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This document is a draft of work in progress. It is not in the "public domain". However, I am happy for people to make use of it for non-profit purposes, and t


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Part 1 offers advice concerning…, tha Pàirt 1 a’ tairgse comhairle mu…. Much of what is already offered, mòran de na thàtar a’ tairgse cheana. Respond relevantly by questioning, supporting an opinion or offering an alternative point of view, a’ freagairt gu h-iomchaidh le bhith a’ cur cheistean, a’ cur taice ri beachd no a’ tairgse barail eadar-dhealaichte. Pupils should have the opportunity to participate in the full range of experiences offered by Gaelic, bu chòir an cothrom a bhith aig cloinn a bhith a’ gabhail pàirt anns a h-uile aon fhiosrachadh a tha a’ Ghàidhlig a’ tairgse. It is offered only to promote further discussion, chan eilear ga thairgse ach dìreach gus an tuilleadh deasbaid a thogail

(b) cuir an tairgse, vn cur an tairgse. Activities and the use of play equipment offer children opportunities to develop in an environment free from prejudice and discrimination, tha gnìomhan-cluiche agus a bhith a’ cleachdadh stuth-chluiche a’ cur an tairgse cloinne chothroman air fàs ann an àrainneachd saor o chlaon-bhàidh agus o lethbhreith

^ 2 (a) thoir, vn toirt. Respond by offering an opinion, a’ freagairt le bhith a’ toirt beachd. Both the process and the products will offer the teacher opportunities for assessment, bidh an dà chuid an dòigh-obrach agus na thig às an obair a’ toirt cothroim don tidsear air measadh a dhèanamh

(b) thoir seachad, vn toirt seachad. Class debates could offer more formal contexts, dh’fhaodadh deasbadan anns a’ chlas suidhichidhean na b’fhoirmeile a thoirt seachad. In order to offer comment on some aspects of author’s point of view and purpose, gus beachd a thoirt seachad air cuid de nithean a bhuineas do shealladh agus do dh’adhbhar an ùghdair. But they may well offer information to allow the curriculum to be revised, ach faodaidh iad air a shon sin fiosrachadh a thoirt seachad a bheir cothrom ath-sgrùdadh a dhèanamh air a’ chlàr-theagaisg

^ 3 (a) cuir air adhart. To offer and justify their own opinions, am beachdan fhèin a chur air adhart agus a dhearbhadh

(b) cuir an cèill. To offer alternatives and raise issues, roghainnean a chur an cèill agus puingean a thogail

(c) cuir fa chomhair dhaoine. The programmes described here offer only general guidance, chan eil na prògraman air a bheil iomradh an-seo ach a’ cur stiùiridh choitchinn fa chomhair dhaoine

^ 4 not directly expressed. In talking offer a personal response to the events, a’ freagairt ann an cainnt gu pearsanta fa chomhair na thachair. Offering a personal response to the events, a’ gabhail gu pearsanta ris na tachartasan. Teacher support will be less evident but will still offer guidance as necessary, cha bhi taice tidseir cho follaiseach ach fhathast bi seo a’ comhairleachadh mar a bhitheas sin riatanach. The whole curriculum offers a widening set of contexts for talk, tha na suidhichidhean labhairt a gheibhear anns a’ chlàr-theagaisg air fad a’ sìor mheudachadh. The teacher may at first offer structures for responses, anns a’ chiad dol a-mach faodaidh an tidsear cruth a chur air freagairtean

offer guidance v phr comhairlich, vn comhairleachadh. Teacher support will be less evident but will still offer guidance as necessary, cha bhi taice tidseir cho follaiseach ach fhathast bi seo a’ comhairleachadh mar a bhitheas sin riatanach

offered a 1 expressed with thàtar a’ tairgse. Beyond those offered at Level E, seach na thàtar a’ tairgse aig Ìre E. The advice offered here, a’ chomhairle a thàtar a’ tairgse an seo. The nature of that offered knowledge has also changed in recent practice, o chionn goirid tha caochladh air a thighinn air an dòigh anns a bheilear a’ tairgse an eòlais sin

^ 2 expressed with a gheibhear. Real-life situations offered by the mass media, suidhichidhean anns an t-saoghal againn fhèin a gheibhear anns na mòr mheadhain

off-glide n (ling) sleamhnan-dheth m, gen & pl sleamhnain-dheth

office n oifis

office mod 1 oifis. Office work, obair oifis

2 san oifis. To office staff, dhaibhsan a tha ag obair san oifis

official a oifigeil. Official document, sgrìobhainn oifigeil. Official record, cunntas oifigeil

often adv gu tric. The teacher will be a model by reading aloud often, bidh an tidsear fhèin na eisimpleir le bhith a’ leughadh a-mach gu tric

oil n ola f, pl olaichean. Cod liver oil, ola nan trosg. Linseed oil, ola fhrois-lìn. Olive oil, ola chrainn-ola. Palm oil, ola phailme

oil mod ola. Oil slick, ùilleadh ola, uilleag ola

oil refinery n phr fìneadair-ola m, pl fìneadairean-ola

oil rig n phr 1 crann-ola m, gen & pl crainn-ola

2 rioga-ola m, pl riogachan-ola

oilfield n raon-ola m, gen raoin-ola, pl raointean-ola

ointment n 1 acfhainn f, pl acfhainnean

2 sàbh m, gen sàibh, pl sàbhan

old a 1 (a) sean, comp sine. The oldest rocks in Britain, na creagan as sine ann am Breatainn

(b) seann. Old industrial area, raon seann ghnìomhachais

2 aosta

older comp a 1 nas sine or as sine

2 sean. Interviews with older people will give a picture of former ways of life, bheir còmhraidhean ri seann daoine dealbh dhuinn air dòighean-beatha a dh’fhalbh. ^ In older textbooks and methods, anns na seann leabhraichean agus leis na seann dòighean-teagaisg

old-fashioned a 1 seann-fhasanta

2 seann-nòsach

olive n (fruit) dearc-ola f, pl dearcan-ola

olive mod crainn-ola. Olive oil, ola chrainn-ola

olive-tree n crann-ola m, gen & pl crainn-ola

omelette n bonnach-uighe m, gen & pl bonnaich-uighe

omnivore n uil-itheadair m, pl uil-itheadairean

on adv 1 air. Put the light on, cuir an solas air

2 (a) air adhart. How are you getting on? ciamar a tha thu a’ faighinn air adhart?

(b) air aghaidh. How are you getting on? ciamar a tha thu a’ faighinn air aghaidh?

on prep 1 air (plus dat). On the table, air a’ bhòrd. They have eaten all the biscuits on me, dh’ith iad na briosgaidean uile orm

(pronominal forms) orm(sa), ort(sa), air(san), oirre(se), òirnn(e), oirbh(se), orra(san)

^ 2 mu (plus dat). Real communication on matters of interest and relevance to pupils. Fìor chonaltradh mu nithean anns a bheil ùidh aig cloinn agus a tha a’ freagairt orra. Guidance is given on Gaelic language activities, thàtar a’ toirt comhairle mu ghnìomhan-cànain Gàidhlig

^ 3 an prep (plus dat). On subsequent pages, anns na duilleagan a leanas

4 a dh’ionnsaigh (plus gen). And intervening only as necessary to focus the group on their task, agus a’ tighinn a-staigh don chùis a-mhàin an uair a tha e riatanach aire na buidhne a thoirt a dh’ionnsaigh na dreuchd

^ 5 a-rèir (plus gen). The waiting-list is not operated on a first come, first served basis, but on a fairer system, chan eil an liosta-fheitheinh air a h-obrachadh air stèidh a’ chiad neach a thig, ’s e a’ chiad neach a gheibh riarach, ach a-rèir siostaim as cothromaiche

^ 6 a thaobh (plus gen). Checks on premises will include the following points:, am measg na thèid a dhearbhadh a thaobh thogalaichean bithidh na nithean a leanas. Each child’s record sheet must contain information on any medical condition or allergies that the child suffers from, feumaidh fios a bhith air bileig-chlàraidh gach neach-chloinne a thaobh gnothaich mheidigich sam bith no aileirgidhean a bhitheas a’ cur air an neach-chloinne

^ 6 expressed with a’/ag plus vn. Pupils will require additional time to be spent on talking and listening, cuiridh a’ chlann feum air ùine a bharrachd a chur seachad a’ labhairt agus ag èisteachd.

7 expressed with an dèidh. Occasions when the teacher is developing pupils’ ability to predict on listening to information, amannan a bhitheas an tidsear a’ toirt gu buil comas na cloinne air a bhith ri fàisneachd an dèidh èisteachd ri fiosrachadh

once adv 1 aon uair

2 aon uair ’s gu. Once a sufficient number of texts has been read to them, aon uair ’s gu bheil gu leòr de theacsaichean air an leughadh dhaibh. Once pupils recognise differences, aon uair ’s gun cuir a’ chlann aithne air eadar-dhealachaidhean

^ 3 aig aon àm. Teachers might show that Gaelic was once the language of most of mainland Scotland, dh’fhaodadh tidsearan a nochdadh gum b’ i a’ Ghàidhlig aig aon àm a’ chànain a bha aig a’ chuid as motha de thìr-mòr na h-Alba

4 expressed with bha latha ann plus rel. It was once thought desirable to start with the smaller units of language, bha latha ann a bhàtar a’ meas gun robh e riatanach tòiseachadh leis na h-aonadan-cànain beaga

at once adv phr anns a’ bhad

one n 1 (a) aon, a h-aon m. Each one of them was cold, bha gach aon dhiubh fuar. There is only one, chan eil ann ach an t-aon. One of them was missing, bha a h-aon dhiubh air chall. Writing a sentence for each one of them a’ sgrìobhadh seantans air gach aon dhiubh. Such criteria should be limited to one or two at any one time, tha còir an leithid seo de bhun-chomharraidhean a bhith air an cuingealachadh ri aon no dhà aig àm sam bith

(b) (in counting) a h-aon. One, two, three, a h-aon, a dhà, a trì

2 neach. Understand questions about what one is doing, ceistean a thuigsinn mu dè tha neach a’ dèanamh

be one of v phr, see s.v. be v

one which, not expressed. The form of assessment of these ideas should be one which allows pupils to record their understandings, tha còir aig cruth measadh nam bun-smuaintean seo cothrom a thoirt don chloinn a bhith a’ dèanamh iomraidh air na nithean a tha iad a’ tuigsinn

one pron aonan

one a 1 aon. Progress that can be made within this one level, an t-adhartas a ghabhas a dhèanamh aig an aon ìre seo. Others may show exceptional ability in only one or two strands, bidh cuid eile, dh’fhaoidte, nach eil a’ nochdadh comas neo-chumanta ach ann an aon no ann an dà èill. It is not, however, the business of media education to choose one view at the expense of another, ach cha bhuin e do dh’oideachadh mu na meadhain a bhith a’ taghadh aon seallaidh ’s a’ cur sìos air fear eile

^ 2 àraidh. According to the purpose of the narrator at any one point in the story, a rèir amas an sgrìobhaiche aig ìre àraidh sam bith den stòiridh

3 not expressed. Such criteria should be limited to one or two at any one time, tha còir an leithid seo de bhun-chomharraidhean a bhith air an cuingealachadh ri aon no dhà aig àm sam bith

one-to-one a 1 aon-ri-aon. Listen to others in group or one-to-one activities, ag èisteachd ri feadhainn eile ann an obair buidhne no aon-ri-aon

2 expressed with eadar dithis. They will be aware of their own role and that of others in one-to-one or group talk, bidh mothachadh aca air an àite fhèin agus air àite chàich ann an còmhradh eadar dithis no ann an còmhradh buidhne

one-way a 1 aon-shligheach, aon-slighe. A one-way street, sràid aon-slighe

2 aon-rathadach. A one-way street, sràid aon-rathadach

on-glide n (linguistics) sleamhnan-air m, gen & pl sleamhnain-air

ongoing a expressed with rach air adhart, vn dol air adhart. The work will be ongoing throughout the rest of the year, bithear a’ dool air adhart leis an obair tron chòrr den bhliadhna

onion n uinnean m, gen uinnein, pl uinneanan

onion skin weathering n phr sìde-chaitheamh rùisg-uinnein

only a aon. This is the only horse in the village, ’s e seo an t-aon each a tha anns a’ bhaile

only adv 1 a-mhàin. Only by doing so, ’s ann a-mhàin le bhith a’ dèanamh seo. And intervening only as necessary, agus a’ tighinn a-staigh don chùis a-mhàin an uair a tha e riatanach. If public transport is used children must sit in forward-facing seats only, ma thèid còmhdhail phoblach a chur am feum, feumaidh a’ chlann suidhe a-mhàin ann an suidheachain a tha a’ coimhead chon an toisich

^ 2 dìreach. Others, only when a substantial body of work has been completed, cuid eile, dìreach an uair a tha cnap math obrach air a chrìochnachadh

3 (a) neg of v plus ach. Only Donald was there, cha robh ann ach Dòmhnall

(b) neg of v plus ach dìreach. It is offered only to promote further discussion, chan eilear ga thairgse ach dìreach gus an tuilleadh deasbaid a thogail

4 neg of v plus gu bràth gus. The secretarial skills are capable of improvement only when the young writer has some notion of what to say, cha ghabh piseach thoirt air na sgilean eagrachaidh gu bràth gus am bi rudeigin de bheachd aig an sgrìobhadair òg air dè their e

5 gun plus ach. When pupils want to talk about an experience, but can only use English, an uair a tha a’ chlann ag iarraidh a bhith a’ bruidhinn air rud a dh’fhiosraich iad, ’s gun chomas aca ach ann am Beurla

not only … but also adv phr chan e a-mhain … ach … cuideachd. Not only the cows but also the sheep, chan e a-mhàin an crodh ach na caoirich cuideachd

onomatopoeia n fuaimealas m, gen fuaimealais

ooze n làthach f, gen làthaich

opaque a trìd-dhoilleir

open a fosgailte. The window is open, tha an uinneag fosgailte. The pre-school is open to every family in the community, tha an ro-sgoil fosgailte don h-uile teaghlach anns a’ choimhearsnachd

open v tr 1 fosgail, vn fosgladh m. This ability will open the door to the rich storehouse of Gaelic culture, fosglaidh an comas seo an doras a dh’ionnsaigh stòrais shaidhbhir dualchas na Gàidhlig

2 not directly expressed. If schools decide that pupils for whom a Record of Needs has been opened should become involved in the system of assessment described here, ma tha sgoiltean a’ cur romhpa gum bi clann a tha na feuman aca gan clàradh air am measadh a rèir nan dòighean a tha air an comharrachadh an seo

open up v phr tairg, vn tairgse f. This opens up new opportunities for reading, tha seo a’ tairgse chothroman ùra airson leughaidh

opening n 1 fosgladh m, gen fosglaidh, pl fosglaidhean. The notions of openings, turning points, resolutions can be introduced, faodar nithean mar tha fosglaidhean, tionndaidhean agus fuasglaidhean a thoirt a-steach

2 expressed with fosgail, vn fosgladh m. Others may have pronounced difficulties that require the opening of an individual Record of Needs, airson feadhainn eile aig a bheil duilgheadasan follaiseach, feumar Clàr Fheuman fhosgladh dhaibh fa leth

3 expressed with dòigh f plus tòisich, vn tòiseachadh m; pl dòighean etc. Examining the variety of openings to such texts is particularly valuable, tha e buileach feumail a bhith a’ sgrùdadh gach iomadh seòrsa dhòighean anns a bheil an leithid seo de theacsaichean a’ tòiseachadh

^ 4 expressed with<b> a chur air chois. Significant additional provision, including the opening of a Record of Needs, tomhas mòr de thaice a bharrachd, agus sin a’ gabhail a-staigh clàr-fheuman a chur air chois

opening a tòiseachaidh. In opening lines, ann an sreathan-tòiseachaidh. They are still quite distinct from the opening sections of informational texts, tha iad fhathast gu math eadar-dhealaichte ris na paragrafan tòiseachaidh ann an teacsaichean fiosrachaidh

opencast a fosgailte

opencast mining n phr mèinnearachd f fhosgailte, gen mèinnearachd fosgailte

open-ended a 1 fosgailte. The nature of the information should be more open-ended at this stage, tha còir aig gnè an fhiosrachaidh a bhith nas fhosgailte aig an ìre seo. They will show a readiness to talk in an open-ended way, nochdaidh iad gu bheil iad deònach a bhith a’ còmhradh ann an dòigh fhosgailte

2 expressed with a tha fosgailte. First with isolated words and phrases, then with more open-ended talk, anns a’ chiad àite le faclan agus abairtean fa leth, agus an-sin le còmhradh a tha nas fosgailte

opener n fosglair m, pl fosglairean. Tin opener, fosglair tiona

operate v tr & i 1 oibrich, vn oibreachadh m; also obraich, vn obrachadh m. How register operates in language, mar a tha ìre-chànain ag oibreachadh. Pupils should have a growing sense of representations generally, and how they operate to construct and convey meanings, bu chòir do thuigse chloinne air dòighean-riochdachaidh anns an fharsaingeachd a bhith a’ dol am meud, agus mar tha iad sin ag oibreachadh gus brìgh a chur ri chèile agus a chur an cèill. The waiting-list is not operated on a first come, first served basis, chan eil an liosta-fheitheinh air a h-obrachadh air stèidh a’ chiad neach a thig, ’s e a’ chiad neach a gheibh riarach

^ 2 cuir an gnìomh, vn cur an gnìomh. I understand that the group operates a policy on equal opportunities which I am in agreement with, tha mi a’ tuigsinn gu bheil a’ bhuidheann a’ cur an gnìomh poileasaidh air co-ionannachd chothroman ris a bheil mi a’ cur m’aonta

operation n 1 (medical) obair-lannsa f

2 obrachadh m, gen obrachaidh, pl obrachaidhean

in operation a phr 1 expressed with ag obrachadh

2 expressed with air a chur gu feum

opinion n 1 beachd m, gen beachda, pl beachdan. Fact and opinion, fìrinn agus beachd. To reflect upon ideas, experiences and opinions, gus cnuasachadh air smaointean, fiosraichidhean agus beachdan. They will talk appropriately about experiences, opinions, feelings and texts, bidh iad a’ bruidhinn gu h-iomchaidh mu dheidhinn fhiosraichidhean, bheachdan, fhaireachdainnean agus theacsaichean. Respond by offering an opinion, a’ freagairt le bhith a’ toirt beachd. She will answer them by offering comments or opinions,, freagraidh i iad le bhith a’ tairgse bheachdan. Teachers should lead pupils to give opinions, tha còir aig na tidsearan a bhith a’ stiùireadh na cloinne gu bhith a’ toirt bheachdan

^ 2 barail f, pl barailean. Ideas can be shared if pupils’ opinions are displayed for others to read, faodar iomlaid a dhèanamh air bun-bheachdan ma tha barailean na cloinne air an taisbeanadh gus an leugh càch iad

opinion poll n phr cunntas-bheachd m, gen cunntais-bheachd, pl cunntais-bheachd, cunntasan-bheachd. They are not yet high enough in the opinion polls, chan eil iad fhathast àrd gu leòr anns na cunntais-bheachd

opponent n 1 cèile-còmhraig m, pl cèileachan-còmhraig. They bespattered their opponents with mud, spolt iad na cèileachan-còmhraig aca le poll

2 co-sheise m, pl co-sheiseachan

opportunity n 1 cothrom m, gen cothruim, pl cothroman. An opportunity to hear and use a language spoken by people throughout Scotland, cothrom air cànain a chluinntinn agus a chleachdadh, a tha daoine a’ bruidhinn air feadh Alba. Equality of opportunity, co-ionannachd chothroman. Schools should provide structured and stimulating opportunities to use Gaelic, tha còir aig sgoiltean ullachadh a dhèanamh gus cothrom beothail a thoirt don Ghàidhlig a bhith ga cleachdadh. Additional opportunities for talking and listening, barrachd cothrom labhairt agus èisteachd. Contexts which will give opportunities to monitor the progress of individual pupils, suidhichidhean a bhitheas a’ toirt cothroim gus sùil a chumail air adhartas chloinne fa leth. To take advantage of employment opportunities, gus cothrom a ghabhail air na cothroman cosnaidh. The development of a range of positive attitudes and opportunities for personal development, fàs ga thoirt air caochladh bheachdan neartmhor agus air cothroman fàis phearsanta

^ 2 not directly expressed. Providing such opportunities will involve the following, ann a bhith a’ tairgse a leithid seo bidh feum air na leanas

equal opportunity n phr 1 cothrom m co-ionann, gen cothroim cho-ionann, pl cothroman co-ionann. We aim to ensure that all who wish to work in our pre-school have an equal opportunity to do so, tha e mar amas dhuinn a dhèanamh cinnteach gu bheil aig na h-uile leis am miann a bhith ag obair nar ro-sgoil cothrom co-ionann sin a dhèanamh

2 co-ionannachd f chothroman. Equal opportunity policy, poileasaidh co-ionannachd chothroman. I understand that the group operates a policy on equal opportunities which I am in agreement with, tha mi a’ tuigsinn gu bheil a’ bhuidheann a’ cur an gnìomh poileasaidh air co-ionannachd chothroman ris a bheil mi a’ cur m’aonta

teaching opportunity n phr cothrom-ionnsachaidh m, gen cothruim-ionnsachaidh, pl cothroman-ionnsachaidh. The teacher should also take this as a teaching opportunity, bu chòir don tidsear cothrom-ionnsachaidh a dhèanamh dheth

oppose v tr 1 cuir an aghaidh air, vn cur an aghaidh air. She opposed us, chuir i an aghaidh oirrn

2 bi an aghaidh. He opposes the single currency in Europe, tha e an aghaidh a’ chùinnidh shingilte san Roinn-Eòrpa

opposed to prep phr an aghaidh (plus gen). It is probable that these two words are to a degree being opposed to each other, is dòcha gu bheil an dà fhacal seo an aghaidh a chèile gu ìre

opposite a 1 thall. On the opposite side of the road, air taobh thall an rothaid

2 calg-dhìreach an aghaidh

in opposite directions adv phr expressed with an aghaidh a chèile. Along which streets do John and Mary walk in opposite directions? dè na sràidean air am bi Iain agus Màiri a’ coiseachd an aghaidh a chèile?

opposite prep 1 mu choinneamh (plus gen). He sat down opposite me, rinn e suidhe mum choinneamh

2 fa chomhair (plus gen)

opposition n aghaidheachadh m, gen aghaidheachaidh, pl aghaidheachaidhean. Binary opposition, aghaidheachadh dà-àireimh

opt v i dèan roghainn, vn dèanamh roghainn. Pupils may opt to progress to programmes for fluent speakers, faodaidh a’ chlann roghainn a dhèanamh a dhol air adhart gu prògraman airson fileantach

optic a fradhairc. The optic nerve, nearbh an fhradhairc

option n 1 roghainn, pl roghainnean. They suggest only a few of the available options, chan eil iad a’ togail ach àireamh bheag de na roghainnean a tha ri am faotainn. The school will review its options for these advantaged and disadvantaged pupils, bidh an sgoil a’ breithneachadh air a cuid roghainnean airson na cloinne seo, bho shealladh cothroim agus anacothroim

2 expressed with faod v. It may also be an option to transfer a pupil making rapid progress from a Learners’ class to Gaelic Medium education, faodar cuideachd pàiste air a bheil fìor phiseach luath a ghluasad bho chlas Luchd-Ionnsachaidh gu foghlam tro Mheadhan na Gàidhlig

optional a 1 roghainneil, comp roghainneile. It is an extraordinary thing that the exemplar should have been so closely followed, not only in the end rhymes but also in the frequency of these optional rhymes on the first stressed syllable, is rud iongantach e gun rachadh an roi-shamhla leantainn cho dlùth, chan ann a’ mhàin anns na comhardaidhean-deiridh, ach cuideachd ann an tricead nan comhardaidhean roghainneil a tha seo air a’ chiad lide le cudthrom

^ 2 expressed with mar roghainn. It should be noted that assessment of writing is optional, tha còir an aire thoirt gur ann mar roghainn a tha measadh air sgrìobhadh

or conj no

or else conj phr 1 air neo

2 air mhodh eile

oral a 1 labhairt. Oral skills, sgilean labhairt. There will be a continuing emphasis on oral skills, leanaidh cudthrom air sgilean labhairt. To provide children from non-Gaelic backgrounds with basic oral competence in Gaelic, comas-labhairt bunaiteach a bhuileachadh air clann à àrainneachd gun Ghàidhlig. A greater emphasis on oral work, cudthrom nas motha a bhith air obair labhairt. From oral or written materials, bho stuthan labhairt no stuthan sgrìobhte. The genre of oral messages is often revealed as much by intonation as by the words themselves, tha gnè labhairt gu tric ga foillseachadh le fuaimneachadh cainnte agus chan ann a-mhàin leis na faclan fhèin

^ 2 beòil. Oral fluency, fileantachd bheòil. Oral literature, litreachas beòil

3 cainnt-bheòil gen. To concentrate on the development of oral skills, a bhith a’ cur cudthroim air sgilean cainnt-bheòil a thoirt gu fàs

4 expressed with cainnt-bheòil f. It is the oral outcomes that will provide the main basis for thinking about experiences, ’s e cainnt-bheòil a’ phrìomh stèidh gus smaoineachadh mu nithean a dh’fhiosraich iad

^ 5 ann an cainnt-bheòil. Children will be asked to produce short oral or written accounts, bidh a’ chlann a’ cur ri chèile cunntasan goirid ann an cainnt-bheòil no ann an sgrìobhadh. A brief oral account might be given to the group, dh’fhaoidte iomradh goirid a thoirt don bhuidhinn, ann an cainnt-bheòil

^ 6 expressed with beul-aithris f. Stories, songs and legends, powerful oral bases of the culture, sgeulachdan, òrain is uirsgeulan, beul-aithris chumhachdach a tha aig bonn ’s aig bunait an dualchais. Oral source, stòr beul-aithris

oral competence n phr comas m labhairt, gen comais labhairt. Gaining oral competence in Gaelic, gus comas labhairt fhaotainn sa Ghàidhlig

oral composition n phr aiste-bheòil f, pl aistidhean-beòil

oral fluency n phr 1 comas m labhairt, gen comais labhairt. To enable pupils to acquire oral fluency in Gaelic, gus comas a thoirt do chloinn comas labhairt a thogail anns a’ Ghàidhlig

^ 2 fileantachd bheòil. Writing will begin after oral fluency is developed, tòisichidh sgrìobhadh an dèidh fileantachd bheòil a thoirt air adhart

oral language n phr cainnt-bheòil f. Emphasis on oral language, cudthrom air cainnt-bheòil

oral presentation n phr òraid f. Giving a prepared oral presentation, ag aithris òraid dheasaichte

oral proficiency n phr comas labhairt

oral tradition n phr beul-aithris f

orally adv 1 ann an cainnt-bheòil. Provide either orally or in writing a considered personal view, a’ toirt, ann an cainnt-bheòil no ann an sgrìobhadh, làn bheachd pearsanta. In order to respond either orally or in writing, gus freagairt a thoirt ann an cainnt-bheòil no ann an sgrìobhadh

^ 2 expressed with beòil. They will report orally to teacher, bheir iad aithisg bheòil don tidsear

orange n orainsear m, gen orainseir, pl orainsearan

orange a 1 orains. Whoever saw an orange church? cò chunnaic eaglais tha orains

2 dearg-bhuidhe. The colours of the rainbow are violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, ’s iad dathan a’ bhogha-fhroise liath or bàn-phurpaidh, gorm-liath or guirmeanach, gorm, buidhe-ghorm or uaine, buidhe, dearg-bhuidhe or orains, agus dearg

Oransay pr n Òrasaigh

orbit n reul-chuairt f, pl reul-chuairtean

orchard n 1 ubhalghort m, gen ubhalghoirt, pl ubhalghoirtean

2 lios-mheas m, gen lis-mheas, pl liosan-mheas

orchid n magairlean m, gen magairlein, pl magairleanan; mogairlean m, gen mogairlein, pl mogairleanan. A decline in the number of orchids of all kinds, lùghdachadh ann an àireamh nam magairleanan de gach seòrsa

order n 1 òrdugh m, gen òrduigh, pl òrduighean. Events may be set out in chronological order, faodar tachartasan a chur a-mach anns an òrdugh anns an do thachair iad

2 òrdan m, gen & pl òrdain. An order form, bileag òrdain. Order code, còd òrdain

give order to v phr cuir rian air, vn cur m rian air. Giving them order and meaning, a’ cur rian air na nithean sin agus a’ toirt brìgh asda

in order that conj phr a chum is gu

in order to prep phr 1 gus. In order to achieve this, gus ruighinn air seo. In order to achieve the overall aim, gus am prìomh amas a choileanadh. In order to maximise pupils’ opportunities to hear Gaelic, gus cothrom cho math ’s a ghabhas a thoirt don chloinn a bhith a’ cluinntinn na Gàidhlig

^ 2 (a) a-chum. In order to do the work, a chum an obair a dhèanamh

(b) expressed with a chum is gum b’ urrainn. In order to set out work clearly, a chum is gum b’ urrainn daibh obair a chur an cèill gu soilleir

3 not directly expressed. Listening in order to respond to texts, ag èisteachd fo bhuaidh theacsaichean

order v tr 1 àithn, vn àithne f, àithneadh m

2 cuir rian air, vn cur m rian air. The school can best order or structure Gaelic work, ’s e an dòigh as fheàrr don sgoil rian a chur air obair na Gàidhlig. Through writing, pupils can define, order and understand ideas, tro sgrìobhadh, thèid aig a’ chloinn air mìneachadh a dhèanamh air bun-bheachdan, air rian a chur orra agus air an tuigsinn. They will report orally to teacher, bheir iad aithisg bheòil don tidsear. The teacher will help pupils to order their writing, cuidichidh an tidsear a’ chlann gu bhith a’ cur rian air an cuid sgrìobhaidh

^ 3 cuir an òrdugh, vn cur m an òrdugh. Ordering these into sequences, gan cur an òrdugh rèidh

ordered a rianail. Giving an ordered account of a topic, a’ toirt cunntais rianail air cuspair

ordinal a òrdail. Ordinal numeral, cunntair òrdail

ordinary a 1 nàdarrach. Specialised materials such as a means of enhancing or enlarging ordinary print, stuthan sònraichte mar tha dòighean air clò nàdarrach a dhèanamh nas soilleire no nas motha

^ 2 cumanta

Ordnance Survey n phr 1 Suirbhidh m Òrdanais. Ordnance Survey maps, mapaichean an t-Suirbhidh Òrdanais

2 Tomhas-Riaghaltais m, gen Tomhais-Riaghaltais. Ordnance Survey maps, mapaichean an Tomhais-Riaghaltais

ore n 1 mèinnear m, gen mèinneir, pl mèinnearan

2 clach mhèinneir, gen cloiche mèinneir

organ n (of body) ball m, gen & pl buill

genital organ n phr ball-gineamhainn m, gen & pl buill-ghineamhainn

organisation n 1 rian m, gen rian. Write in a variety of forms using appropriate organisation and vocabulary, a’ sgrìobhadh ann an caochladh mhodhannan le rian agus briathrachas iomchaidh. The teacher should be involved in overseeing content, organisation and form, tha còir aig an tidsear a bhith a’ gabhail pàirt ann a bhith a’ cumail sùil air susbaint, air rian agus air cumadh. It allows them to concentrate on the content, organisation and editing of their own work, tha e a’ toirt cothroim dhaibh a bhith a’ bualadh air susbaint, rian agus eagrachadh na h-obrach aca fhèin

^ 2 dòigh f rianachd, pl dòighean rianachd. Ensure that pupils encounter a range of teaching styles and classroom organisations, dèanamh cinnteach gum fiosraich a’ chlann caochladh dhòighean teagaisg agus dhòighean rianachd anns an rùm-theagaisg

^ 3 òrdanachadh m, gen òrdanachaidh. Paragraph is a further feature of textual organisation, tha paragraf a-rithist ri fhaotainn ann an òrdanachadh theacsaichean

4 riaghladh m, gen riaghlaidh. Variety of classroom organisation, caochladh sheòrsachan riaghladh clasa. Both the present guidelines and the advice on the organisation of classes give scope for this form of organisation, tha an dà chuid an stiùireadh seo agus a’ chomhairle air riaghladh chlasaichean a’ toirt cothroim air a leithid seo de riaghladh

5 buidheann f, gen buidhne, pl buidhnean. Plan the work of the organisation so as to minimise situations where the abuse of children may occur, socraich obair na buidhne air dhòigh a lùghdaicheas suidhichidhean far am faodadh droch-dhìol cloinne tachairt

organise v tr 1 cuir rian air. It will help teachers to plan and organise their teaching, cuidichidh i tidsearan gu bhith a’ deasachadh an cuid teagaisg agus a’ cur rian air. Organising Gaelic, a’ cur rian air obair na Gàidhlig. To organise the research, a bhith a’ cur rian air an rannsachadh. When preparing an individual talk, pupils will be helped to organise through preparation, an uair a bhitheas iad ag ullachadh òraid aon-neach cuidichear a’ chlann gu bhith a’ cur rian air sin le deasachadh. Taking responsibility for organising their work, a’ gabhail uallaich gus rian a chur air an cuid obrach. Pupils’ familiarity with the ways texts are organised, eòlas na cloinne air mar a tha rian ga chur air teacsaichean

^ 2 expressed with bi plus rian air. In questioning how information is likely to be organised, ann a bhith a’ ceasnachadh an rian a tha dualtach a bhith air fiosrachadh

3 cuir an òrdugh, vn cur an òrdugh. To help pupils sort out what they want to say and how to organise it, a’ chlann a chuideachadh gus rian a chur air na tha iad ag iarraidh a ràdh agus mar a chuireas iad an òrdugh e

4 cuir air dòigh, vn cur air dòigh. The school should organise regular ceilidhs, bu chòir don sgoil cèilidhean a chur air dòigh gu cunbhalach. Learning how text can be organised for readability increases awareness of audience, a bhith ag ionnsachadh mar a ghabhas teacsa a chur air dòigh gus a dhèanamh so-leughte, cuiridh sin ri mothachadh air luchd-amais

^ 5 riaghail, vn riaghladh m. This enables pupils to collect, organise, analyse and apply information through databases, tha seo a’ toirt cothroim do chloinn fiosrachadh a thional, a riaghladh, a rannsachadh agus a chur an sàs tro stòir-dàta

organised a 1 air cur air dòigh. Whether in the form of a structured course or of banks of materials organised on the basis of functions and notions or of topics, an dàrna cuid air chumadh cùrsa dheasaichte no bhancaichean de stuthan air an cur air dòigh air bhonn ghnìomhan agus smuaintean no air bhonn chuspairean

2 expressed with eagrachadh m, gen eagrachaidh. Developing from exploratory work into more fully formed and organised outcomes, a’ fàs à obair rannsachaidh a dh’ionnsaigh thoraidhean air a bheil an tuilleadh cumaidh agus eagrachaidh

organising n òrdachadh m, gen òrdachaidh. Preparation which will include research, organising, deasachadh a ghabhas a-staigh rannsachadh, òrdachadh

organism n fàs-bheairt f, pl fàs-bheairtean

origin n 1 tùs m, gen tùis

2 (a) bun m, gen buna or buin, pl buin or bunan

(b) bunadh m, gen bunaidh, pl bunaidhean. We believe that no family should be excluded from the group’s activities on the grounds of disability, colour or ethnic origin, tha sinn a’ creidsinn nach bu chòir gum bitheadh teaghlach sam bith air an dùnadh a-mach bho ghnìomhan na buidhne mar thoradh air ciorram, dath no bunadh eitniceach

(c) bunadas m, gen bunadais, pl bunadasan

3 expressed with co às an tàinig. Syllable and root will be used in discussion which centres on individual words, their origins, meanings and functions, cleachdar lide agus freumh ann am beachdachadh air faclan fa leth agus air co às an tàinig iad, air dè as ciall daibh agus dè as gnìomh dhaibh

original a 1 bunaiteach, comp bunaitiche. Pupils will explore more complex and more original forms, bidh a’ chlann a’ rannsachadh mhodhan nas ioma-fhillte agus nas bunaitiche

2 tùsail. The original building must be 17th or 18th century in date, feumaidh gum buin an togalach tùsail do dh’àm mun 17mh no mun 18mh linn. This is the pronunciation in the dialect of original “a” (short or long) in the vicinity of a nasal consonant, ’s e seo am fuaimneachadh anns an dualchainnt a bhitheas air “a” thùsail (ghoirid no fhada) an còir consain shrònaich

3 expressed with a bha ann an toiseach. By comparing the original aims with what pupils actually attain in relation to the targets, le bhith a’ dèanamh coimeas eadar na h-amasan a bha ann an toiseach agus na bheil na sgoilearan a’ coileanadh ann an da-rìreabh fa chomhair nan cuimsean

^ 4 tionnsgalach. An original writer, sgrìobhaiche tionnsgalach

5 a’ chiad. The original form, a’ chiad chruth

originally adv 1 an toiseach. Originally these would have been high enough to stop animals from straying, bhitheadh iad seo an toiseach àrd gu leòr airson stad a chur air beathaichean bho bhith a’ dol air seacharan

^ 2 roimhe. Walls made of turf, or earth and stone, were originally more common than the familiar stone dykes, bha gàrraidhean dèante de dh’fhàl, no de chloich is de dh’fhàl còmhla, na bu chumanta roimhe na na gàrraidhean-cloiche air a bheil sinn eòlach an diugh

originate v i tàrmaich, vn tàrmachadh m

Orkney pr n Arcaibh

Orkney mod Arcach

Orkneyman n Arcach m, gen & pl Arcaich

ornament n 1 ball-maise m, gen & pl buill-mhaise

2 òrnaid f, pl òrnaidean

ornamentation n sgeadachadh m, gen sgeadachaidh, pl sgeadachaidhean. Mackenzie here reaches a level of ornamentation in his verse that demonstrates to us how high in his artistry it is possible for a bard that is not of the first degree to go when he is working in a firm tradition, tha MacCoinnich an seo a’ ruighinn inbhe de sgeadachadh na bhàrdachd a sheallas dhuinn cho àrd na ealantas ’s a tha e an comas do bhàrd nach eil den chiad ìre a dhol, agus e ag obair ann an dualchas daingeann

orthography n ceart-litreachadh m, gen ceart-litreachaidh

ortolan n, see bunting, ortolan n

osmosis n osmòsais f. Reverse osmosis, osmòsais chontrarach

osteopathy n leigheas-chnàmh m, gen leigheis-chnàmh

ostrich n struth m, pl struthan. She is cruel to her offspring like the ostriches in the desert, tha i an-iochdmhor da h-àlach mar na struthan san fhàsach

other a 1 eile. With the advisory and other professional services, ris na seirbheisean comhairleachaidh agus na seirbheisean proifeiseanta eile

2 expressed with an neach eile a tha …. Listening to the other speaker, a bhith ag èisteachd ris an neach eile a tha a’ bruidhinn

3 expressed with an leithid sin. Teachers need to introduce pupils to the grammatical, literary and other technical terms of language, feumaidh na tidsearan a’ chlann a chur an aithne nam briathran cànain a bhuineas do ghràmar, do litreachas agus an leithid sin

^ 4 not directly expressed. At the other extreme, ann an suidheachadh tur eadar-dhealaichte. It will be essential that the pupil or pupils work with other classmates, bidh e do-sheachnaichte gum bi am pàiste no na pàistean ag obair còmhla ri càch anns a’ chlas

other than a phr expressed with 1 nach buin do. From points of view other than their own, o bharailean nach buin dhaibh fhèin

2 a bharrachd air (plus dat). I haven’t done anything other than that today, cha d’rinn mi nì a bharrachd air sin an diugh

others pron pl 1 càch, gen chàich. How speakers can refer to and use what others say, mar a dh’fhaodas luchd-labhairt tarraing a thoirt air na their càch agus sin a chur gu buil. They will be aware of their own role and that of others, bidh mothachadh aca air an àite fhèin agus air àite chàich. To examine their own and others’ experiences. sgrùdadh a dhèanamh air na tha iad fhèin agus càch a’ fiosrachadh. So as to show awareness of others’ opinions, suggestions and/or feelings, gus mothachadh a nochdadh air beachdan agus/no air faireachdainnean chàich. Talk readily about their own and others’ experiences, a’ labhairt gu saor mu na fiosraichidhean aca fhèin agus aig càch. Editing pupils’ own and others writing, ag eagrachadh sgrìobhadh na cloinne fhèin agus sgrìobhadh chàich

^ 2 feadhainn f eile. By teachers and others concerned with provision for education, le tidsearan agus le feadhainn eile a tha an lùib foghlaim. Others, however, may have pronounced, specific or complex difficulties, airson feadhainn eile, ge-tà, aig a bheil duilgheadasan follaiseach, sònraichte no ioma-chruthach. These enable them to communicate more effectively with others, bidh seo a’ toirt comais dhaibh air conaltradh nas buadhmhoire a dhèanamh ri feadhainn eile. Tape recording allows pupils to hear themselves and others read, tha clàradh air teip a’ toirt cothroim do chloinn iad fhèin agus feadhainn eile a chluinntinn a’ leughadh. They will discover the experiences they share with others, gheibh iad ròs air nithean a tha iad fhèin agus feadhainn eile a’ fiosrachadh le chèile

^ 3 daoine m pl eile. To interact with others, gus co-luadar a dhèanamh ri daoine eile. Awareness of others’ feelings, mothachadh air faireachdainnean dhaoine eile

4 cuid eile. Some may already possess good general alertness, others may not have acquired the basic habits, faodaidh cuid a bhith gu math beothail dhiubh fhèin, cuid eile nach do thog na cleachdaidhean as bunaitiche. Others may have no immediate contact with Gaelic, cuid eile, ’s dòcha, aig nach eil dlùth cheangal idir ris a’ Ghàidhlig. Others, perhaps the majority, cuid eile, a’ mhòrchuid, is dòcha. Some pupils acquire the habits of recognition and categorisation readily, others never develop them without help, tha cuid de chloinn a thogas cleachdaidhean aithne agus seòrsaidh gu h-ealamh, cuid eile nach dèan sin idir às aonais cuideachaidh

^ 5 expressed with cach a chèile. Exchange personal information about self and others, a’ toirt seachad fiosrachadh pearsanta mu cach a chèile

otherwise adv air neo. Except where otherwise stated, ach far an abrar a chaochladh

otter (Lutra lutra) n 1 biast-dubh, biast-dhubh f, gen bèist-duibhe, bèiste-duibhe, pl biastan-dubha

2 dòbhran m, gen & pl dòbhrain

our poss pron ar, ar n- (before vowels). Our father ands mother, ar n-athair is ar màthair

out adv 1 (a) (motion) a-mach. He went out, chaidh e a-mach. They went out into the garden, chaidh iad a-mach don leas

(b) (rest) a-muigh. They are out in the garden, tha iad a-muigh anns an leas

2 às. The light went out, chaidh an solas as. I put the light out, chuir mi an solas às

out prep a-mach (plus rad). He went out the door, chaidh e a-mach an doras. No going out the door without an adult in the group, cha cheadaichear a bhith a’ dol a-mach an doras gun inbheach sa bhuidhinn

out of prep phr 1 a-mach à (plus dat). Any worthwhile Gaelic activity will move in and out of components and through varying combinations of strands, bidh gnìomh Gàidhlig sam bith as fhiach an t-saothair a’ gluasad a-mach agus a-steach à earrainnean agus tro chaochladh chothlamadh iallan. In and out of school, san sgoil agus a-mach aiste

^ 2 à (plus dat). They are out of school, tha iad às an sgoil. Opportunities for Gaelic activities and development arising out of the child’s experience of family, gach cothrom airson gnìomhan agus leasachadh co-cheangailte ris a’ Ghàidhlig a tha a’ sruthadh à fiosrachadh a’ phàiste air a theaghlach

out-of-school a taobh a-muigh na sgoile. A natural way of developing pupils’ own out-of-school interests and activities, dòigh nàdarrach air a bhith ag adhartachadh nithean taobh a-muigh na sgoile anns a bheil ùidh aig cloinn agus anns a bheil iad an sàs

outcome n 1 buil f, pl builean. Attainment outcomes, builean coileanaidh. The eventual outcome will be that the pupil can employ a fluent style of hand-writing, ’s e bhuil a bhitheas air seo air a’ cheann thall gum bi a’ chlann a’ cleachdadh stoidhle shiùbhlach làmh-sgrìobhaidh. By referring to the four main outcomes of Gaelic, a bhith a’ gabhail beachd air ceithir prìomh bhuilean na cànain. In these written outcomes, anns na builean sgrìobhte seo. The successful attainment of these targets will result in the following outcomes, ma ruigear na cuimsean coileanaidh seo thig na builean a leanas gu ìre.

^ 2 na tha a’ sruthadh à. All the outcomes of environmental studies will be taught through Gaelic, is ann tro Ghàidhlig a bhithear a’ teagasg na tha a’ sruthadh à foghlam na h-àrainneachd

3 (a) toradh m, pl toraidhean. Many of the terms may also be applicable in other outcomes of language, faodaidh mòran de na briathran a bhith air an cleachdadh ann an toraidhean-cànain eile. The outcomes from these activities may be written or oral, faodaidh toradh na h-obrach seo a bhith ann an sgrìobhadh no ann an cainnt-bheòil. Developing from exploratory work into more fully formed and organised outcomes, a’ fàs à obair rannsachaidh a dh’ionnsaigh thoraidhean air a bheil an tuilleadh cumaidh agus eagrachaidh

(b) expressed with mar thoradh air. Pupils will listen to messages or narratives in order to predict at various stages likely outcomes, bidh a’ chlann ag èisteachd ri teachdaireachdan no ri cunntasan gus fàisneachd a dhèanamh air na bhitheas dùil ris mar thoradh orra aig ìrean eadar-dhealaichte

4 amas m, gen amais, pl amasan. Practical activities which will require them to talk together to produce an outcome, gnìomhan prataigeach anns am feum iad a bhith a’ còmhradh gus amas a choileanadh

^ 5 not directly expressed. It is the oral outcomes that will provide the main basis for thinking about experiences, ’s e cainnt-bheòil a’ phrìomh stèidh gus smaoineachadh mu nithean a dh’fhiosraich iad

outcrop n (of rock) 1 (small crag) creagan m, gen creagain, pl creagain, creaganan. The fishing mark is an outcrop of rock you can see by the shore, ’s e an comharra-iasgaich creagan a chì thu mun chladach. This outcrop of rock is another example of a ridge of harder rock, tha an creagan seo na eisimpleir eile air druim de chreig as cruaidhe

^ 2 (slab of rock) leac f, gen lice, pl leacan. There are red outcrops of rock on the hillside here, tha leacan dearga air slios a’ mhill an seo

3 (ridge of rock) druim m, gen droma, pl dromannan. The path crosses a turf dyke immediately west of one of these rocky outcrops, tha an ceum a’ dol tarsainn air gàrradh-fàil astar goirid an iar air fear de na dromannan creagach seo

outdated a seann-aimsireil

outdoor a a-muigh. Outdoor pool, amar a-muigh. Outdoor games, geamachan a-muigh. All outdoor play must be supervised, feumar sùil a chumail air a’ chluich a-muigh air fad

outer a 1 a-muigh. Outer suburbs, iomall a-muigh (baile)

2 expressed with taobh a-muigh (plus gen). The rafters rested on the outer wall to form a conical structure, bha na cabair nan laighe air taobh a-muigh a’ bhaile, rud a dhèanadh structar cònach

outfall n às-sruth m, pl às-sruthan

outflow n

outing n 1 cuairt f, gen cuairte, pl cuairtean

2 cuairt a-muigh, gen cuairte a-muigh, pl cuairtean a-muigh

take on an outing v phr thoir a-mach air cuairt, vn toirt a-mach air cuairt. I understand that my child may be taken on local outings from time to time, tha mi a’ tuigsinn gum faod e bhith gum bi an neach-cloinne agam air a toirt/thoirt a-mach air cuairtean ionadail bho àm gu àm

outline v tr 1 comharraich, vn comharrachadh m. The main features of the structure outlined, na nithean as cudthromaiche a tha air an comharrachadh

2 dèan iomradh air, vn dèanamh iomraidh air. The kinds of learning outlined, na seòrsachan ionnsachaidh air a bheilear a’ dèanamh iomraidh

3 cuir sìos, vn cur sìos. The attainment targets as outlined in the following pages, na cuimsean coileanaidh, mar a tha iad air an cur sìos anns na duilleagan a leanas

output n mach-chur m, gen mach-chuir

output mod a-mach. The output phase, an fho-rèis a-mach

outrageous a borb, comp buirbe. Isn’t that just outrageous, nach eil sin fhèin borb

outwash n às-sgoladh m, gen às-sgolaidh. Glacial outwash, às-sgoladh eigheadail

• às-sgaoileadh m, gen às-sgaoilidh

outwash mod às-sgolaidh. Outwash plain, còmhnard às-sgolaidh

outwith prep taobh a-muigh plus gen. Within and outwith the classroom, taobh a-staigh agus taobh a-muigh an ruim-theagaisg. From outwith the classroom, o thaobh a-muigh a’ chlas. Their audiences will include pupils outwith their own peer-group, am measg an luchd-èisteachd bidh clann taobh a-muigh an cuid cho-aoisean fhèin

oval n ugh-chruth m, gen ugh-chrutha, pl ugh-chruthan

oval a ugh-chruthach

ovary n ughlann m, gen ughlainn, pl ughlannan

oven n àmhainn f, gen àmhainne, pl àmhainnean

over prep 1 os cionn plus gen

2 thairis air

3 tarsainn air

4 feadh. Over S1 and S2, feadh A1 agus A2

5 mu. His own foolishness over drink, fhaoineis fhèin mun deoch

overall a 1 (a) farsaing. Pupils are expected to gain overall impressions of a text, thàtar a’ sùileachadh gum bi a’ chlann a’ faotainn beachd farsaing air teacsa. An overall level of achievement can be recorded when that is appropriate, faodar ìre-choileanaidh fharsaing a chlàradh an uair a tha sin iomchaidh

(b) expressed with anns an fharsaingeachd. When an interpretation of body language may be necessary to understand fully the overall communication, agus feum air cànain bhodhaig a bhreithneachadh gus tuigse iomlan fhaighinn air a’ chonaltradh anns an fharsaingeachd. In the light of an overall school policy, an lorg poileasaidh-sgoile san fharsaingeachd. Reading activities should demand that pupils show an overall grasp of a text, tha còir aig gnìomhan labhairt a bhith a’ sùileachadh gum bi a’ chlann a’ nochdadh gu bheil tuigse aca air an teacsa anns an fharsaingeachd

^ 2 coitcheann. They are right in arguing that the overall aim should be facilitation rather than coercion, tha iad ceart ann a bhith ag agairt gur e bu chòir a bhith mar amas coitcheann ach an t-slighe a rèiteachadh, agus chan ann a cho-èigneachadh

3 expressed with làn preceding n. Pupils will comment on the contribution of features of language and style to the overall effect of the text, bidh a’ chlann a’ toirt beachd air na tha cùisean cànain is stoidhle a’ cur ri làn bhuaidh an teacsa

over-analytic a expressed with ro smachdail ann an sgrùdadh. The emphasis should be practical; it should neither be didactic nor over-analytic, tha còir cudthrom a chur air nithean prataigeach, agus sin gun a bhith ro smachdail ann am beachd no ann an sgrùdadh

overarch v tr rach thairis air, vn dol thairis air. Strengths and development needs which are not related to, or which overarch, the strands, feartan agus feumalachdan fàis nach eil idir co-cheangailte ris na h-iallan no a tha a’ dol thairis orra

overcast a 1 neulach, comp neulaiche. It is overcast today, tha e neulach an diugh

2 culmach, comp culmaiche

overcome v tr 1 faigh thairis air, vn faighinn thairis air. which can usually be overcome by an appropriate methodology, gheibhear thairis orra sin mar as trice le dòighean-teagaisg freagarrach

^ 2 leasaich, vn leasachadh m. Those whose difficulties are of short duration and can be overcome by the class teacher, iadsan aig a bheil duilgheadasan nach mair ach ùine ghoirid agus a ghabhas an leasachadh le tidsear a’ chlas

3 ceannsaich, vn ceannsachadh m. The response to discriminatory behaviour will aim to help those responsible to understand and overcome their prejudices, ann a bhith a’ dèiligeadh ri gnìomhan lethbhreitheach bithear ag amas air a bhith a’ cuideachadh leis an fheadhainn a tha ciontach gus an cuid claon-bhàidh a thuigsinn agus a cheannsachadh

overflow v i 1 cuir thairis, vn cur thairis

2 tuilich, vn tuileachadh

overgraze v tr seach-ionaltraich, vn seach-ionaltradh m

overgrazing n seach-ionaltradh m, gen seach-ionaltraidh

overgrown a expressed with lusrach air fàs thairis air. The overgrown mound of stones cleared nearby shows that this place was once cultivated, tha an càrn, is lusrach air fàs thairis air, de chlachan a chaidh a ghlanadh bhon talamh faisg air làimh na chomharra air gun robhar ag àiteach an àite seo uaireigin

overhead a expressed with os cionn prep. They will learn to listen to expositions which are illustrated by overhead transparencies, ionnsaichidh iad mar a dh’èisteas iad ri iomraidhean le dealbhan os an cionn nan cois

overlap v tr

overlapping a eadar-cheangailte. These Programmes of Study are based on three overlapping phases in second language learning, tha na Clàran Oideachaidh seo air an stèidheachadh air trì fo-rèisean eadar-cheangailte ann an ionnsachadh air dàrna cànain

overlord n àrd-uachdaran m, gen àrd-uachdarain, pl àrd-uachdaranan

override v tr

overriding a expressed with os cionn nan uile nithean. The overriding priority in the initial stages, an nì os cionn nan uile nithean a bhitheas san amharc aig toiseach cùise

oversee v tr cùm sùil air, vn cumail f sùil air. The teacher should be involved in overseeing content, tha còir aig an tidsear a bhith a’ gabhail pàirt ann a bhith a’ cumail sùil air susbaint. To oversee customers’ interests, gus sùil a chumail air leas nan custamairean

overtake v 1 coilean, vn coileanadh. Similarly, some pupils will overtake Level E targets, anns an aon dòigh, bidh cuid a’ coileanadh cuimsean Ìre E

2 dèan a’ chùis air, vn dèanamh na cùis air. They should be encouraged to overtake the attainment targets they are capable of, bu chòir am misneachadh gus a’ chùis a dhèanamh air na tomhaisean-coileanaidh a tha nan comas

overview n sealladh m farsaing, gen seallaidh fharsaing, pl seallaidhean farsaing. Pupils can be shown how to gain an overview of an unfamiliar text, faodar a nochdadh do chloinn mar a gheibh iad sealladh farsaing air teacsa nach aithne dhaibh

owe v tr expressed with bi plus aig air. I owe him a pound, tha not aige orm

owl, tawny n (Strix aluco) comhachag-donn m

• cailleach-oidhche f dhonn

own a 1 fhèin. In planning and in implementing their own detailed policies for language, ann a bhith a’ dealbhadh ’s a’ cur an gnìomh am poileasaidhean-cànain mionaideach fhèin. ^ Their own emotions and attitudes, am faireachdainnean fhèin agus an sealladh fhèin air cùisean. Pupils should actively consider their own purposes as talkers, tha còir aig a’ chloinn an deagh aire thoirt don cuid adhbhar fhèin mar luchd-labhairt

2 expressed with poss pron plus cuid fhèin. Reading own or others’ work, a’ leughadh an cuid obrach fhèin no obair chàich

3 not directly expressed. Activities which relate to the pupil’s own life and environment, gnìomhan a bhuineas do chaitheamh beatha agus do dh’àrainneachd a’ phàiste. Ecologically the land can be divided into three zones, each with its own distinctive vegetation, a thaobh eag-eòlais faodar an talamh a roinn ann an trì sònan, gach aon dhiubh le a ghnè shònraichte de lusrach

owner n 1 (a) neach-seilbh m, pl luchd-seilbh

(b) expressed with neach m (or duine m, f) aig a bheil seilbh, pl daoine m pl aig a bheil seilbh, or feadhainn f (gen feadhna) aig a bheil seilbh (of, air). The owner of the stone said that he hoped the quarry would soon open, thubhairt an duine aig a bheil seilbh air a’ chloich gun robh e an dòchas gum fosgladh an cuaraidh gu h-aithghearr. We went to see the owners yesterday, chaidh sinn a’ coimhead air an fheadhainn air a bheil seilbh air an rud an dè

^ 2 sealbhadair m, pl sealbhadairean

oxbow a expressed with crudha-eich. Oxbow lake, loch crudha-eich

oxidation n ogsaideachadh m, gen ogsaideachaidh. Its porous structure was developed through the process of oxidation, tha structar pòrasach aige a thoradh air ogsaideachadh

oxide n ogsaid f, pl ogsaidean. Calcium oxide, ogsaid chailciam

oxidise vtr ogsaidich, vn ogsaideachadh m

oxidising n ogsaideachadh m, gen ogsaideachaidh

oxidiser n ogsaidiche m, pl ogsaidichean

oxter n achlais f, gen achlaise, pl achlaisean

ox-tongue mod (botany) teanga-dhaimh. Ox-tongue broomrape, mùchag theanga-dhaimh

oxygen n ogsaidean m, gen ogsadein

oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) n gille-brìghde m, gen gille-bhrìghde, pl gillean-brìghde

ozonation n òsonachadh m, gen òsonachaidh

ozone n òson m, gen òsoin. The ozone layer, a’ bhreath òsoin, an cearcall òsoin


P


Pabbay pr n Pabaigh

pace n expressed with astar m. Showing some sense of purpose and audience in pace of delivery, a’ nochdadh mothachaidh air adhbhar ’s air luchd-amais ann a bhith a’ suidheachadh astar lìobhraigidh. They should learn to take some account of register, pace, tha còir aca aire air choireigin a thoirt air gnè, astar. The pace at which they progress through the curriculum will vary considerably, bidh diofar mòr anns an astar a bhitheas aca a’ dol tron chlàr-theagaisg

keep pace with v phr rach a rèir, vn dol a-rèir. It is essential that the programs of study they follow should keep pace with their developing interests, tha e do-sheachnaichte riatanach gum bi na clàran oideachaidh aca a’ dol a rèir nan nithean anns a bheil iad a’ gabhail ùidh mar a tha iad a’ fàs nas sine

^ Pacific Ocean n phr an Cuan m Sèimh, gen a’ Chuain Shèimh

pack v tr pac, vn pacadh m. The eggs are taken to a packing station where they are packed in boxes, thèid na h-uighean a thoirt do stèisean pacaidh far a bheileas gam pacadh ann am bogsaichean

packing n pacadh m, gen pacaidh

packing mod pacaidh. A packing station, stèisean pacaidh. The eggs are taken to a packing station, thèid na h-uighean a thoirt do stèisean pacaidh

package n pacaiste f, pl pacaistean

package v tr

packaging n pacaisteadh m, gen pacaistidh

packet n pacaid f, pl pacaidean. Tins, packets, bottles and jars, canastairean, pacaidean, botail agus crogain

pack-ice n pac-eigh f, gen pac-eighe; pac-dheigh f, gen pac-dheighe

• deigh f phacte, gen deighe pacte

pad v tr padaig, vn padaigeadh m, padadh m

padded a padaichte. A padded envelope, cèis phadaichte. In a padded cell, ann an cealla phadaichte

padding n padaigeadh m, gen padaigidh

paddle n pleadhag f, gen pleadhaig, pl pleadhagan

paddle v i grunnaich, vn grunnachadh m

paddling n grunnachadh m, gen grunnachaidh

paddle-boat n soitheach-pleadhaig m, gen soithich-phleadhaig, pl soithichean-pleadhaig

padlock n glas-chrochaidh f, gen glaise-crochaidh, pl glasan-crochaidh

paean n paean m, pl paeanan

paeanic a paeanach. Paeanic feet, troighean paeanach. In the first three lines of the verse there are three syllables with lesser stress between each syllable with main stress, which we might call “paeanic feet”, anns a’ chiad trì sreathan den rainn tha trì lidean le cudthrom as lugha eadar gach lide le prìomh chudthrom, ris am faoidte “troighean paeanach” a ràdh. The second foot is paeanic or trochaic, i.e. having an odd number (three or one respectively) of syllables with lesser stress between the syllables having main stress, tha an dara troigh paeanach no tròicèach, i.e. le àireimh chòrr (a trì no a h-aon fa leth) de lidean le cudthrom as lugha eadar na lidean air a bheil prìomh chudthrom

page n 1 taobh-duilleig m, gen taoibh-dhuilleig, pl taobhan-duilleig

2 duilleag f, gen duilleige, pl duilleagan. The text may be, for example, a poem, an illustrated page from a children’s book, or a spoken message, mar eisimpleirean de theacsaichean tha dàn, duilleag le dealbh bho leabhar chloinne, no teachdaireachd bheòil. There are obvious markers in the look of the page, tha comharraidhean follaiseach ann an dreach na duilleige. The attainment targets as outlined in the following pages, na cuimsean coileanaidh, mar a tha iad air an cur sìos anns na duilleagan a leanas. Contents pages, duilleagan susbaint

page mod dhuilleag, nan duilleag. To recognise differences in likely content from page layouts and other typographical devices, gus eadar-dhealachaidhean aithneachadh anns an t-susbaint a tha coltach o chumadh nan duilleag agus o innleachdan eile a bhuineas do chlò-bhualadh

pain n anshocair f, gen anshocaire, pl anshocran

painful a anshocrach, comp anshocraiche; anshocair, comp anshocaire

paint v tr 1 peant, vn peantadh m

2 cruthaich, vn cruthachadh m. They should expect vivid pictures to be painted by means of comparisons (in simile and metaphor), bu chòir dùil a bhith aca gum bi dealbhan beothail gan cruthachadh tro shamhla agus tro mheatafor

paintbrush n bruis-pheantaidh, gen bruise-peantaidh, pl bruisean-peantaidh; also bruis-pheant, gen bruise-peant, pl bruisean-peant

pair n 1 càraid f, pl càraidean

2 paidhir m & f, pl paidhrichean. A pair of horses, paidhir each

3 dà. There are a pair of black-throated divers nesting on the loch, tha dà learg dhubh a’ neadachadh air an loch

in pairs prep phr 1 ann an càraidean. Development of these skills will benefit from practice and discussion in pairs and groups, bidh cleachdadh agus beachdachadh ann an càraidean agus ann am buidhnean buannachdail gus fàs a thoirt air na sgilean seo

^ 2 mar chàraidean. Pupils will work regularly in pairs or groups, bidh a’ chlann ag obair gu cunbhalach mar chàraidean no mar bhuidhnean

3 prep with poss a plus càraidean. Helping pupils, perhaps at first in pairs, a’ cuideachadh na cloinne, ’s dòcha nan càraidean an toiseach

4 eadar dithis. This will be aided by discussion, in pairs or small groups, cuidichidh beachdachadh eadar dithis no ann am buidhnean beaga le seo

pair mod expressed with mar chàraidean. Pair and group discussions, beachdachadh, ’s e sin mar chàraidean agus ann am buidhnean

pair v tr

paired a 1 eadar dithis. Paired reading develops awareness of audience, tha leughadh eadar dithis a’ toirt fàis air mothachadh air luchd-amais. Particularly through paired and group work, gu sònraichte ann an obair eadar dithis no ann am buidhnean

^ 2 càraid. Word processing is also a catalyst for paired and group work, tha dealbh-sgrìobhadh cuideachd na mheadhan falaichte air obair càraid agus obair bhuidhne

palace n lùchairt f, pl lùchairtean

palatal a palatach. Palatal consonant, connrag phalatach. This pronunciation, as palatal “ nt ”, occurs generally in the dialect for the palatal consonant group “ thn ”, gheibhear am fuaimneachadh seo, mar “ nt ” phalatach, am bitheantas san dualchainnt a tha ann air a’ chòmhlan-chonnrag “ thn ” phalatach

palatalisation n palatachadh m, gen palatachaidh

palatalise v tr palataich, vn palatachadh m

palatalised a palataichte. This is a dative form of a feminine word with the word-ending palatalised, ’s e seo riochd tabhartach de dh’fhacal boireann leis an deireadh-fhacail palataichte

palato-alveolar a palat-ailbhealach

palate n (anatomy) glainnean m, gen glainnein

pale a 1 (a) soilleir, comp soilleire. Pale brown, soilleir dhonn. A paler brown, donn as soilleire

(b) aotrom. Pale brown, aotrom donn

2 (botany) blian, comp bliana. Pale butterwort, bodan-measgain blian

3 bàin, comp bàine

4 glas-neulach

pall n brat-mairbh m, gen brata-mhairbh, pl bratan-mairbh

pallet (mattress or bed) n uirigh f, pl uirighean

pallet (portable platform) n paileat m, pl paileatan

palm (of hand) n bas f, gen boise, pl basan

palm (plant) n pailm f, gen pailme pl pailmean. Palm oil, ola phailme

palm tree n phr craobh-phailm f, gen craoibh-pailm, pl craobhan-pailm

palmful n boiseag f, gen boiseig, pl boiseagan

palpitations n pl frith-bhualadh m, gen frith-bhualaidh

pamphlet n 1 bileag f, gen bileig, pl bileagan

2 pamflaid f, pl pamflaidean

pancreas n brisgean m milis, gen brisgein mhilis

panegyric n duan-molaidh m, gen & pl duain-mholaidh

panegyric a molaidh. Panegyric verse, bàrdachd mholaidh

panel n pannal m, gen pannail, pl pannalan

pansy n bròg f na cuthaig, gen bròige na cuthaig

pant v i 1 bi plosgartaich

2 bi plus aonach m air. I was panting after running for the bus, bha aonach orm an dèidh dhomh ruith airson a’ bhus

pantomime n pantomaim m, pl pantomaimean

paper n pàipear m, gen pàipeir, pl pàipearan. Newsletters, papers, reports, and brochures, litrichean-naidheachd, pàipearan, aithisgean agus bileagan-fiosrachaidh. Corrugated paper, pàipear preasach. Tissue paper, pàipear eadar-fhighe. Paper fasteners, ceanglaichean pàipeir

blotting paper n phr pàipear-sùghaidh m, gen pàipeir-shùghaidh

filter paper n phr pàipear m sìolaidh, gen pàipeir shìolaidh

tracing paper n phr pàipear-treasaidh m, gen pàipeir-threasaidh

paper mod pàipeir. Paper towels, searbhadairean pàipeir

paper v tr (wall, etc) 1 pàipearaich, vn pàipearachadh m

2 boltaig, vn boltaigeadh m

parachute n paraisiut m, pl paraisiutan

parade n pairèid m, pl pairèidean. Amongst hundreds on parade, am measg nan ceudan air pairèid

paradigm n 1 clàr m, gen & pl clàir

2 paradaim m, pl paradaimean. Paradigm and syntagm, paradaim agus siontaim

paradigmatic a paradaimeach. Paradigmatic and syntagmatic, paradaimeach agus siontaimeach

paradox n paradacs m, gen paradaics, pl paradacsan

paraffin n 1 paireafain m

2 ola f ghuail

paragraph n paragraf m, pl paragrafan. Paragraph is a further feature of textual organisation, tha paragraf a-rithist ri fhaotainn ann an òrdanachadh theacsaichean. Verse and paragraph are descriptive terms for features of text, ’s e ainmean a tha ann an rann agus paragraf a bheir iomradh air nithean a bhuineas do theacsa. The series of paragraphs which will make up the account of the life cycle of the butterfly, an t-sreath pharagraf a thèid an ceann a-chèile gus iomradh a dhèanamh air cuairt-bheatha an dealan-dè

paragraph v tr 1 dèan paragrafan, vn dèanamh pharagraf

2 cuir ann am paragrafan, vn cur ann am paragrafan

3 sgrìobh ann am paragrafan, vn sgrìobhadh ann am paragrafan

paragraphing n 1 expressed with a bhith a’ dèanamh pharagraf. Paragraphing can be developed by making clear the link with the purpose of writing, faodar fàs a thoirt air a bhith a’ dèanamh pharagraf le bhith a’ soilleireachadh a’ cheangail a tha ann ri adhbhar sgrìobhaidh

2 expressed with dèan paragrafan, vn dèanamh pharagraf. Paragraphing will be introduced at this level, tòisichear air paragrafan a dhèanamh aig an ìre seo

3 expressed with a bhith a’ cur ann am paragrafan. By paragraphing and highlighting, le bhith a’ cur ann am paragrafan agus a’ comharrachadh a-mach

4 expressed with sgrìobhadh m ann am paragrafan, gen sgrìobhaidh etc. Pupils will develop confidence in the manipulation of paragraphing and sentence structures, bidh a’ chlann a’ fàs nas misneachaile ann a bhith a’ làimhseachadh sgrìobhaidh ann am paragrafan agus cumaidhean sheantansan

parallel a 1 co-shìnte. Parallel lines, loidhneachan co-shìnte

2 not directly expressed. It is equally necessary to develop a parallel awareness and grasp of the richness and diversity of the culture, tha e a-cheart cho riatanach mothachadh agus tuigse àrach air cho saidhbhir agus cho iomachruthach ’s a tha an dualchas

parallelogram n ceithir-cheàrnan m co-shìnte, gen & pl ceithir-cheàrnain cho-shìnte

parasite n 1 parasait f, pl parasaitean

2 faoighiche m, pl faoighichean

parasitic a 1 parasaiteach; parasaitigeach. Hygiene measures adopted should be sufficient to prevent the spread of bacterial, viral and parasitic conditions, bu chòir gum bitheadh na dòighean-obrach slàinteachais a thèid a chur an gnìomh gu leòr gus casg a chur air galaran baicteiriach, bhìorasach agus parasaiteach o bhith a’ sgaoileadh

2 faoigheach

parboil v tr 1 leth-bhruich, vn leth-bhruich f

2 slaop, vn slaopadh m

parcel n 1 parsail m, pl parsailean

2 pasgan m, gen & pl pasgain

pardon v tr (in asking what someone has said) b’ àill leibh? or dè b’ àill leibh?

parent n pàrant m, pl pàrantan. The policy statement should be brought to the attention of parents or guardians, bu chòir aithris a’ phoileasaidh a thoirt gu aire phàrantan no luchd-dìona

parenthesis n eadar-ràdh m, gen eadar-ràidh, pl eadar-ràidhean

parish n 1 parraist m, pl parraistean

2 sgìre f, pl sgìrean

park n pàirc f, gen pàirce, pl pàirceachan. Park ranger, coimheadaiche pàirc

park v tr pàirc, vn pàirceadh m

parking n pàirceadh m, gen pàircidh. No parking, pàirceadh toirmisgte

parking mod pàircidh. Parking place, ionad-pàircidh, ionad-parcaidh

parliament n pàrlamaid f, pl pàrlamaidean. The candidate has pledged her total support to ensure secure status for the Gaelic language within the lifetime of the next parliament, tha an tagraiche air a làn thaic a ghealltainn gus dèanamh cinnteach gum faigh an cànan Gàidhlig inbhe thèarainte ro dheireadh na h-ath phàrlamaid. Parliament Rock, Sgeir na Pàrlamaid (place-name in Loch Maree, of a skerry much frequented by seagulls)

parliamentary a pàrlamaid. Parliamentary candidate, tagraiche pàrlamaid. The prospective parliamentary candidate for the SNP in Ochil constituency, an tagraiche pàrlamaid airson a’ Phàrtaidh Nàiseantaich ann an roinn-thaghaidh Ochaill

parse v tr pàirtich, vn pàirteachadh m





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