Revised December January 20034
Chemistry in the Environment
I. Introductory Information
A. Department: Chemistry
B. Catalog Number: CHEM 101
C. Course Title: Chemistry in the Environment
D. Credits: 3
E. Clock Hours/Week: 4 (2 hours lecture, 2 hours laboratory)
F. Overlays None
G. Prerequisites: None. Does not satisfy requirements for a natural science major or minor.
II. Course Description
Designed to provide students with an introduction to chemical principles as they apply to important issues in everyday life. The American Chemical Society program Chemistry in Context serves as the basis. The laboratory experience emphasizes the scientific method and is designed to reinforce the topics from the lecture. Students make real world measurements as part of investigations of their environment and the applications of chemistry to their lives. Designed for students who have had no or limited high school chemistry. Fulfills general education natural science requirement.
An introduction to chemistry. Designed for students who had no or limited high school chemistry. sDescriptive chemistry and stoichiometry will be emphasized. The laboratory will introduce the student to the chemical laboratory with emphasis on the handling of equipment and good laboratory practices.
The American Chemical Society program “Chemistry in Context” is designed to present chemical principles on a “need to know” basis as part of a discussion of environmental issues facing society. This approach is allows the students to better see how these principles apply to their wowourld. This approach also provides an opportunity for the students to develop their critical thinking skills and presents the chance for the development of the ability to assess the risks and benefits as each societal issue is discussed, The goal of this presentation is the development of informed citizens that are better able to make informed decisions regarding technical and environmental issues throughout the rest of their lives.
The content of this course relates to standards of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) Standards. The course addresses Unit Standard One: Subject Matter -
"The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students."
The content of this course relates to standards of the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) Standards. The course addresses Unit Standard One: Subject Matter- “The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of the subject matter meaningful for students.”
Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) Standards related to this course include:
I.A. Basic principles of mathematics and physics as they relate to chemistry, including:
· relationships between matter and energy,
· Physical parameters, units and dimensional analysis,
· states of matter,
· gas laws and the kinetic-molecular theory
I.D. Chemical concepts, including:
· mixtures, solutions, solubility, and chemical equilibrium
I.G. Thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions including:
· laws of thermodynamics,
· chemical equilibrium,
· chemical kinetics
I.H. Extensive laboratory activities including:
· reinforcement or extension of chemical theory,
· experimental design, data collection, analysis and interpretation,
· methods of preparation, use, storage and disposal of reagents conforming to state
and federal regulations,
· laboratory safety
I.I. Historical and contemporary issues including:
· history of chemistry,
· risk benefit trade-offs
Components of this course are used to fulfill parts of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Standards 1.0 Content, 2.0 Nature of Science, and 3.0 Inquiry.
The content of this course also relates to guidelines of the American Chemical Society’s Committee on Professional Training. The content of this course builds upon core courses that cover descriptive chemistry, chemical bonding and structure, and organic chemical reactions and mechanisms.
This course is required for students majoring in Chemistry and Chemistry/Secondary Education. Elective for students majoring in interdisciplinary Biology/Chemistry.
Upon completion of the course, students will be able to do the following:
1. Demonstrate an understanding of the history and basic principles of chemistry, and demonstrate an awareness of the application of chemistry to everyday life.
2. Demonstrate their knowledge of chemical safety and the ability to perform an informed risk assessment analysis.
3. Apply their chemical knowledge in such a way as to make informed decisions regarding important environmental issues.
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the scientific process, in particular the collection and analysis of data in the laboratory.
5. Relate to and understand environmental issues that are present throughout the world. and the
1. The history and development of physical chemistry will be presented in conjunction with each topic during the course of the semester. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.1 through the inclusion of historical questions on quizzes and exams; and through writing activities regarding the application of chemistry to everyday life.
2. As each new topic is presented in the course, students will be introduced to the appropriate chemical principles. Students will participate in discussions of the stuapplications of these principles to the topic at hand. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.2 through the inclusion of safety and risk assessment questions on quizzes, exams and laboratory activities.
3. The format of the course involves discussion of the application of chemical principles to many issues facing society. In addition to participation in these discussions, students will be assessed on objective III.A.3 through the inclusion of questions on exams, quizzes and laboratory activities.
4. Students will be introduced to the scientific method and will collect data that pertains to the societal issues discussed in class. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.4 through the weekly evaluation of their laboratory activities.
5. The format of the course involves discussion of how chemical principles apply to global issues involving people and the environment. In addition to participation in these discussions, students will be assessed on objective III.A.5 through the inclusion of questions on exams, quizzes.Lecture material will present the laws of thermodynamics and the standard thermodynamics functions. Laboratory activities will require that students demonstrate proficiency in the measurement and manipulation of the thermodynamic functions mentioned in III.A.2. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.2 through the use of homework, quizzes, examinations, and laboratory reports.
3. Lecture material will present the application of the thermodynamic functions to the equilibrium systems mentioned in III.A.3. Laboratory activities will require that students demonstrate proficiency in analyzing the equilibrium systems described in III.A.3. . Students will be assessed on objective III.A.3 through the use of homework, quizzes, examinations, and laboratory reports.
4. Lecture material will present Gibbs’ phase rule and the laboratory activities will require that students demonstrate knowledge of the application of the rule to the construction of the phase diagram for a multi-component system. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.4 through the use of homework, quizzes, examinations, and laboratory reports.
5. Lecture material will present the tenets of the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Laboratory activities will require that students demonstrate proficiency in the measurement of properties of gases related to objective III.A.5. . Students will be assessed on objective III.A.5 through the use of homework, quizzes, examinations, and laboratory reports.
6. Lecture material will present the thermodynamics of non-ideal systems. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.6 through the use of homework, quizzes, and examinations.
7. Lecture materials will introduce the methods used to determine the kinetics of chemical reactions. Laboratory activities will require that students demonstrate the ability to determine the reaction rate law for a chemical system. Students will be assessed on objective III.A.6 through the use of homework, quizzes, examinations, and laboratory reports.
The students will attend all lectures and laboratories. Lectures will consist of approximately equal time devoted to presentation of new material, discussion of course topics, and problem solving. Students will complete all assignments and examinations/quizzes. In the laboratory, students will record and organize data, analyze data (including graphical analysis) and prepare an analysis of the data stating how the information applies to the topic under study. Laboratory activities will consist of mainly experimentation and data collection and analysis using small group activities.
1. Lecture Units
The following units have subheadings that are representative of but not limited to the information to be covered.
a. Unit 1- The Atmosphere and the Ozone LayerAir (865 hours)
Composition of the atmosphere
Introduction to risk assessment
Classification of Matter
Atoms and Molecules
b. Unit 2- Global Warming, Energy, and Society First Law of Thermodynamics (566 hours)
States and state functions
Energy, heat, and work
c. Unit 3- Water and Acid RainSecond and Third Laws of Thermodynamics ((7 4 56 hours)
d. Unit 4- Nuclear Energy (4 hours)
Carnot and other cyclic processes
Absolute entropies and the third law of thermodynamics
Spontaneity and equilibrium
Gibbs free energy
ed. Unit 45- Nuclear EnergyEnergy from Electron TransferChemical Equilibrium (3235 hours)
Electron, Cells and BatteriesIdeal gases
Fuel CellsReal gases
Alternate Energy Sources and Transportation
Splitting Water: Fact or Fantasy?Solutions
Tests for equilibrium
The Hydrogen Economy
Photovoltaics: Plugging in the Sun
Nuclear WasteTemperature dependence of equilibrium
Pressure dependence of equilibrium
fe. Unit 65- Plastics and PolymersPhase Behavior and Solutions (346 hours)
Recognition of Phases
Vaporization and Vapor Pressure
Partial Molar Thermodynamic Properties
Partial molar volume
f. Unit 6- Basic Pharmaceutical ChemistryPhase Equilibria and Phase Diagrams (36 hours)
Introduction to Organic ChemistryGibbs’ phase rule
How Aspirin WorksOne component systems
Brand Name or Generic Prescription Drugs?
Herbal MedicineBinary Systems
Vapor containing systems
g. Unit 7- NutritionChemical Kinetics (4338 hours)
h. Unit 8- Basic Pharmaceutical Chemistry (2 hours)
Types of and evidence for complex mechanisms
Steady state analysis
2. Laboratory Units
The following units are representative of but not limited to the experiments to be covered during the semester.
a. Unit 1- Preparation and Analysis of Atmospheric Gases (42 hours)
b. Unit 2- Investigation of the Properties of Gases Chromatographic Study of Felt Tip Pens (2 hours)
c. Unit 363- Understanding Molecules through the use of Models A Spectroscopic Study of Colored Solutions (2 hours)
d. Unit 474- Investigations of Reaction StoiiochiometryChemical Bonds, Molecular Models and Molecular
Shapes (2 hours)
e. Unit 559- Comparison of the Energy Content of FuelsChemical Moles: Converting Baking Soda to Table
Salt (2 hours)
f. Unit 6116- Comparison of the Energy Content of Fuels Reactions of Common Substances (2 hours)
g. Unit 718&197- Analysis of VinegarpH Measurements of Common Substances, and
What is the pH of Rain (42 hours)
h. Unit 8178- Investigation of Water HardnessReactions of Acids with Common Substances (2 hours)
i. Unit 209 9- Solubilities: An Investigation Water Pollution Investigation (24 hours)
j. Unit 102210 -– Chemical Reactions and Electricity Solubility of Common Salts (2 hours)
k. Unit 112411 - Properties of Analgesic DrugsClassification and Identification of Common Plastics (2 hours)
l. Unit 122512- Classification of and Identification of Polymers Identification of Analgesic Drugs by Thin-Layer
Chromatography (2 hours)
m. Unit 2613 – Synthesis of Aspirin (2 hours)
1. Suggested textbook:
Stanitski, Conrad L., Eubanks, Lucy Pryde, Middlecamp, Catherine H., and Pienta, Norbert J., Chemistry in Context, Applying Chemistry to Society, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, NY, NY, (2003)
2. Bibliographic support:
Chemical and Engineering News
Journal of Chemical Education
Goldfarb, Taking Sides, Clashing Views on Environmental Issues, 2nd Edition, Dushkin Publishing Group, Guilford, CN, (1987)
Baird, Environmental Chemistry, W.H. Freeman and Company, NY, NY (1995)
McQuarrie, Donald A., and Simon, John D., Physical Chemistry, a Molecular Approach, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1997.
Francl, Michelle, Survival Guide for Physical Chemistry, Physics Curriculum and Instruction, Lakeville, MN, 2001.^
Barrante, James R., Applied Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998.
Shoemaker, David P., Garland, Carl W., and Nibler, Joseph W., Experiments in Physical Chemistry, 6th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 1996.^
Journal of Physical Chemistry A & B
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Journal of Chemical Education
Grades will be awarded in a manner consistent with University policy, and will be based upon student demonstration of a mastery of the course material through the following criteria.
Completion of each Laboratory Activity
Evaluation of laboratory techniquesReports
Laboratory practical examination
Assessment: Homework/assignments will be used to assess objective 1 in section IIIA. Examinations, quizzes and homework/assignments will be used to assess objectives 1 through 57 in section III A. Laboratory reports and technique will be used to assess objectives 3,4,5, and 7 in section IIIA. Other assessment tools may be developed and used by the instructor.
The syllabus is being revised to reflect standardscomply with requests from of a variety of accrediting agencies. It also reflects a revision of the learning outcomes for the course.
The course is designed for to fulfill 3 s.h. of the laboratory science general education requirements.students majoring in Chemistry, Chemistry/Secondary Education, or interdisciplinary Biology/Chemistry.
The course is open to all students; however, this course does not satisfy requirements for a natural science major or minor.Students who have successfully completed CHEM 220, PHYS130 or PHYS 170 and MATH141 are permitted to take CHEM320.
The revisions do not significantly affect existing academic programs or departments.
VI. Cost and Staff Analysis:
A. Effect on University Resources:
There will be no costs beyond normal yearly laboratory costs for this course.
B. Expected Frequency and Rotation:
The course will be offered onceeach persemester of the academic year.
VII. Date Approved by University President:
Signature of the President Date