Gelpfrat; 1301 in Worms: Wernher G., 1341 Saar in Bohemia: G. Gelfradus. In the Nibelungenlied this is the name of the Bavarian margrave, who attacks the Nibelungen. Gelf- (Germanic gelp-), in MHG still means ‘boasting challenge of the opponent, loud satirical speech before battle’ (as in the Song of Hildebrand). For the variant Gilfert compare Gelfrid (Gelfrad) von der Stercz, Sil. 1330. Gelfrid Luckaw, Brsl. 1408, Hennel Gelfrit (Gelfrat), near Mannheim 1396, Nickel Gelfrid, near Sorau 1467.

Gelhaar see Gehlhaar.

Gelke, Fris. Jelke, patr. Gelkens: sh.f. of LGer-Fris. Gelmar (Greifswald 1321), Ge(i)lbern, Hbg. 1252 (geil ‘playful, boisterous’, as in the name of the king of the Vandals, Gelimer (Geilamer) in the 6th c.) In Stade and Bremen around 1300 first names Geleke, Jeleke besides Geleken, Jeleken (Zahrenhusen, p. 171). See also Gehl-(ken). Gelmer Kemerer, Stralsund 1303.

Gell (Hbg.): doc. Radeke Gelle (Jelle), Greifswald 1380. Cf. pl.n. Gellen on the Oder River, Jellen in Meckl.

Gellekom: pl.n. in Brabant (originally Gellingheim, cf. Deutekom: Duttinghem).

Gellenbeck. pl.n. near Osnabrück and Hagen, also Gehlenbeck near Lübbecke, which was documented as Gelenbeke, cf. Gellendorf from Gelanthorp. For the water word gel ‘swamp, morass, mud’ see Bahlow ON, p. 160. Hinrich Gelenbeke, Barth 1341.

Geller (freq. in Col., Aachen, besides Gellermann) see Geldermann. Joh. Geller = Joh. von Gelre 1560, i.e. from the town or region of Geldern. But UGer. Geller (freq. in Vienna) probably means ‘crier, grumbler’ (from MHG gellen ‘to shout, cry’).

Gellersen (Hbg.): pl.n. near Pyrmont.

Gellert (freq. in Sax.: Leipzig, Dresden; also the author of fables, Gellert, came from Freiberg in Sax.): see Geller (‘crier’). A “Gellerhor’ [farmstead] 1491 in Tyrol.

Gellinek see Jellinek.

Gelling: name of a wooded mountain near Hagen (Bahlow ON, p. 163).

^ Gellner (UGer.) an assimilated form of Geldner, likewise Göllner besides Göldner.

Gellrich (Glatz, U. Lausitz): see Göllrich.

Gelmeroth: pl.n. Gelmeroda near Weimar. Compare Billroth from Billroda.

Gelpf(le): UGer.-Swab., from MHG gelf, gelpf ‘loud bragging’ or gelpfe ‘radiance, luster, pomp’ (der Gelpfli, Würt. 1435).

Gelpke see Gelbke.

Geltenbot(t), Geldenbott, Göltenboth, Göldenboth (Würt., Franc.): the official who collects the tribute or tax (Gelte) in the form of natural products from the peasants. Also Geltl, Geltmeier are related; Cunrad Gelter, Nassau 1262.

Gelzer, Gölzer, Galzer (UGer.) = Gelzenleichter, Gölzenleichter or Gelzenleuchter, Gölzenleuchter (UGer.) ‘castrator of hogs’ (from MHG gelze, OHG galza ‘castrated bog’, lîhten ‘to smooth, castrate’). Gelzenlichter, Frkf. 1338. J. Gelcz, Iglau 1368, Gelczl, Jitschin 1367.

Gember, Gembert (E Ger.): probably from Slav.-Balt. Gernbus, Gembicki, Gemball.

Gemein (UGer.): MHG mein ‘false, deceitful’, cf. Meineid ‘false oath’.

Gemeinhardt (freq. in Hof in Franc.): UGer., dwelling near the communal forest. Cf. Gmeineder, Gmeinwieser. Also G(e)meiner (MHG, UGer.): co-owner, go-between. Nic. ^ Gmeyner, Iglau 1389.

Gemende (UGer.): MHG ‘happy’, mende ‘joy’, menden ‘to be happy’.

Gem(m)ecke (E Ger.): cf. Gemekendorp (Gehmkendorf in Meckl.).

Gemmer, Gemmert: cf. Gemmecke.

Gemmerich, Gemrich: pl.n. near St. Goar on the Rhine (also in Westph.).

Gemmle, Gemlein (UGer.): probably from MHG gemelich ‘playful, frolicking’, gamel ‘fun, play’ (see Gehmlich) Gämel, Füssen in Allgäu 1363, Gemmelich, Gämelich, Sonthofen 1451, Gämelin, Göppingen 1457.

Gemoll, Gemulia, Gomoll, Gomolka, Gomulka (F, Ger-Pol.): Slav. gomoly ‘bare, hornless’. Gomolzig like Gebelzig from a pl.n. in the Lausitz area.

^ Gemp, Gempl (UGer.) see Gamp, Gamper. Likewise Gemperle.

Gems (UGer.), likewise Gemsjäger [chamois hunter].

Gemuseus (Basel) Humanist name for Gschmuß (MHG gesmus ‘kissing, necking’) as the Alsatian minister from Mühlhausen, Augustin Gschmuß (Gemuseus), spelled his name. (Tobler, p. 179; Brech., p. 545).

Gend(t): Hbg., from Gent in Flanders (von Gent, de Gandavo, Lüb. 1331).

Gendner see Gentner.

Gendrich, Genn(e)rich, Jennrich, Gendricke, Jendricke, Jindrich also Gendram are Slavic-Wendish forms of Heinrich. Cf. Merten Genderik, Barth 1479 (also M. Gentze); Gyndryzich Weytkruk, Prague 1325. Jindrzich Binth, Leitomischl 1324. Gündersich Chalben, Glatz 1494. J. Genderich (Jenderich), Havelberg 1585.

G(e)nerlich (Glatz) see Gnerlich.

Geng, Genge (UGer.): ‘vigorous, fit’ (MHG genge). Cf. Gengnagel, Gengisen (Reutlingen).

Gengler, Gengger see Gangler. For Gengl cf. Gangolf.

Genike, Genig see Genke.

Genke, Genkel (E Ger.-Slav.), also Genike, = Jenke, Jenike = Johannes.

Genn(e)rich, Genrich (freq. in Stettin) see Gendrich.

Gen(n)ewein, Jennewein (Tyrol), reflecting the UGer. word for ^ Januar [January]: Jennerwein: Saint Genuinus (Ingenuinus), bishop of Säben near Brixen around 600. Also Gendebien, Genibein, Gönnebein, Gönnewein.

Gens(s) = Jens, Jenß (= Johannes).

Gensch, Genschel see Gentsch.

Genscher: see Genschow and Gentsch.

Genschmer: pl.n. Genschmar near Küstrin in the Oderbruch area; also see Genzmer.

Genschow (Pom.): Slav. pl.n., cf. Genzkow in Meckl-Strelitz. First name Genske.

Genseleiter: leite = ‘slope, hillside’.

Gent (Hbg.): from Gent in Flanders, see Gendt.

Gente(mann): from Genten on the L.Rhine. Hinrich Genteman, Han. 1485 (Bremen 1362).

Genth, Genthe (Hbg.): from Gentha east of Wittenberg.

Gent(n)er (UGer.) see Gant(n)er ‘auctioneer’. Heinrich der Genter, Neuenburg on the Rhine 1327, Burk Gentter, Engen 1458, K. der Gäntener, Eßlingen 1337.

Gent(t)sch, Gentzsch (E Ger.-Wend-Sax.): like Jentzsch = Johannes (Jakob Gentzsch [Jentzsch], Grimma in Sax. 1549).

Gen(t)z, Gen(t)zen (Hbg.) like Jentz, Jentzen means Johannsen, son of Johannes [John] (Jens).

Gentzkow: pl.n. Genzkow in Meckl.

Genz (freq. in Hbg.) see Gentz.

^ Genzmer (E Ger.-Pom.): Slav. pers.n. like Venzmer. See also Genschmer. Cf. sh.f. Genzel.

Georg, George, Georges, Lat. Georgi (Georgius): Saint George (Greek ‘peasant, farmer’), martyr under Emperor Diocletian, minor saint and patron saint of the knights (Bahlow, VN, p. 37). Regional variants Jörg (S Ger-Alem.), Girg (Aust.), Jürgen (N Ger.).

Geppert (Sil.) besides Göppert, Göpfert, can be traced back in documents to Gotfried; likewise the Sil. pl.n. Geppersdorf freq. documented as Göpfridsdorff (1316 villa Gotfridi). The umlauted form Götfrid through assimilation changed to Göpfrid, with metathesis to Göpfert, CentrGer.-Sil. Göppert and to the unrounded form Geppert. For doc. evidence see Bahlow SN, p. 37. In Bavaria Göpfert besides Göttfried. See also Göbfardt, Göpferich.

Geps, Gepes, Gebs (Alem.-Swab.): a rare sh.f. of Gebwin, also Geben; in documents: ^ Gebizo (cf. Engizo = Engelhard). Gepzo de Gebinzinstein (Gebsenstein in Würt.). Joh. Gebso, Aargau 1295, Heinrich Gepzo (Gebze), Eßlingen 1324, Hans Gebs, Isny 1408.

Gerahn (Meckl.) see Geerhahn.

Geradehand, Gradhand: MHG gerade ‘agile, skillful, dexterous’, cf. Linkehand [left hand], Geringehand [small hand].

Gerasch, Gerratsch, Jerratsch, etc.: Wend. sh.f. of Georg. But L.Rhine Geraets = Gerhards.

Geratewohl see Grathwohl.

Gerbe(n)s = Gervens, see Garbens.

Gerber: MHG MLG gerwer ‘tanner’. Nowadays also LGer. Garber. Hence Weißgerber (tanner who tanned with alum) and Rothgerber (who tanned with oak bark). About leather industry in the Middle Ages see Bahlow, Liegnitzer FN, p. 141. Also UGer. Gerb (MHG gerwe) and Gerbl (freq. in Mnch.) mean tanner, cf. Joh. Gerb = Joh. Cerdo, Tauber area 1502, Anton Gerbel, Pforzheim 1495. But Gerbentrager (Mies 1380) like Hefentrager: from MHG gerwe, gerben ‘yeast’.

Gerberding, Garberding: Westph. patronymic of Gerbert, likewise Alberding, Humperdinck, Herberding, Elberding, Wilberding, Wolperding. Heyneke Gerberding, Han. 1402.

Gerbert: ‘famous for fighting with his spear’, Germanic pers.n.; also Pope Silvester’s II former name was Gerbert (Archbishop of Reims) around 1000. Hence Gehrbrecht, Gehrbracht, Gerberich, patr. Gerberding (Westph.). LGer. Garber(s), Garberding, Garbrecht. See also Garbers. Occasionally = Gerber (Brech., p. 548).

Gerbig (Thur.-Sax.-Sil.) derives from Gerwig (‘spear fight’); likewise Gerbing, Görbing, Gerwing, Girbig (see there); LGer. Garwig.

Gerboth, Gerpott (LGer.), Gerbode, Garbade (LGer.): ‘spear lord’. For Gerbet(h) also compare Sibeth (Sigbot). Gerboto, Erfurt 1311, Hartwig Gerbodo, Hbg. 1305, K. Gerbode, Worms 1286.

Gerbrandt, Garbrands (LGer-Fris.): brand ‘flaming sword’. Gerebrand, Bremen 1442, Dirk Garbrands, Frisia 1664. An 11th c. bishop Gerbrand of Seeland; Brant Gerbrandes, Han. 1501.

Gerbrecht, Gerbracht (Westph.), see Gerbert.

Gercke, Gercken(s) see Gerke.

Gerdeißen (Mnch.) see Gerteisen.

Gerdau (freq. in Hbg.): pl.n. near Ülzen. For water word gard, gerd see Bahlow ON, p. 161.

Gerdemann: from Gerden near Han., cf. Hs. van Gerden, Han. 1443.

Gerd(e)s: LGer. = Gerd’s (Gerhard’s) son, likewise Gerdsen; also Gerdts, Geerdts, Gehrtz, Geerz; Jertz. Hence Gerdesmeyer (Westph.). Cf. Cordes. In the Ammerland region near Oldenburg: Gerd Renken Gerdes, 1739, nowadays: Renkengerdes.

Gerding: LGer. patr. of Gerd (Gerhard), like Cording from Cord.

Gerdt(s) see Gerdes. Hinr. Gherdes, Barth 1414.

Gerdtel see Gertel.

Gerecht (UGer.): MHG ‘just’, but also ‘skillful, able’. H. Gerecht, Augsburg 1311.

Gere(c)ke see Gerke.

Gereon: patron saint of Cologne. Said to be identical with Ireon. Cf. Nied, p. 83.

Gerferts (L.Rhine) = Gervers (Fris.) Gerfrid (e.g. Bishop Gerfrid of Münster, 838; Gefridus, 1322, Gherevert, Bremen 1392, likewise Sievert for Sigfrid). Gerverdinkg (Westph.) and Gerberding are patronymics.

Gerg(e)s, Gergus: N Ger.-Rhineland = Georges. UGer. patr. is Gerger, Jerger, Görger, Jörger (Tyrol): also Gergler (from Gergl, Görgl).

Gerhab (UGer., rare): MHG gêr-habe ‘legal guardian’ (it actually means ‘the one who holds the child on his lap’). Eberlin Gerhap, Schlettstadt/Alsace 1439.

Gerhard(t), Franc. Görhardt; L.Rhine Gerhartz (patr.), Gerritzen (Col., Aachen), Gerretz (Eifel area), Gerdes, Geerdts (LGer.): also the sh.fs. Gerecke, Gehrke, Gerckens (LGer.), Gerle (UGer.): ‘spearbold’; name was especially popular in the L.Rhine-Dutch region as the writer Joh. Fischart noted correctly 400 years ago (“people from Cologne are called Gerhard”); der “gute Gerhard” ( a popular epic tale of Rudolf von Ems around 1250) was a Cologne businessman; the first builder of the Col. cathedral was Meister Gerhard. Cf. Geert Geerts, who was the Humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam.

Gerhoch see Gerock.

Gerhold, Gehrold, Gerholz see Gerold.

Gerhus (Hbg.): Westph. loc.n. or farm name like Brockhus, Geldehus, Veenhuis, all farmsteads in a swampy location; for ger (still MLG ‘filth, stench’), also contained in Ger-vliet, Ger-siek, Ger-beke see Bahlow ON, p. 166. The regional, rare fem. f.n. Gerhuse (sh.f. Huse), Würzburg 1409, should not be considered here.

Gericke (freq. in LGer. area) see Gerke. E Centr.Ger. Gerigk see Gehring.

Gering (LGer.) see Gehring.

Gerisch (E Ger.) see Giersch.

Gerke, Gerken (freq. in Hbg.), Gerkens: LGer. sh.f. or patr. of Gerhard (also Gerbrand, Gerbert, Gerbod, Germar, Gerwin). With patr. -ing: Gerking (Westph.). Doc.: Gereke around 1250-1350 freq. in Bremen, Hbg., Lüb., Ro.

Gerlach: old German pers.n. ending in -lach like Grundlach (from Gothic laikan ‘to jump, leap’, OHG leich ‘tournament’). Gerlach Gerlachs, near Rastatt 1294. Also Gerlich, Görlich (U.Saxony), Girlach (Girlach Czetsche, Liegnitz 1384), Görlach (Georg Görloch, Glatz 1558); UGer. patronymics: Gerlacher, Görlacher, Gerlicher (Hans Gerlacher, Kempten 1389); LGer. Garlach, Garlich.

Gerland originated through dissimilation from Gernand ‘spear-bold’, likewise Uhland (Uolant) from Odnand or Uolnant, Roland (Rulant) from Hrodnand (cf. E. Schröder, p. 65). A Teutonic Knight Gerlandus de Alemannia in Sicily, 13th c.; Gerland, Ro. 1265; Gerlant Munt, Hamelin 1452.

Gerle, Gerlein (UGer.) see Gehrlein.

Gerli, Gerlein (UGer.) see Gehrlein.

Gerlich, Görlich see Gerlach.

Gerling, Görling: patr. of the names with Ger. Peczolt Gerling, near Sorau 1381. Also Görling, Gierling; LGer. Garling, Jarling.

Gerloff, Gerleff, LGer.-Fris. Garleff, Garelfs, Graalfs see Garleff.

Germann see Gehrmann. See also Fris. Garms.

Germar, Germer, LGer. Garmer, Garmers old Ger. pers.n. ‘spear-famous’. ^ Germar, Jermar, Hbg. 13th c. Cf. pl.n. Germerode, Germershausen (Eichsfeld area). But also the pl.n. Görmar in Thur. (Doc. Germar) ‘swampy area of springs’ should be considered: Henning de Geremar (hence the FN Görmer).

Germund (rare): old German pers.n. (mund ‘protection, protector’ as in Vormund ‘legal guardian’). Germundus 1275 (Document register of Enns, Austria, III 640), Ro. 1260, Stralsund 1291.

Germscheid: pl.n. near Linz on the Rhine; from germ ‘gurgling bog water’; for more information see Bahlow ON, p. 167.

Gern, Gerner, Gernert (UGer.). related to the loc.n. and pl.n. Gern (freq. in Bav., Würt., Switz.). Cf. “10 Morgen Holz im Gern [10 acres of woods ...], Würt. 1394.

Gernand, Görnandt: ‘spear-bold’ (cf. Gerland, Görland), likewise Wignand, Signand, Volknand. Name occurs around 1250-1350 more freq. in Hbg., Lüb., Ro., Strals. (here also as Jarinand 1290). Gernand vern Lyen, Wetzlar 1300.

^ Gerndt, Gerntke see Gernot.

Gerner, secondary Gernert, Gernhardt (Franc., Bav.): related to the pl.n. Gern (5 times in Bav.). Valentin Gerner (Gernert), 18th c. Cf. Görner.

Gern(e)groß (Nbg., Mnch., Lpz. etc.): very popular surname [‘a show off’] Hannus Gernegroß, Liegnitz 1388, Göcz Gerngroß, Würzburg 1409, Gernegrot, Hbg. 1266. Cf. Gernreich, Gernhübsch [would like to be big, rich, pretty]: Peter Gernrich, 1363.

Gernhardt (Nbg., Würzburg), Görnhardt (Bamberg) is derived from older Gernert = Gerner, see there. Cf. Gehlhardt for Gehler(t), Schweickhardt for Schweiker(t), Gemeinhardt for Gemeiner(t).

Gern(t)holz: probably loc.n. Cf. Garnholz (originally Garnholt, im Garnholtz in Ammerland area).

Gernler (Switz.): Cuonrad dictus [called] Gernler, Basel 1281, presumably ‘net maker’ (MHG garn ‘net’). See also Garn, Garner.

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