See, under Soviet Union: Kharkov; Starokonstantinov; Staro-Nekrassowka.
There are so many mathematicians in 20C United States that it would be impossible to list them all, so I am only recording notable sites, generally concentrating on non-living mathematicians.
Perhaps the first mathematician in the US was Thomas HARRIOT who came to Virginia as surveyor, etc., in 1585. On his return, it is said he was in charge of some potatoes that Drake had brought from South America and Harriot consequently was responsible for the initial distribution of the potato in England and Ireland.
The border between SOUTH DAKOTA and MONTANA contains a famous mathematical/surveying error. The border was supposed to be on a meridian 27o west of Washington DC and was surveyed from each end to the middle where they found the lines missed by about a mile just a bit north of the Montana-Wyoming boundary. [Scot Morris; The Book of Strange Facts and Useless Information; Doubleday, NY, 1979, p. 12.]
The Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL), ABERDEEN Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland, was a centre of early computing research. VEBLEN worked here in the first War and afterward. Veblen recruited von Neumann as a consultant in 1937. BRL commissioned a differential analyser from the Moore School in Philadelphia in 1934. BRAINERD was BRL's liaison at the Moore School. GOLDSTINE worked on the BRL's analyser. In 1943 he heard about Mauchly's ideas and asked for a proposal. Brainerd, Mauchly & Eckert produced one and the contract to build ENIAC was signed on 5 Jun 1943. Veblen was Chief Scientist at BRL at this time. ENIAC first ran in November 1945 and ran until 1955 or 1956. It reduced the computing time for a firing table from one month to one day. It was on the Aberdeen railway platform that von Neumann met Goldstine in Aug 1945 and von Neumann learned about ENIAC. ENIAC was moved to BRL in 1947. D. H. LEHMER was here in 1945-1946 to assist in setting up the ENIAC. Lehmer recalled that when the Army wanted some publicity photos, all the workers were turned out and several sharply-dressed officers stood at the machines. In 1949, von Neumann et al. used ENIAC to compute 2037 digits of π in 70 hours. One source says ENIAC was shut down on 2 Oct 1955; another says it failed after a great thunderstorm in Oct 1956. The EDVAC was also built for BRL. It was delivered in Sep 1949, but it didn't work until October 1951. It ran intermittently until 1962, when it could not be restarted after the Christmas break. Later the ORDVAC was built here.
Willard Van Orman QUINE (1908-2000) was born in AKRON, Ohio.
Joseph HENRY (1797-1878), the physicist, was born in ALBANY, New York.
Thomas FULLER (1710-1790), the Virginian Calculator, or the Negro Calculator, was brought to Virginia as a slave in the mid 18C when about 14 years old. He was owned by a Mrs. Elizabeth Coxe, near ALEXANDRIA, Virginia. He had never learned to read or write. All accounts of him are based on one report of a visit to him in 1788 when he was nearly 80 and his memory was already weakening, and one obituary.
It took him about two minutes to give the number of seconds in a year and a half and about a minute and a half to give the number of seconds in seventy years, seventeen days and twelve hours. One of his questioners had checked this on paper and said Fuller's result was wrong, but Fuller instantly pointed out that the man had forgotten the leap years, which brought the two methods into agreement. He could multiply two 9-digit numbers in his head. We don't know exactly where he came from, but West Africa is most likely and we know some of the African trading tribes there were very competent at mental calculation.
[Barlow, pp. 17-18. S. B. Smith, pp. 178-180. The texts of the report and the obituary are reprinted in: John Fauvel & Paulus Gerdes; African slave and calculating prodigy: Bicentenary of the death of Thomas Fuller' Historia Mathematica 17:2 (May 1990) 141-151.]
AMES, Iowa, is the site of Iowa State University. John Vincent ATANASOFF (1903-1995) did his Master's in physics here, then went to Wisconsin for his PhD and returned here to teach in c1939. He proposed an electronic computing machine and built a prototype in 1939 and most of a full machine in 1939-1942, assisted by Clifford BERRY. This was the ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer). Due to the war the patent application was not pursued and the machine was dismantled in 1948, but the ABC work and Mauchly's 1941 visit to see it were key points in the 1973 invalidations of Eckert & Mauchly's ENIAC patent and the related delay-line patent. From the legal point of view, the ABC was the first 'computer', though it was not programmable – it was built to solve systems of liner equations. Iowa State is presently building a replica of the ABC. [Jack Schofield; Obituary: John Atanasoff Teaching the ABC of early computing; The Guardian (23 Jun 1995) 16.]
Melvil DEWEY (1851-1931) was librarian (or a student?) at AMHERST College, Massachusetts, when he devised the Dewey Decimal System of book classification in 1876 and Amherst was the first library to use it.
ANN ARBOR, Michigan, is the home of the University of Michigan. MOISE was here in 1947-1960.
William Redington HEWLETT (1913-2001) was born here, but grew up in California.
Michael AYRTON, modern sculptor and writer who was fascinated by the Minotaur myth, designed and built a brick walled labyrinth for Armand G. Erpf, a New York financier, at Dry Brook, ARKVILLE, New York in 1969. The maze has two centres, containing Ayrton's sculptures of the Minotaur and of Daedalus and Icarus. [Fisher & Kingham, p. 29. Photo in: Janet Bord; Mazes and Labyrinths of the World; Latimer New Dimensions, London, 1976, pp. 160-161. Pennick, pp. 160-161. Fisher, pp. 55, 145-146, 158, with colour photo of Icarus on p. 54, colour photo of the Minotaur on p. 146 and aerial colour photo on p. 147. Timpson (3), p. 66.] [Fisher, pp. 48 & 158] state that Ayrton also built in 1969 the Arkville Christian Maze, a version of the medieval octagonal Christian labyrinth similar to those at Amiens or St. Quentin. Ayrton had a copy of this maze put on his gravestone in Hadstock, Essex, England – see Section 6-A.
Sandra (Sandy) Lerner, Leonard (Len) Bosack and some engineering friends started cisco (now Cisco Systems) in their living room at 199 Oak Grove Avenue, ATHERTON, California, in 1984.
In ATLANTA, Georgia, there is a Zero Milepost, apparently originally erected in 1837? as the terminus of the proposed Western & Atlantic Railroad. In 1850 it was moved to its present location in the lobby of the New Georgia Railroad Depot, probably now a shopping mall, at Central Avenue and Upper or Lower Alabama Street, at the SE end of Underground Atlanta. [Elizabeth Boleman-Herring; Insight Pocket Guide: Atlanta; APA Publications (HK), 1994, pp. 15 & 19 & map.]
William Seward BURROUGHS (1857?-1898) was born in AUBURN, New York, grew up and became a bank clerk there. In 1882, he began to develop his calculator, but soon moved to St. Louis for his health.
George Bruce HALSTED came to the University of Texas, AUSTIN, Texas, as professor and head of department in 1884. Leonard Eugene DICKSON (1874 1954) was his student here before going to Chicago. Robert Lee MOORE (1882-1974) entered the University in 1898 and studied under Halsted, receiving BS and AM in 1901. After a year of school teaching in 1902-1903, Moore accepted E. H. Moore's invitation to Chicago. He returned to Austin in 1920 and taught until 1969, well beyond normal retirement age. His Foundations of Point Set Topology appeared in 1932, with a revised version in 1962. The Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy building is named for him. He produced 47 PhD students at Texas. Among his distinguished students were R. H. BING, F. B. JONES, E. E. MOISE, M. E. (Estell) RUDIN, G. T. WHYBURN, R. L. WILDER, G. S. YOUNG. F. Burton JONES did chemistry as an undergraduate but did mathematics for his 1935 PhD under Moore. He taught at Austin in 1935-1950 (except during WW2). Edwin Evariste MOISE (1920?-1999) was a graduate student under Moore, getting his PhD in 1947. [Louis McAuley; Dedication [to F. Burton Jones]; IN: William R. R. Transue, ed.; Proceedings of the Auburn Topology Conference March 69; Auburn Univ., Auburn, Alabama, 1969, pp. iii-xiii. F. Burton Jones; Dedication [to Robert Lee Moore]; IN: J. W. Rogers Jr., ed; Topology Conference Emory University 1970; Emory Univ., Atlanta, Georgia, 1970, pp. iv-x. D. Reginald Traylor; Dedication [to Robert Lee Moore]; IN: David Kay et al, eds.; Proceedings of the University of Oklahoma Topology Conference 1972; Dept. of Mathematics, The Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 1972, pp. i-xx.]
Edsger Wybe DIJKSTRA (1930-2002) was professor of computing sciences in 1984-1999.
BABSON PARK, Massachusetts, is the site of the Babson Institute which has a major collection of NEWTON material. The woodwork of the fore parlour of Newton's house in St. Martin's Street, demolished in 1913, was re erected in the Library here in 1939. [Archibald (2), p. 84.]
BALTIMORE, Maryland, is the seat of Johns Hopkins University, the first American university to develop a research program.
J. J. SYLVESTER spent 1876 1883 at Johns Hopkins, where there is a portrait in the Gilman Memorial Room, Gilman Hall [Anon., James Joseph Sylvester]. He founded the American Journal of Mathematics in 1878. Charles Sanders PEIRCE (1839-1914) was a lecturer in logic under Sylvester for a short period. In 1881-1882, CAYLEY lectured here at the invitation of Sylvester. Frank MORLEY was Professor and Head from the late 1890s [Morley, pp. 22 & 38].
In autumn 1884, William THOMSON (later Lord KELVIN) gave a famous series of 20 'Baltimore Lectures' on "Molecular Dynamics and the Wave Theory of Light" at Johns Hopkins. These were more in the nature of a master class – Rayleigh, Michelson and Morley were among a world-wide audience. Though Kelvin's ideas were already becoming obsolete, the lectures remain one of the best expositions of his mechanistic philosophy.
John W. MAUCHLY did his PhD in physics at Johns Hopkins, completing in 1932.
Oscar ZARISKI came here in the 1920s, fleeing Fascist oppression in Italy. Full Professor in 1937. Spent a year at Sao Paolo in 1945-1946, then went to Harvard in 1947.
BERKELEY, California, was named for Bishop BERKELEY. In his On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, he wrote
Westward the course of empire takes its way;
The four first acts already past,
A fifth shall close the drama with the day:
Time's noblest offspring is the last.
The view of the Golden Gate from the campus of the University of California certainly would have been conducive to remembering these lines.
Derrick Norman LEHMER (1867-1938) came to Berkeley as Instructor in 1900, Assistant Professor in 1904, Associate Professor in 1910, Professor in 1918, retiring and becoming Emeritus in 1937. He published Factor Tables for the First Ten Millions in 1909. He was also a poet, especially interested in Indian songs, and a composer, writing two performed operas. He lived at 2736 Regent Street, Berkeley, and died there.
Derrick Henry LEHMER (1905-1991) was born, raised, and attended school and university in Berkeley, receiving his degree in physics in 1927. He had already built his 'bicycle chain' sieve and published several papers. Emma Markovna TROTSKAIA had come to Berkeley in 1924 and was majoring in mathematics when she started working for D. N. Lehmer and met D. H. D. H. and Emma were married in 1928, becoming the best known husband and wife team in mathematics. Emma got her degree in 1928. After two years at Brown, two years of fellowships and six years at Lehigh, D. H. got a post at Berkeley in 1940, where he remained until retiring and becoming Emeritus in 1972, being Department Chairman in 1953-1957. He worked at ENIAC in 1945-1946 and at the SWAC at UCLA in 1950-1952 during the Loyalty Oath controversy.
Florian CAJORI (1859-1930) taught at the University from 1918.
Ernest Orlando LAWRENCE (1901-1958) developed the cyclotron here from 1930, receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939. The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, in the hills above the campus, commemorates him.
Chien-Shiung WU did her doctoral and post-doctoral studies here under Segre and Lawrence in the late 1930s.
OPPENHEIMER was Associate Professor in Physics in the early 1930s.
Julia Bowman ROBINSON (1919-1985) transferred to Berkeley for her senior year in 1939. Raphael M. ROBINSON had recently been appointed and was her Professor for number theory. They were married on 22 Dec 1941. Julia worked with Jerzy NEYMAN and continued on wartime projects. She did her PhD under Alfred TARSKI in 1948. (Tarski had been visiting Harvard when the War broke out and came to Berkeley a few years later.) By 1950, she had obtained the first steps in the resolution of Hilbert's Tenth Problem. In 1959, Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam made the next main step and the three of them produced a joint paper exposited the ideas in 1961. These results led Yuri Matijasevic to the complete solution in the early 1970s. Julia was duly honoured: she was the first woman mathematician elected to the National Academy of Sciences; Berkeley made her a Research Professor (since her husband was in the same Department, this took some bending of rules); first woman to be an officer of the American Mathematical Society in 1978, then the Society's President in 1983; awarded a MacArthur Fellowship; Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1985. In 1984, she was found to have leukemia and she died in adjacent Oakland on 30 Jul 1985. Raphael established a memorial fund in her name which supports promising graduate students. He also left 1M$ to the Department for fellowships. [Excerpts from: Constance Reid; Julia A Life in Mathematics; in: Berkeley Mathematics Newsletter 4:1 (Fall 1996) 6-7.] I feel privileged to have taken courses from him and to have met her. Julia's sister is Constance REID and she became interested in mathematics when Raphael explained his work on Mersenne primes to her, leading to her becoming one of the major popularisers of mathematics in this century and probably the most prolific mathematical biographer of all time.
Edwin H. SPANIER (1921-1996) came to Berkeley as Professor in 1959. Algebraic Topology, 1966, was the first systematic textbook in the field and remains in use. Retired in 1991 and moved to Scottsdale, Arizona in 1993 where he died in 1996. [Jerome Spanier; Faculty remembered: Memorial for Edwin H. Spanier, 1921 1996; Berkeley Mathematics Newsletter 4:1 (Fall 1996) 13.]
Stephen SMALE came to Berkeley about 1960. Fields Medal in 1966. National Medal of Science, 1996.
In the late 1960s, there were a number of informal and semi-formal meetings about creativity and mathematics. John Rhodes organized a talk on Fascism and Architecture in 60 Evans Hall as many felt the building was a dehumanizing workplace - though this never occurred to me when I was a student in 1960-1966. After the talk, Rhodes gave out paint brushes and paint and the audience went and painted a number of the walls in the Mathematics Department on the 7th to 10th floors and further murals were added later. These were on mathematical subjects such as Le Mort de Galois. [John Rhodes; A history of the Murals in Evans Hall; Berkeley Mathematics Newsletter 9:1 (Fall 2002) 7.]
Richard BORCHERDS (1960?- ) came to Berkeley in 1987 and became a professor in 1993. In 1996 he took leave and returned to Cambridge in 1996. Fields Medal 1998 for his development and application of vertex algebras which resolved the Conway-Norton 'Monstrous Moonshine' conjecture in 1989. [London Mathematical Society Newsletter 264 (Oct 1998) 7-8. Berkeley Mathematics Newsletter 6:1 (Fall 1999) 1 & 11.]
The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute is at 1000 Centennial Drive in the hills above the campus, but below the Radiation Laboratory, and has a sculpture, 'The Eight-Fold Way' by Helaman Ferguson, on its patio. The circle around the base shows a heptagonal tiling of the hyperbolic plane. The irregular sculpture is obtained by sewing up the edge of 24 of the heptagons which comprise a fundamental domain for a symmetry group of 168 elements. It has a number of paths with eight turns.
Derrick Henry LEHMER (1905-1991) taught at Lehigh University, BETHLEHEM, Pennsylvania, in 1934 1940. D. H. and Emma bought a Monroe electric desk calculator on the instalment plan, but could only run it in the day as it blinked the lights in their house and the one next door.
BLOOMINGTON, Indiana, is the site of Indiana University. Emil ARTIN (1898 1962) was here in 1938 1946. Max August ZORN (1906-1993) was professor from 1946 to 1971 and then professor emeritus until his death there.
Elihu YALE (1648-1721), the benefactor of Yale University, was born of Welsh immigrant parents at or near BOSTON, Massachusetts, but his family returned to London in 1652 and apparently never returned to the New World [B. Bailey, p. 57].
Benjamin FRANKLIN (1706 1790) was born in Milk Street, Boston. (I recall a plaque.) The family moved to the corner of Hanover and Union Streets when he was six.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences was founded here on 4 May 1780 [Kane (2), p. 15].
The American Statistical Association was founded in 1839 at 15 Cornhill Street [Kane, p. 492].
Alexander Graham BELL came to Boston University in 1872 as Professor of Vocal Physiology. It was at Bell's lodgings at 5 Exeter Place that the first telephone message – "Watson, come here, I want you" – occurred on 10 Mar 1876 [Kane, p. 512]. On 25 Jan 1915, Bell and Watson re-enacted this as the first transcontinental message from New York to San Francisco [Kane, p. 513].
The Boston Computer Museum was the first major computer museum, but it has now closed. The general material has been amalgamated into the Boston Science Museum, but all the computer history material has been moved to the Computer Museum in Moffett Field, California, qv.
Arthur Harold STONE (1916-1920) and his wife, Dorothy, also a mathematician, moved to Boston on their retirement in 1987 and he held a part-time Adjunct Professorship at Northeastern University.
The Supercomputing Research Center in BOWIE, Maryland, has Helaman Ferguson's sculpture 'Umbilic Torus NRC'.
David Eugene SMITH was Principal of the Normal School at BROCKPORT, New York, in 1891 1901.
Oswald VEBLEN (1880-1960) died in BROOKLIN, Maine.
Charlotte Angas SCOTT, one of the first women to get a PhD in mathematics, taught at BRYN MAWR, Pennsylvania, for most of her life. Emmy NOETHER was at Bryn Mawr in 1933-1935 and died there as a result of an operation.
Herman HOLLERITH (1860-1929), founder of punched-card machinery and eventually IBM, was born in BUFFALO, New York.
Zerah COLBURN (1804-1840), the first recorded child calculating prodigy, was born at CABOT, Vermont. His father discovered the ability just before his sixth birthday and soon took him on exhibition. They went to England in 1814 and Zerah returned in 1824, after his father's death. He then took on various as teacher and/or preacher in New York and Vermont, cf Norwich, Vermont, below. [Barlow, pp. 21-27; S. B. Smith, pp. 181 210].
CAMBRIDGE, Massachusetts, is the seat of both HARVARD and MIT.
A college was founded by the colonial government in 1636 at the instigation of Henry Dunster, who was the first president. John HARVARD, from Southwark, immigrated in 1637 and soon was appointed minister of the first church in Charlestown. In 1638, he died of tuberculosis and left £800 (= $2000) (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new college which was renamed in his honor, and the surrounding suburb of Newtown was renamed Cambridge, in the following year. No picture of him survives and the various statues, etc., are simply an artist's impression of what he may have looked like. His burial site is unknown. [Martin, pp. 5, 11, 15. Griffinhoofe, p. 77. B. Bailey, p. 59.]
The first printing press in America was set up in Harvard Yard by Stephen Day in 1638. (I have a vague memory that there was an earlier press in South America – ??)
Harvard had the first American observatory in 1844 and it produced the first photograph of a star in 1850 [P. Moore (4), pp. 109-110].
Benjamin PEIRCE was at Harvard in the early 19C and his son Charles Sanders PEIRCE (1839-1914) was born here, attended and graduated from Harvard, and died here.
Truman Henry SAFFORD (1836-1901) was a calculating prodigy as well as a precocious astronomer. In about 1850, he was invited to Harvard and worked with Prof. Everett and Pierce. At age 14, he computed the elements of a comet. He graduated from Harvard in 1854 and worked in the Observatory for a period. By this time, he lost his abilities of mental calculation. He became a noted astronomer. [Barlow, pp. 42-45.]
Alfred North WHITEHEAD (1861-1947) was Professor of Philosophy in 1924-1937 and died in Cambridge [Whittaker (2)]. QUINE was his student.
Maxime BOCHER (1867-1918) was professor from 1904.
Norbert Wiener got his PhD here in 1912? at age 18.
Edward Vermilye HUNTINGTON (1874-1952) was professor in 1919-1941.
R. Buckminster FULLER was a student.
Oswald VEBLEN (1880-1960) was a student, c1900.
Willard Van Orman QUINE (1908-2000) came to Harvard as a graduate student c1933, obtaining a PhD in two years, then travelling before becoming a teacher at Harvard in 1936. Professor in 1948. Retired in 1978.
Serge LANG was professor in 1971-1972.
Wassily LEONTIEF (1906- ) was at Harvard, receiving the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1973.
Lars Valerian AHLFORS (1907- ) was here in 1935-1938 and 1946-1977.
Hassler WHITNEY (1907- ) came to do his PhD, receiving it in 1932. He remained here until 1952, except for a year at Princeton, becoming full Professor in 1946. He then moved to the Institute for Advanced Study. [Biggs, Lloyd & Wilson, p. 222.]
Oscar ZARISKI (1899-1986) came to Harvard in 1947, staying on until 1969, five years beyond normal retirement age, when he was made Emeritus.
Kenneth J. ARROW (1921- ) was here, receiving the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1972.
Thomas Andrew LEHRER (1928- ) was a student at Harvard and taught here and at MIT.
Bill GATES (1955- ) was a 19-year old freshman when his friend Paul Allen saw the Altair 880 on the cover of the Jan 1975 ^ and they offered to write a BASIC interpreter for it and deliver it six weeks later. Gates and Allen gave up Harvard and founded Microsoft later in the year.
George David BIRKHOFF (1884-1944) was a student, then returned in 1912 and spent the rest of this life here [Biggs, Lloyd & Wilson, p. 214]. He is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge [letter from G. L. Alexanderson, 27 Nov 1995]. Garrett BIRKHOFF (1911- ) was professor at Harvard.
Edwin Evariste MOISE (1920?-1999) was Professor in 1961-1971.
George Ellery HALE (1868-1938) was a student.
Norbert WIENER (1894-1964) was at MIT from 1920 (or 1919) until his death.
Dirk STRUIK (1894- ) came to MIT in c1927 [Tattersall].
Victor Frederick WEISSKOPF (1908-2002) became professor of physics here in 1946-2992, after leaving the Manhattan Project. though he was head of CERN in 1961-1964. In the 1950s, he and Herman Feshbach developed the 'clouded crystal ball' model of the nucleus, still not superseded. [Anthony Tucker; [Obituary] Victor Weisskopf; The Guardian (26 Apr 2002) 20.]
Claude Elwood SHANNON (1916-2001) did his masters here under Vannevar BUSH, completing in 1940. His work was published in 1940 as "A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits" and founded the use of Boolean algebra for such analysis. He returned to MIT in 1958.
FEYNMAN was a student, getting his BSc in 1939.
Witold HUREWICZ (1904-1956) was at MIT from 1945.
Paul SAMUELSON (1915- ) was here, receiving the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1970.
Juergen MOSER (1928-1999) taught here in 1957-1960.
(Avram) Noam CHOMSKY (1928- ) began his teaching career here, teaching French and German to engineers. He became Ferrari P. Ward Professor of foreign languages and linguistics.
Alberto CALDERON (1922?-1998) taught here in 1955-1959 and 1973-1975.
Thomas Andrew LEHRER (1928- ) was a student at Harvard and taught there and at MIT.
Tim BERNERS-LEE is a Professor at MIT. FRS, 2001.
CHARLOTTESVILLE, Virginia, is the seat of the University of Virginia, established by Thomas Jefferson. In 1841, J. J. SYLVESTER was Professor for three months, hurriedly leaving after an altercation with a student. One version of the story has Sylvester running through an aggressive student with his sword cane but the truth is probably rather less violent.
The University of CHICAGO, Chicago, Illinois, was founded in 1892.
Truman Henry SAFFORD (1836-1901), who had been a calculating prodigy, was Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Dearborn Observatory in 1865-1876.
Albert Abraham MICHELSON (1852-1931) was here, receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1907.
George Ellery HALE (1868-1938) was born in Chicago. His father bought him a telescope in 1882 and he saw the transit of Venus. Attended MIT. He was Professor of Astronomy at the University from 1892. In 1891, he had invented the spectroheliograph which allows viewing the sun at one wavelength. He discovered magnetic fields in sunspots. He promoted the Yerkes Observatory (qv), the Mount Wilson Observatory (qv) and the Palomar Observatory (qv). [P. Moore (4), pp. 54-57 & 60-61.]
Derrick Norman LEHMER (1867-1938) did his PhD here, graduating in 1900.
Eliakim Hastings MOORE (1862-1932) was the first professor of mathematics and head of department from c1895 and died in Chicago. WEDDERBURN was here in 1905. Oskar BOLZA came to join Moore.
G. D. BIRKHOFF was a student.
Leonard Eugene DICKSON (1874 1954) came to study under E. H. Moore, receiving his PhD in 1896 and was here for many years.
Oswald VEBLEN (1880-1960) was a student of E. H. Moore, then taught here in 1903-1905.
Robert Lee MOORE (1882-1974) came to study under E. H. Moore in 1903 and obtained his PhD in 1905.
Abraham Adrian ALBERT (1905-1972) was born, studied under Dickson, taught and died in Chicago.
Derrick Henry LEHMER (1905-1991) started graduate school under Dickson in 1927, but was too independent to fit into Dickson's PhD treadmill and left within a year.
Antoni ZYGMUND was here for many years. In 1948, he met Alberto CALDERON (1922?-1998) in Buenos Aires and invited him to Chicago where he earned a PhD in one year. Calderon taught at Chicago in 1959-1972 and 1976-1985. Calderon and Zygmund were the principal founders of the Chicago school of analysis, developing the Calderon-Zygmund theory of singular integrals. Calderon was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, winner of the AMS Steele Prize in 1989, winner of the Wolf Prize in 1989 and received the NSF's National Medal of Science in 1991.
Subrahmanyan CHANDRASEKHAR (1911-1995) came to University of Chicago and the Yerkes Observatory in 1937, becoming Morton D. Hull Distinguished Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics from 1952 until his retirement in 1985. Nobel Prize in Physics, 1983, for his work on collapsing stars – see under Royal Astronomical Society in Section 2-D or Cambridge, Section 4-B. LEE and YANG (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1957) were his students. [Tucker & Lovell.]
Martin GARDNER (1914- ) was a student of philosophy at the University, getting his BA in 1936, and later scraped a living selling magic ideas.
Richard HAMMING (1915-1998) was an undergraduate here, getting his BS in 1942.
The doubles squash court under the west stand of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago, was the site of Chicago Pile 1, the first atomic pile, constructed under FERMI's direction in Nov 1942. At 15:25 on 2 Dec 1942, the pile went critical and continued to multiply until 15:53. SZILARD, COMPTON and WIGNER were present. They drank chianti from plastic cups and Szilard said "This will go down as a black day in the history of mankind." Compton telephoned the message "The Italian navigator has landed in the New World" to the Manhattan Project. The site is marked by a Henry Moore sculpture. The graphite bricks were eventually used for ink and souvenir pencils. The University's nuclear research lab is named Fermilab. [Tim Radford; The day the world went nuclear; The Guardian (1 Dec 1992) Part 2, 1-3. Eric Bailey; The making of CP-1; Telegraph Magazine (28 Nov 1992) 18-28.]
André WEIL (1907?-1996) was professor in 1947-1958. H. CARTAN spent various periods here from 1948.
Paul J. COHEN (1934- ) was a student here, getting his PhD in 1958.
Serge LANG was professor in 1953-1955.
Eduard HELLY taught at Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago in the early 1940s until his death in 1943 [Danzer, Grünbaum & Klee].
DIEUDONNÉ taught at Northwestern University, Chicago, in 1953-1959.
Seymour R. CRAY (1925-1996) was born in CHIPPEWA FALLS, Wisconsin. He established a special CDC lab here and designed the CDC 6600 with 34 people "including the janitor", with the first one shipped in 1963.
William Seward BURROUGHS (1857?-1898) moved to CITRONELLE, Alabama, for his health, but died of tuberculosis.
Ursinus College is in COLLEGEVILLE, Pennsylvania. John W. MAUCHLY was professor of physics here in the 1930s when he began investigating the use of electronic circuits to carry out meteorological computations. He used cold cathode tubes for dependability and economy. This did not get him very far and he also built an analog harmonic analyser. He reported on this to the 1940 AAAS convention, where he met Atanasoff. In 1941, he joined the Moore School (Univ. of Pennsylvania) program for training in new weapons systems and soon was hired as instructor – see Philadelphia below.
Norbert WIENER (1894-1964) was born at COLUMBIA, Missouri.
Marion TINSLEY (1927-1995), probably the greatest draughts (checkers) player ever, was born at COLUMBUS, Ohio. Cf Gainesville, below.
Tibor RADÓ came to Ohio State University, Columbus, as professor in 1930.
Hans ZASSENHAUS (1912 1991) was Research Professor from 1963 until his retirement in 1982. He was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Number Theory from its first issue in 1969 until his death. [Michael Pohst; In Memoriam: Hans Zassenhaus (1912-1991); Journal of Number Theory 47 (1994) 1-19.]
The Bank of America's Technology Center, located at CONCORD, California, has been recently renamed in honour of Al ZIPF, retired executive vice-president and head of the computing department where he was a developer of ERMA (Electronic Recording Method of Accounting or Electronic Recording Machine – Accounting) and MIRC (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition). There is a plaque and an exhibition including a restored ERMA machine. [Charles Babbage Institute Newsletter 15:3 (Spring 1993) 8 & 16:1 (Fall 1993) 1 & 5 and letter of 2 Aug 1993 giving the location which was omitted from the first article.]
In the early 19C (c1820?), Samuel Read HALL founded the first normal school in America at CONCORD, Vermont. He is credited with introducing blackboards into schools!
David Eugene SMITH (1860 1944) was born in CORTLAND, New York. He attended the State Normal School there and was later a teacher of mathematics there.
Robert Lee MOORE (1882-1974) was born and grew up in DALLAS, Texas. George Bruce HALSTED came to the University of Texas in 1884. Leonard Eugene DICKSON (1874 1954) was his student here before going to Chicago. Moore entered the University of Texas in 1898 and studied under Halsted. After a year of school teaching in 1902-1903, Moore accepted E. H. Moore's invitation to Chicago. He returned to Dallas in 1920.
Oswald VEBLEN (1880-1960) was born in DECORAH, Iowa.
DEVIL'S POSTPILE National Monument, California. This is 7 mi of forest road from Minaret Summit which is near Mammoth Lakes, off US Highway 395. This is one of the few places in the world where basalt has cooled in a columnar formation. The columns approximately form a hexagonal tessellation. See Giant's Causeway, Section 6-D, for geological details and other examples. Here there is a wall of pillars about 50 ft high and the top was levelled and polished by glacier action giving a tessellated pavement.
Duke University is in DURHAM, North Carolina. J. B. RHINE began his ESP experiments here in 1927. These have provided a great deal of material on the problems of conducting convincing statistical trials.
ESTERO, Florida, a bit south of Fort Myers, was the site of the New Jerusalem established by the Koreshans, followers of Dr. Cyrus Teed, in c1897. (Koresh is the Persian form of Cyrus.) Teed believed that the earth was hollow and we lived on the inside of a sphere of radius about 4000 miles. He got a engineer/mechanic to build a 'rectilineator' which was intended to produce a straight line along a line of sight and set this up on the beach nearby. They managed to find that the 'air line' intersected the water line after 4 1/8 miles! The Koreshans were a successful utopia for some time. The site has become a state park and the only surviving piece of the rectilineator is in a museum at Fort Myers. [John Michell; Eccentric Lives and Peculiar Notions; (Thames & Hudson, 1984); Cardinal (Sphere), 1989, pp. 36-37 & 41-50.]
EUGENE, Oregon, is the seat of the University of Oregon. The new Science Complex has exterior portrait sculptures of von NEUMANN, TURING, NEWTON, EINSTEIN and others. The Einstein portrait is based on the famous photo with his tongue sticking out! [Letter and photos from Alexanderson, 19 Apr & 6 Jul 1993.]
EVANSTON, Illinois, is the seat of Northwestern University. L. J. COMRIE was Assistant Professor of Astronomy in 1924-1925. John POPLE (1925- ) was born and studied in England, but later emigrated to Northwestern. He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1998 for his work in developing a computer package to do quantum chemical calculations.
Richard FEYNMAN (1918-1988) was born in FAR ROCKAWAY, New York.
FLAGSTAFF, Arizona, is the site of the Lowell Observatory founded in 1894 to study Mars, by Percival LOWELL (??-1916), a wealthy amateur astronomer who believed Mars was inhabited. It is over 7200 ft high. In 1908 he announced the famous 'canals' of Mars, which he described as red. A 24-inch refractor was obtained and, sadly, the canals failed to show up with higher magnification and it is believed that Lowell was suffering from an eye disease which caused him to be drawing the veins in his eyes! More significantly, he believed that the motions of Neptune were anomalous and could only be due to another planet, whose position he calculated in about 1900, but his search did not turn up anything by the time he died. In 1928, the Director, V. M. Slipher, decided to try searching again with improved equipment. For this search, he hired Clyde W. TOMBAUGH (1906-1997), an unqualified but enthusiastic astronomer who had made his own telescope and produced excellent drawings of Mars which he had sent to Slipher. In 1929, Tombaugh arrived to start the search using a blink microscope which allows comparisons between two pictures of the same region taken a few days apart. On 18 Feb 1930, he discovered a spot of light which moved between two photos, not far from where Lowell had predicted. The announcement of the discovery was withheld until 13 Mar, the anniversary of Herschel's discovery of Uranus and of Lowell's birth. The planet was named Pluto. Tombaugh was given an honorary degree and continued with a distinguished career in astronomy. He continued the search to find out if there were other planets, examining some 90,000,000 star images, but none were found. (More recently several hundred bodies have been found beyond Pluto, but all are very small – smaller than Tombaugh's methods could reveal.) In 1944, he went to the White Sands Proving Ground. [Kane, p. 41. P. Moore (3). P. Moore (4), pp. 49-50.] [Vijaya Ghose, ed.; Limca Book of Records 1998; Limca Book of Records, Guragon, near Delhi, India, 9th ed, 1998, p. 156] states that V. B. Ketkar had predicted the location of Pluto in 1911 – I don't know how accurate this was.]
[Isaac Asimov; ^ ; OUP, 1987, p. 159] points out that Pluto is actually too small to have any noticeable effect on the motion of Neptune, so the discovery of Pluto was entirely fortuitous!
Marion TINSLEY (1927-1995), probably the greatest draughts (checkers) player ever, was a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Florida, GAINESVILLE(??). He achieved fame by retaining the World Championship against all computers until he fell ill in his last tournament and had to resign with the score at 0 6 0. [William Hartston; Obituary: Marion Tinsley; The independent (15 Apr 1995).]
Claude Elwood SHANNON (1916-2001) grew up in GAYLORD, Michigan.
In HAMILTON, Ohio, is an unusual memorial to John Cleves SYMMES (1780-1829) who promulgated a theory "that the earth is hollow, habitable within; containing a number of solid concentrick spheres; one within the other, and that it is open at the pole twelve or sixteen degrees." The monument, erected by his son Americus Vespucius Symmes, shows the hollow world and describes his theory. [Irving Wallace; The Square Pegs; Hutchinson, London, 1958; New English Library, London, 1968; Chap VII: The explorer of the hollow earth, pp. 156-169, esp. pp. 160 & 168.]
HANOVER, New Hampshire, is the site of Dartmouth College (now University). John George KEMENY (János György Kemény) (1926? 1992) was here from 1953 to 1990, being President in 1970-1982. He and Thomas E. KURTZ developed BASIC here in 1963-1964. They released TRUE BASIC in 1985.
Leonard Eugene DICKSON (1874-1954) died in HARLINGEN, Texas.
Stephen Cole KLEENE (1909- ) was born at HARTFORD, Connecticut.
Frank MORLEY was Professor at HAVERFORD College, Pennsylvania, from 1887 to the late 1890s [Morley, p. 34 & 38.]
HOBOKEN, New Jersey, was the home of Keuffel & Esser, the leading manufacturers of slide rules from 1886 until the early 1970s [Thompson, p. 15]. In 1967, the company made a study of future demand for slide rules and had no idea they would become obsolete. [K. M. Reese; The demise of the slide rule; Chemical & Engineering News 60 (18 Jan 1982); reproduced in: Robert L. Weber; Science with a Smile; Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1992, pp. 426-427.] Cf Mountainside, below.
Hollywood, California – see: Los Angeles.
Marion TINSLEY (1927-1995), probably the greatest draughts (checkers) player ever, died at HOUSTON, Texas. Cf Gainesville, above.
Houston is the home of Rice University. Robert F. CURL Jr and Richard E. SMALLEY, two of the discoverers of C60 (= buckyball or Buckminsterfullerene, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1996) are here.
ILION, New York, near Albany, was the site of the REMINGTON Armoury, which began making the first commercial typewriters in 1874. This became Remington Rand, then Sperry Rand, then UNISYS.
Leonard Eugene DICKSON (1874 1954) was born in INDEPENDENCE, Iowa [Archibald (3), p. 22].
ITHACA, New York, is the seat of Cornell University. Richard FEYNMAN (1918-1988) was here in 1945-1950. Hans A. BETHE (1906- ) was here for many years.
The Official U. S. Observatory is at KITT PEAK, Arizona, where several telescopes have been set up, including a 150 inch reflector [P. Moore (4), pp. 76-77]. In Oct 1999, an astronomer discovered the 17th moon of Jupiter, though it was not until Jul 2000 that it was confirmed and announced. It is only about three miles across. [Tim Radford; Us astronomers discover new moon of Jupiter; The Guardian (24 Jul 2000) 9.]
LANGLEY, Virginia, across the Potomac from Washington, has the Headquarters of the CIA. In its garden is a sculpture, Kryptos, by Jim Sanborn including an 865 word encrypted message in four parts. In Jun 1999, Jim Gillogly announced that he had cracked three parts of the message after seven years work. David Stein, a CIA employee said he had done the same with pencil and paper a few years earlier but had not felt able to publish this. The messages are a poetic direction towards a nearby location. Sanborn feels the final message will never be solved. [CIA spies spooked by backyard crypto-nerds; The Observer (20 Jun 1999) 24.]
EINSTEIN's brain is in three jars in the office of Dr. Thomas Harvey in LAWRENCE, Kansas. In Jun 1999, the first anatomical studies of it were published. It had large inferior parietal regions causing it to be 15% wider than average and these areas are associated with visual-spatial cognition, mathematical thought and imagery of movement. It was also unique in not having the groove, called the sulcus, in this area. [Sandra Witelson et al in The Lancet, reported as Sarah Bosely; Einstein had his grey matter where it really counted; The Guardian (18 Jun 1999) 12.]
Derrick Norman LEHMER (1867-1938) graduated from the University of Nebraska, LINCOLN, Nebraska – AB, 1893, AM 1896.
LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, is well known as the birthplace of the atomic bomb developed by the Manhattan Project. Since then it has been a major research establishment. Many noted mathematicians and physicists were here during the war and some were here afterwards – BETHE, Cornelius EVERETT, FERMI, FEYNMAN (in 1942-1945), HAMMING (1943-1946), KEMENY, METROPOLIS, Von NEUMANN, OPPENHEIMER (Director in 1943 1945), TELLER, ULAM, WEISSKOPF (leader of a theoretical physics group in 1943-1946), etc. Feynman, though fresh from his PhD, soon became head of the Theoretical Division. A major impetus for the development of the ENIAC and EDVAC was the need for nuclear calculations. These pressures also led to the development of the Monte Carlo method here and von Neumann introduced the first (rather poor) random number generator. In c1946, Ulam and Everett demonstrated that Teller's shock-wave proposal for an H bomb could not work due to energy loses and Ulam provided a design using radiation compression from a fission device, which was used. Teller claimed all the credit for the design and when the government offered to award a patent to Teller and Ulam, Teller refused to participate and no patent was issued. In 2000, a forest fire burned down most of the buildings of the Manhattan project except for the building where the Trinity high explosive assembly was completed.
ZORN was at UCLA, LOS ANGELES, California, in 1936-1946.
Alonzo CHURCH (1903-1995) was at UCLA from 1967.
The National Bureau of Standards set up the SWAC (Standards Western Automatic Computer) in an Institute for Numerical Analysis at UCLA about 1950. D. H. LEHMER was director in 1950-1952, along with Harry HUSKEY. The SWAC had an add time of 64 μsec and a memory of 256 36-bit words. Rafael M. ROBINSON, in Berkeley, asked for a copy of the manual and sent a program to find Mersenne primes using the Lucas-Lehmer test down to Lehmer a month later. The program comprised 184 machine instructions on 24 feet of paper tape and would handle cases up through 2297. On 30 Jan 1952, the program ran successfully on its first trial and discovered two new Mersenne primes: M521 (at about 10:00 pm, taking about a minute) and M607 (just before midnight). M1279, M2203 and M2281 were found in the next months. This is still the record for the most Mersenne primes found by a single program. Lehmer was present when the program was tested on M257, which Lehmer spent some 700 hours in testing c1932, and the program confirmed this in a fraction of a second. c1982, Robinson ran his program on an early PC which only ran about twice as fast as the SWAC.
In 1969, the Internet began as ARPANET. It was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and built for the Department of Defense by Bolt, Beranek and Newman. It was developed by Larry Roberts and J. C. R. Licklider, using packet switching, which had first been proposed in 1965. The first interface message processor was installed at UCLA in Sep 1969. UC Santa Barbara, Stanford Research Institute and Univ. of Utah connected to it by the end of the year. The protocols for communication between computers were developed by a group of graduate(?) students at UCLA who initially thought these were some kind of test and labelled them 'requests for comments' or RFC, a title which survives as the generic name for the net archives. The main organizers were Vint Cerf, Jon Postel and Steve Crocker, who had been at Van Nuys High School together. Postel organised the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and ran it until his death in 1998, while being at UCLA and being Director of the Computer Networks Division of USC's Information Science Institute. (In Jan 1971, there were 13 nodes; in Jan 1972, 23 nodes. In 1983, the transmission speed was 9.6Kbits/sec and there were about 40 nodes. By 1983, there were 400 nodes and 1000 by 1984.)
The MAGIC CASTLE (7001 Franklin Avenue, Hollywood, California, 90028, USA; tel: 213-851 3313) is the most famous magic club in the world.
The GETTY MUSEUM houses some items of interest. I recently saw a fine Gerrit Dou (1613-1675) painting: Astronomer by Candlelight (c1665) showing the astronomer holding compasses by a celestial globe and hourglass. Quite a bit of 17-18C furniture has concealed compartments and a special talk and exhibition of this was given for the International Puzzle Party in 2000. A recent exhibition, Devices of Wonder, showed some of this furniture as well as anamorphic art and other optical toys; automata; a two heads, four bodies painting; etc.
LOS CRUCES, New Mexico, is the site of New Mexico State University. Clyde TOMBAUGH (1906-1997) was professor of astronomy from 1958.
LYNCHBURG, Virginia, is the scene of one of the great cryptographic mysteries, the Beale ciphers. In Jan 1820, Thomas J. Beale arrived at Lynchburg, Virginia, and stayed at the Washington Hotel. At the end of Mar, he left. Two years later, he returned. As he left in the spring, he entrusted the hotel owner, Robert Morris, with a locked iron box containing 'papers of value and importance'. He was never seen again. In 1845, Morris opened the box and found a plain English note and three sheets of numbers. The English text said that Beale and 29 others were travelling across America and were somewhere north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, when they found gold. They mined the site for 18 months, then decided the money should be moved to a secure place back east. Beale had brought it to Lynchburg and buried it in 1820. On his second visit, he brought more for the cache. The group decided they wanted someone to distribute the gold to their relatives if anything happened to them and Beale had selected Morris for this role. However, the letter said that the key to the ciphered list of names and instructions for finding the cache would be sent by another party, and this had not occurred. Morris attempted to decipher the sheets for 20 years, but in 1864 he realised he was reaching the end of his life and revealed the story to a friend. The friend managed to crack the second of the ciphers – the numbers referred to words in the Declaration of Independence and one took the initial letters of these. This stated that Beale had hidden nearly 3000 pounds of gold and over 5000 pounds of silver with some jewels, but only alluded to the site. The friend was unable to decode the other documents and eventually, in 1885, published a pamphlet giving the whole story and the ciphered texts. Since then, many cryptanalysts, both amateur and professional, have tried to crack the ciphers, but gotten nowhere. William Friedman used to assign them in his training program at the Signal Intelligence Service because he thought they were of 'diabolical ingenuity, specifically designed to lure the unwary reader'. Current thought is that the effort devoted to trying to solve these has generated a vast amount of new techniques and results in cryptography.
George Abram MILLER (1863-1951) was born in LYNVILLE, Pennsylvania.
MADISON, Wisconsin, is the seat of the University of Wisconsin. G. D. BIRKHOFF taught here in the early 1900s. Stephen Cole KLEENE taught here from 1935, becoming Cyrus C. MacDuffee Professor. John Vincent ATANASOFF (1903-1995) went to Wisconsin for his PhD, finishing c1939. Claude SHANNON (1916-2001) was an undergraduate here, getting a double BSc in mathematics and electrical engineering. Jack KILBY, inventor of the integrated circuit, did his MS in electrical engineering here, finishing in 1947?
Eliakim Hastings MOORE (1862-1932) was born in MARIETTA, Ohio.
The mountain of MAUNA KEA, Big Island, Hawaii, rises to nearly 14,000 ft above the sea, above 60% of the earth's atmosphere, and in 1963, the astronomer Gerard Kuiper recognised it as being ideal for astronomical observatories and it currently houses the world's largest telescope. In 1977, Jerry Nelson at the University of California, proposed a new mirror system with computer controlled separate segments. In c 1980, the W. M. Keck Foundation donated $70,000,000 – 75% of the cost. The mirror has 36 hexagonal segments, 6 ft in diameter, which are controlled to a millionth of an inch. It was first tested with nine segments on 24 Nov 1990 and found to be superb and the full mirror met all expectations when completed in 1992. The Keck Foundation was so pleased that it made a second grant to build another example nearby, completed in 1996, which will eventually be able to work with the first as a telescope of twice the area. Other telescopes on the peak are: the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) with a thin 150-inch mirror, which turned out to be good enough to be usable for optical observations; the NASA Infra-Red Telescope Facility (IRTF) with a 118-inch mirror; the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) for microwave reception; the 141-inch Canada-France-Hawaii (CFH) reflector; the 327-inch Japanese Suburu reflector (awaiting completion). People stay at a house at 10,000 ft as the thinness of the air at the summit is considered to make sleeping there hazardous. In Jun 1999, the 312 in Gemini North telescope began operation and was found to be about twice as powerful as the Hubble orbiting telescope. This is due to computer control which compensates for atmospheric distortion increasing the sharpness by a factor of 20. [Tim Radford; Telescope outstrips Hubble; The Guardian (17 Jun 1999) 12.]
MIAMI, Ohio, is the site of Ohio State University, where Alberto CALDERON (1922?-1998) taught in 1950-1953.
Charles Sanders PEIRCE (1839-1914) spent most of his life in MILFORD, Pennsylvania and died there. He had no academic position after a few years at Johns Hopkins.
R. Buckminster FULLER (1895-??) was born at MILTON, Massachusetts.
Charles Howard HINTON taught at the University of Minnesota, MINNEAPOLIS, from about 1897 to 1900 [Rucker]. The National Science and Technology Research Center for Computation and Visualization of Geometric Structures at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, has Helaman Ferguson's sculpture 'Thurston's Hyperbolic Knotted Wyes II'.
Seymour CRAY (1925-1996) was a student, obtaining a BSc in EE and a master's in applied mathematics in 1951. He then joined ERA, just down the street, and designed the ERA 1103, described as the first commercially available computer. ERA was taken over by Remington Rand, then Sperry Rand. In 1957, William NOYCE, Cray and others leave and set up CDC at 501 Park Avenue. In 1960, Cray designed the CDC 1604, the first commercial solid state machine. He then took his group to Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, qv above, where he designed the CDC 6600.
The COMPUTER MUSEUM HISTORY CENTER (Building T12-A or PO Box 367, Moffett Field (Mountain View), California, 94035, USA; tel: 650-604 2579; fax: 650-604 2594; web: www.computerhistory.org) is currently within the Ames Research Center, MOFFETT FIELD. This started in 1996 with the historical computer material formerly in the Boston Computer Museum. At present, it is a large and fairly full shed and is open to the public on Wednesdays at 13:00 (or other times by arrangement). One must telephone in advance and get badged onto the site, which can take a little time. Most of the field has been decommissioned; a three acre site has been set aside for a new building and the field perimeter will be adjusted in a year or two to put various museums off the base into a publicly accessible area.
Eduard HELLY taught at MONMOUTH Junior College, New Jersey, after immigrating to the USA in 1938 [Danzer, Grünbaum & Klee].
Mount Palomar – see: Palomar.
Mount Wilson – see under Pasadena.
Mountain View – see: Moffett Field.
MOUNTAINSIDE, New Jersey, was the home of Sterling Plastics, apparently the last maker of slide rules in the US when they ceased in Dec 1980. Cf Hoboken above.
The school, called Pine Tree College, in MURPHYS, California, was founded in 1860 as California's first public school. Albert Abraham MICHELSON (1852-1931, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1907) was a graduate, but had been born in Poland.
MURRAY HILL, New Jersey, is the home of Bell Laboratories. Claude Elwood SHANNON (1916-2001) came here during or after the War and published his "A mathematical theory of communication" in 1948, based on his wartime work. This coined the word 'bit'. Shannon was also a pioneer in cryptography and error-correcting codes and developed a number of recreational ideas: Shannon's switching game; his 'Hoax' version of Hex; a machine to solve a Rubik's Cube; etc. Richard HAMMING (1915-1998) joined Bell Labs in 1946 and stayed until he retired in 1976. He invented error correcting codes here. In his Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers of 1962, he gave the famous epigram: "The purpose of computation is insight, not numbers." Karl JANSKY (1905-1950) was investigating static in radio and discovered radio waves emanating from the Milky Way here in 1931, but, like Oliver Lodge in 1900, he was unable to detect radio waves from the sun. So he didn't continue with his observations and no one else did until after WW2. Lodge and Jansky are considered the founders of radio astronomy. BARDEEN, BRATTAIN and SHOCKLEY discovered the transistor in late 1947, earning the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Their colleague John Robinson Pierce (1910-2002) coins the word 'transistor' in response to Brattain's 1948 request for advice on naming the device. Negative feedback was discovered here. Pierce headed the team that designed and built Telstar, the first active communications satellite, launched in 1962 – they had previously tested the ideas by using Echo 1, a balloon satellite, as a passive reflector in 1980. WILSON and PENZIAS discovered the cosmic background radiation in the 1960s (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1978).
Charles TOWNES, one of the inventors of the maser and laser, Nobel Prize in 1964, was at Columbia University and at Bell Labs. Cf Prokhorov at St. Petersburg, Soviet Union.
NEW HAVEN, Connecticut, is the site of Yale University. It began as the Collegiate School of Connecticut in nearby Saybrook and was struggling when Cotton Mather wrote to Elihu YALE (qv under Wrexham, Wales in Section 6-B, and under Madras, India, in Section 10), whose generous gift led to the institution being named for him. Josiah Willard GIBBS (1839-1903) was at Yale when he developed vector analysis c1880 and he is buried in the Grove Street Cemetery [Alexanderson]. Marshall HALL Jr was a student to 1932 and in 1934-1936. Max August ZORN (1906-1993) was a Sterling Fellow here in 1934-1935 when he developed Zorn's Lemma. Hassler WHITNEY (1907- ) was a student here, receiving degrees of Ph.B. and Mus.B. Serge LANG was here from 1972. Benoit MANDELBROT (1924 ) was appointed Sterling Professor of Mathematical Sciences in c2000.
The Beinecke Library at Yale houses one of the most enigmatic books of all time – the VOYNICH MANUSCRIPT. Wilfrid Michail Voynich ( -1930) was a chemist who became a Polish revolutionary, escaped from Siberia and settled in London, married Ethel Lilian Boole (1864-1960) (the fifth daughter of George BOOLE) and became a renowned rare book dealer on Shaftesbury Avenue, London, then moved to New York c1914. In 1912 he produced this MS; he never said where it had come from, claiming this would prejudice his getting more books from the same source, but his records later indicated it had come from a Jesuit monastery in Villa Mondragoni, Frascati, somewhat south of Rome. An accompanying letter dated 1666 and addressed to Athanasius Kircher asked Kircher to decipher it. The entire MS appears to be in some elaborate cipher, but no one has made any progress whatsoever in deciphering it. Voynich persuaded an American cryptographer to work on it and they produced a fantastic interpretation that it had been written by Roger Bacon. The current consensus is that it seems to be a 15C Italian work. Same claim it is a medieval herbal, but the botanical illustrations are distorted, possibly to emphasise the distinctive parts of the plant, so that identifications are difficult. Others see it as an astrological or alchemical work. At least one person sees a map of our galaxy in one illustration and deduces it was produced with extraterrestrial assistance! Several people claim that they have identified the handwriting in the two sets of added page numbers as being that of John DEE and Edward Kelley. Some students have wondered if Voynich might have made the whole thing up, based on the letter to Kircher, but this appears to be authentic as another similar letter of 1667 has been found in Vatican archives which had not been available until after Voynich's death. Voynich and his wife were friends of the noted spy Sidney Reilly (Ace of Spies), who had also trained as a chemist and was known to be studying works on medieval pigments in the British Museum in the early 1900s. Voynich would have easily been able to obtain antique vellum pages. Voynich offered the book for sale at $160,000 but no one ever bought it and it was sold to H. P. Kraus, the leading rare book dealer in New York, for $20,000 after Voynich's death. Kraus priced it again at $160,000, but never sold it and it was donated to Yale. Yale has been surprisingly recalcitrant about permitting age testing on the MS which might clarify much of the mystery.
In NEW ORLEANS, Louisiana, Burgundy Street was formerly CRAPS Street, built through the property of Bernard Xavier Philippe de Marigny de Mandeville, who introduced the French dice game of 'hazards' into the US, where it rapidly evolved into the dice game known as 'Crapaud's game' and then 'Craps'. De Marigny lost so much money at the game that he had to subdivide and sell off this property. However, other sources claim craps derives from crabs, the lowest throw at hazards. [Kane (2), p. 110. Espy, p. 214.]
Edwin Evariste MOISE (1920?-1999) was born in New Orleans and attended Tulane University there.
Manhattan Island, NEW YORK CITY, New York, is famous as the subject of one of the most interesting financial transactions in history. In 1626, the leader of the Dutch settlers, Peter Minuit, purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company from Chief Manhasset of the Canarsees (Indians based in Brooklyn) for axes, trinkets and cloth worth 60 guilders (about $24). It is usually said that the Indians were swindled. However history is rarely simple. Apparently the Indians who sold the island had no rights to it, so it was the Dutch who were swindled. A version of the story says the Dutch had to buy the island again some years later from the rightful owners. [Companion Guide.] This deal is the subject of many discussions on compound interest, both serious and facetious. E.g. the famous Canadian humorist and economist, Stephen Leacock, discusses the Manhattan Island question in section IV: Have you even got One Cent? of Mariposa Moves On in his: Happy Stories – just to Laugh at of 1945, pp. 180-181. It turns out that the Indians weren't so badly treated. If they had invested their money and earned an annual rate of r, then in n years after 1626, they would have Pn = 24 (1+r)n. At the end of 2000, n = 374, and if r = 7%, then P374 = 2.34 trillion dollars! Various authors have asserted at various times that the Indians would have enough money to buy back the island, perhaps including all the buildings on it! However, I have no estimate of the value of the land and buildings. Leacock gives some estimates of interest rates during the period, but I don't know how accurate they are nor do I have any estimates for more recent periods.
The American BLACK CHAMBER, the cryptographic organization headed by Herbert O. YARDLEY, was first set up in the upper half of 22 East 36th St. in c1919 [Lewin, p. 20].
The BROOKLYN CHILDREN'S MUSEUM, 145 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, tel: 718 735 4400, is a maze of tunnels and tubes in itself and includes a three-dimensional maze formed from transparent cubes [^ ].