Optical Engineering Professional Delegation to China icon

Optical Engineering Professional Delegation to China


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Optical Engineering Professional Delegation to China

October 13-24, 2008

Professional Meeting Notes

Chinese Optical Society:

Date: October 14, 2008 Time: 15:30-17:30

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator


Chinese Optical Society Attendees:

Professor Ni Guoqiang, Ph.D

Secretary, Chinese Optical Society

Department of Optical Engineering

Beijing Institute of Technology

5 South Zhongguancun Street

Haidian district, Beijing 100081, China

Tel: (010)68912560

Fax: (010)68912560-808

Mobile: 13601242046

e-mail: nigq01@sina.com

e-mail: nigq@bita.org.cn


Professor Boyu Ding

Vice General Secretary, Chinese Optical Society

Department of Opto-Electronic Engineering

Beijing Institute of Technology

5 South Zhongguancun Street

Haidian district, Beijing 100081, China

Tel: 86-10-68948125

Fax: 86-10-68912564

e-mail: dingboyu@sohu.com




^ Dr. Mungas, Professor Davis, Professor Ni Guoqiang, Mr. Bilbro, Professor Boyu Ding, Mr. Kapinski, Ms. Ogle, Dr. Tratt, Ms. Williams


Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for Professor Ni Guoqiang and Professor Boyu Ding taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Professor Ni Guoqiang then gave a brief description of the Chinese Optical Society (COS).


Professor Ni Guoqiang:

The COS has several thousand members with 18 specialty divisions: laser mfg. technology, holography, opto-electronics, advanced optical mfg., bio-optics, IR devices and technology. The COS covers all fields in optics. The COS has a standing committee of 120 members and an “on-duty” committee of 21 members. 7 members of the COS are also members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The COS is the highest level – “best bridge” to build up relationships between companies, researchers and universities – to develop collaborations.

The two most active industrial areas in optics in China are the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtse River Delta. Together they have a 1/3 share of the optics markets in three areas: imaging technology, solid-state lighting, and solar energy technology.

Solid state lighting is booming in China.

The COS has a close relationship with the SPIE since 1990. Every two years they co-host a meeting with the SPIE, the next one being in 2009.

The COS has a Committee on International Collaboration.

Professor Ni studied nuclear physics at Fudan Univ. in Shanghai, but currently specializes in IR imaging. He has a masters and PhD from BIT.

China divides optics into optical engineering and optical science. In China there are1600 universities, 200 of which have departments related to optical engineering. They graduate approximately 100 students per year for a total of 20,000 graduates. Of these at least 80 are authorized to award Master’s degrees and grant 30-40 degrees per year for a total of around 3,000 Masters Degrees. There are on the order of 40-50 universities that are authorized to award PhDs and these graduate around 20 students per year for a total of around 1,000 PhDs. Optical Science is slightly less than Optical engineering:

(combining the two yields the following approximate numbers – JWB)

Optical Science & Engineering Graduates Per Year

BS - 40,000

MS - 6,000

PhDs – 2,000

It is important to note that these optical engineering statistics do not include optical communication and imaging topical areas.


Professor Davis: Does COS have both engineering and science?

Professor Ni: It is supposed to be science from its name, but most of the COS emphasis is on engineering, similar to the SPIE.


Ms. Williams: Does the COS play a role in defining the research areas for China?

Professor Ni: No, it does not – it provides a platform for exchange, but does not get involved in planning. A special department in the government does the planning.

Ms. Williams: How does the government communicate areas of interest to the community at large?

Professor Ni: All professional societies are aligned with Chinese Academy of Science & Technology which is affiliated with the central government. In the future, the societies may be more involved in assessment, but for now, the government may assign an amount of money for a professional society to do a survey of, say, ammonia.

Most research is done by the Chinese Department of Sciences – equivalent to the National Science Foundation. Some may have their own research sponsorship such as the Chinese Academy of S&T.


Professor Davis: Is there a fee for membership in the COS? Are there student members? Are there international members?

Professor Ni: There are mostly Chinese members, it is not officially open to international membership, but last year 3 members of the OSA leadership became members. There is a small 50 Yuan fee, but it is not really for financial support of the COS.


Ms. Williams: Does the government fund the COS?

Professor Ni: The government assigns a small amount of money for the COS to provide a platform, the COS also charges for events. Most of the staff are volunteers and do not receive support.


Professor Davis: The Chinese are leading in some areas.

Professor Ni: there is good laser crystal manufacturing, but not necessarily in the manufacturing of laser devices themselves. Overall there is a lot to learn. In remote sensing there is a big gap.


Ms. Davis: Is the government interested in collaborating on environmental monitoring?


Professor Ni: Yes, very much! There is a very strong emphasis on global monitoring and the impacts of rapid growth, working on high resolution monitoring of climate and ocean change.

There are four categories for space-based environmental monitoring: natural disaster, climate, environment, oceans. There is an emphasis on IR, Optical imaging, multispectral imaging and Synthetic Aperture Radar. China has a lot to catch up on in high-tech areas. Remote sensing imaging from China Sat is not as high resolution as the American imagery that was provided by the American government for the recent earthquake disaster (for which the Chinese government expressed great appreciation).


Ms. Davis: Is there interest in aircraft observations?

Professor Ni: China is trying to organize a large aircraft program for scientific research for government requirements. There are 12 instruments (10 of which will be made in China).

Government is emphasizing the issues associated with global warming, atmospheric pollution, infrared sounding of temperature and humidity.


Mr. Bilbro: What is happening in China relative to patent rights, intellectual property, etc.?

Professor Ni: Chinese government is putting a lot of emphasis on protecting intellectual property. Collaborations are detailing rights upfront in the contracts.


Ms. Williams: We sometimes pay a royalty or a license fee for previously developed intellectual property.


Ms. Ogle: (to Bilbro) do you mean patents? Countries want to protect their patents.


Ms. Williams: More around licensing.


Professor Ni: China is trying to ensure that intellectual property is established upfront.


Ms. Ogle: Is the Chinese government funding solar technology?

Professor Ni: The government is assigning a large amount of money to various agencies to develop Chinese Intellectual Property in two areas:

  1. Conversion of solar energy to heat

  2. Conversion of solar energy to electricity.

The government doesn’t interfere with the commercial processes, but is trying to establish IP for China. China is trying to do the same switch as Japan did, going from cheap low quality to hi-tech, hi-quality. They are actively trying to shed their “global factory” image.


Mr. Bilbro: What are the 5 hot areas of interest in China?

Professor Ni:

  1. Solid state lighting

  2. Solar energy switching from lo-tech to hi-tech with IP

  3. Aerospace remote sensing for atmosphere/environment/climate

  4. Submicron lithography

  5. Laser fusion

Professor Davis: What aspects of solid state lighting?

Professor Ni: Research in small devices with high light output. They have found a technique, but right now it is too expensive for commercial use.


Professor Davis: Europe laid out a roadmap on how to develop solid state lighting. Does China have a similar roadmap, does COS have input into the strategy?

Professor Ni: COS does not get involved in the strategy. They do have a member, however, that is part of the government research effort.

Professor Davis: So the government does have a roadmap?

Professor Ni: Yes. COS hosts meetings on solid state lighting.


Ms. Williams: Is IR work done in Beijing? Where are the detectors made?

Professor Ni: My interest is in IR imaging. Basically Chinese IR technology is not very high end, mostly purchased from oversees. 3 regions are associated with research in IR:

  1. Beijing w/ties to the government

  2. Shanghai

  3. Quangming

IR emphasis is on civilian work such as environmental monitoring. Again, most is purchased overseas with very little done in China.


Mr. Karpinski: what wavelengths are of interest?

Professor Ni: All wavelengths.


Mr. Bilbro: I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provide by the members of the delegation – an SPIE series book, some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


^ Beijing Institute of Petroleum Technology (BIPT):

Date: October 15, 2008 Time: 14:00-16:00

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator

^ BIPT Attendees:

Professor Dr. Feng Yinqi

Opto-Mechatronic Equipment Technology

Beijing Area major Laboratory

Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology

Beijing 102617, China

Tel: 86-10-83350453

Mobile: 13522681975

Fax: 86-10-81292221

E-mail; fengyinqi@bipt.edu.cn

Professor Huang Min Shuang – new Professor, from Institute of Fine Mechanics & Optics a research center affiliated with CAS.

Professor Liu Zhi Hong

Mr. Yaoquin Liu Yao129@126.com – 1st (?) year student

Mr. Jia Jia – 3rd (?)year student


^ Summary of the Institution:

Under the Laboratory, there is a special robot department, a modern welding technology department, a processing department, a research center, etc.

The Laboratory has several research focuses including integration of Opto-Mechatronic., artificial welding robot, laser detection, etc.

The Lab has 35 full time and part time staff, among whom are 8 professors and 10 associate professors.

In the past 5 years, the lab has performed research on over 50 items including 863 projects.

There have been over 200 papers published, among which 30 have been selected to EI, 35 items were applied for national patent, 14 have been authorized.




Professor Liu Zhi Hong, Professor Dr. Feng Yinqi, Mr. Bilbro


^ Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for the BIPT attendees taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Professor Feng then gave a brief description of BIPT as well as her activities at BIPT.


Professor Feng:

The research of this lab is mainly on opto-mechanical technology, and application of artificial intelligence to welding processes. My area is basic physics working in optics measurement specifically optical coherence tomography (OCT) primarily for medical applications. We (Professor Huang I believe JWB) work in fiber optics, fiber sensors - vibration, temperature. Just beginning machine vision. Now concentrating on processes. We are adding color to OCT green, red & yellow combining to get 3-D. We have a grant from Beijing National Science Foundation. To be used in biomedical – early cancer detection. The focus in welding is on dimensional control using CCD imaging. It is conventional welding and research is not done on welding itself.

There are 6,000 undergraduate students, 100 graduate students (masters) and 10 or 20 post graduates/PhD students). 1/2 are engineering students. This is the 30th anniversary of the school. It is not large enough to grant graduate degrees so graduate students are given degrees from other schools. Beijing Institute of Chemical Technology grants Masters degrees, BIPT provides the courses.

I teach 1-2 courses per year (optics & laser technology) 1 or 2 days per week (50-60 students) the rest of the time is spent in research. The classes are mostly in theory (2-4 hrs per week) labs take more hours and there is not enough equipment. In the graduate classes there may be only 20 students. It takes 4 years for a Bachelors, 2 ½ -3 years for a Masters and 2 years for a PhD.


Professor Hong:

I would like to know more about Ms. Williams activities.

Ms. Williams:

Automotive safety – IR sensors

Aircraft/satellite environmental sensing using commercial sensors for CO2, ozone, etc.

Professor Huang:

What type of automotive safety?

Ms. Williams:

Cameras for proximity sensing – simple sensors that can be distributed around the vehicle.

Professor Hong:

How does it work? Does it transmit IR?

Ms. Williams:

I am working with MIT, they are creating super pixel sensors w/IR capability. It is not an active system, it is passive, using simply the image in IR & Visible to detect proximity.


Professor Davis:

Do you have electronic access to digital libraries such as SPIE?

Professor Feng:

Not at BIPT we have to go to another university for access. I am an OSA member.

Mr. Jia:

Professor Davis, what do Chinese students need to do to be better prepared for graduate school in the US?

Professor Davis:

Most Chinese students have difficulty in English. Also many are not prepared for physics degrees because they have more of an engineering background and can’t be admitted because of pre-requisites.

Ms. Williams:

That is not the case at MIT, Chinese students are well prepared in physics and technical backgrounds. What could be improved is in communication skills – public speaking/presentations. Often English skills are adequate but confidence is lacking coming from lack of experience in public speaking.

Professor Hong:

Ms. Williams are you looking for collaboration in research, manufacturing or marketing.

Ms. Williams:

Research would be difficult because of ITAR restrictions on the part of both countries, so mostly in manufacturing and marketing.

Professor Hong:

Marketing in China or outside of China?

Ms. Williams:

Both, but primarily in China because of the huge market potential.

Professor Huang:

The cost is low, big manufacturing in China the desire is to open markets in China through manufacturing.

Ms. Williams:

Automotive followed by medical – big markets.

Professor Hong:

Is your project in manufacturing?

Ms. Williams:

No, we have to be careful in information exchange in the development phase, but in 12-18 months we should be ready for manufacturing.

Professor Shuang:

Will your project bring more pollution to China?

Ms. Williams:

No, manufacturing requirements are essentially those for a camera, so it shouldn’t cause more pollution.

What is the % women in the faculty?

Professor Feng:

75% men 15% women.

Mr. Bilbro:

In the US, there is a lot of drop out of women in middle school that leaves a low percentage in the workforce.

Mr. Pan Rui: Do you mean they choose their career at this early point.


Mr. Bilbro:

They don’t specifically choose a career, but they choose not to take math, physics, etc. that are required to go into the hard sciences later when they go to college.

Professor Davis:

In the life sciences it is more 50/50.

What about minorities in China?

Mr. Pan Rui:

Minorities get an amount added to their score and since college entrance in China is based totally on their score on the test, this gives a preference to minorities.


Professor Feng:

Dr. Tratt, what kind of sensor are you working on?

Dr. Tratt:

Currently I’m working on applications development for multi-spectral imaging – 50-100 channels.

Professor Feng:

For commercial or research?

Dr. Tratt:

For research in areas such as natural hazard warning - volcanic activity, environmental thermal imaging, etc. By monitoring thermal terrain map of volcanic areas it’s possible to gain advanced warning of eruption. We also analyze surface spectral properties for mineral content and this enables us to do remote geology & vegetation health.

Mr. Pan Rui:

Could it be used for earthquake monitoring?

Dr. Tratt:

Interesting question--.

Ms. Williams: I can answer, we have used satellites to monitor earth motion.

Mr. Bilbro:

I’m not sure that this has been demonstrated.

Ms. Williams:

Not enough money has been put in to validate it.

Dr. Tratt: What’s been done so far really involves measurement of surface deformation using GPS, whereas our hosts’ question is actually related to the potential for use of IR imaging for advance earthquake warning.

Mr. Bilbro:

There are potential for many techniques, but I don’t think anything has been demonstrated to be an effective predictor.


Mr. Pan Rui:

Dr. Tratt how does the sensor detect vegetation health?

Dr. Tratt:

The health of the plant affects its chemical balance and hence the spectral signature.

Professor Feng:

What wavelengths?

Dr. Tratt:

Vegetation health work has mostly been done at 2-4 microns, but there are also signatures around 8-14 microns.

Professor Feng:

China would be very interested.

Dr. Tratt:

I would be surprised if Chinese researchers weren’t already working in this area. The data from Landsat has been around for decades and is available publicly. This and the NASA MODIS data have been used extensively for vegetation health studies. Perhaps there is work going on at some of your agricultural institutes?


Professor Davis:

Does the university have funding from industry as well as the government?

Professor Feng:

They have funding from both.

Professor Davis:

What is your success rate in obtaining funding?

Professor Feng:

25%

Ms. Williams:

What is the break out of the funding?

Professor Feng:

All of mine is government, my colleague has some from both.

Ms. Williams:

And overall?

Professor Hong:

Most universities have more funding from industry. The government supports more commercialization and that needs involvement of companies.

Mr. Bilbro:

Where does support for basic research come from?

Professor Hong:

Basic research is more in science, this institute is focused on engineering. Basic research in engineering is mostly done at government institutes.


Professor Davis:

Professor Feng, do you work with biologists?

Professor Feng:

In England, yes, here, no.

Professor Davis:

Do you still have connections in England?

Professor Feng:

Not currently.

Mr. Yaoqin:

Ms. Williams, if you find a partner in China for your project, what qualifications would a student need if they wanted to get a job with that partner?

Ms. Williams: It would be helpful to have related experience, process development background for example. Another task is system engineering to understand how the whole system goes together. Most system engineers come out of EE, but opto-mech can make good system engineers for this instrument.


Mr. Bilbro: I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provided by the members of the delegation – some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


^ Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT):

Date: October 16, 2008 Time: 09:00-11:00

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator

^ BUPT Attendees:

Professor Xiaoguang Zhang

Director of Lightwave Science and Information Optics Research Center

Institute of Optical Communication and Optoelectronics

Key Laboratory of Optical Communication & Lightwave Technologies Ministry of Education

Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications

Beijing 100876, China

Tel: 86-10-62281490

Mobile: 86-13520065360

E-mail; xgzhang@bupt.edu.cn

Associate Professor Xinzhu Sang

Key Laboratory of Optical Communication and Lightwave Technologies(BUPT),

Ministry of Education

Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications

Beijing 100876, China

Tel:

Mobile:

E-mail; xzsang@gmail.com


Summary of the Institution:

There are 3 professors, 5 part time professors, 6 associate professors, 1 instructor, doctoral students and students for master degree working in the Photoelectronics and Optical Information Research Center of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. The main topics include electromagnetic, microwave techniques, physical electronics, optical, optical engineering etc.

The main research directions of the Center are:

  • Optical fiber technologies.

  • Optical information processing, including optical CDMA access techniques.

  • ROF Technique.

  • Optical transmission, amplification, and switch.





Dr. Mungas, Dr. Tratt, Ms. Ogle, Mr. Karpinski, Associate Professor Xinzhu Sang, Ms. Williams, Professor Xiaoguang Zhang, Professor Davis


^ Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for the BUPT attendees taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Professor Sang then gave a brief description of research on opto-electronic devices.


On-going and planned research areas:

  • Photonic silicon devices

  • Fiber Bragg grating and its applications in telecommunication and sensing systems

  • Photonic crystal devices

  • Quantum information processing

  • Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA)

  • All-optical label switching

  • Key technologies in Radio over fiber systems

  • Image processing and image recognition

  • Nano-and Micro-Electromechanical Systems and their applications


The details of the presentation are in the power point presentation provided by Professor Sang entitled “ Research on Optoelectronic Devices and their Applications.”


Professor Davis:

Do you use the Danish PC fibers?

Professor Hong: yes, but Wu Han also makes a small quantity of PC fibers.


Dr. Tratt:

Your presentation made mention of supercontinuum sources. What is the wavelength of operation and what tunability have you achieved?

Professor Hong: ~100 nm tunability at typical telecom wavelengths (~1.5 microns).


Professor Xiaoguang Zhang then gave a presentation addressing:

  • Research Center of Lightwave Science and Information Optics, Institute of Optical Communications & Optoelectronics (BUPT)

  • Key Laboratory of Optical Communications and Lightwaves Technologies (BUPT), Ministry of Education, China


Institute of Optical Communication and Optoelectronics was founded in Sep. 2008 based partly on the Key Laboratory of Optical Communications and Lightwave Technologies.


Key Laboratory of Optical Communications and Lightwaves Technologies (BUPT), Ministry of Education, was founded in 2003.

Three Research Centers

• Research Center of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks

• Research Center of New Type Optoelectronic Devices and materials

• Research Center of Lightwave Science and Information Optics


The details of the presentation are contained in the power point presentation entitled “Researches on the Polarization Problems in High Speed Long-Haul Optical Fiber Communication systems.”


Mr. Bilbro:

Does the NSF send out a request for proposals in certain areas?

Professor Xiaoguang:

The government proposes general areas, say nano & microelectronics every 5 years. Universities can propose every year, the proposals are typically 2-3 years in length.


Mr. Bilbro:

I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provided by the members of the delegation – some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


^ School of Electronic Engineering and Photo-electric Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology

Date: October 20, 2008 Time: 09:00-11:00

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator


^ NUST Attendees:

Project Manager Wang Han

Division of International Exchanges & Cooperation

Hong Kong, Macao & Taiwan Affairs Office

200 Xiao Ling Wei,

Nanjing, China 210094

Tel: 86-25-84315428

Fax: 86-25-84431622

E-mail: wanghan@mail.njust.edu.cn

http: www.njust.edu.cn


Professor Chen Lei

School of Electronic Engineering and Optic-electronic Technology

Nanjing University of Science and Technology

200Xiao Ling Wei, Nanjing China 210094

Tel: 02584315427(0)

E-mail: chenleiw@126.com


Professor Chen Yanru

Department of Optical Engineering

Professor Gao Wanrong

Department of Optical Engineering

Professor Li Zhenhua

College of Sciences


Professor Shen Zhonghua

College of Sciences

Professor Ni Xiao Wu

College of Sciences


^ Summary of the Institution:

The School of Electronic Engineering and Photoelectric Technology was established in 1992, based on the School of Electronic Engineering and the School of Optoelectronic Technology.

The school has 4 different Postdoctoral Stations, which includes Electronic Engineering and Technology, Optical Engineering, Information and Communication Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering.

Among these, the Optical Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering and Mechanical Engineering are in the Special Discipline construction in Jiang Su Province. There are also 6 different undergraduate courses, the school of Electronic Information, Communication Engineering, Electronic Science and technology, Optoelectronic Engineering, Guidance and Control Technology, and Electronic Information Warfare Technology.

The school has a comprehensive Training System for undergraduate, master, doctoral and post doctoral students. There are 1908 undergraduate students, 496 masters and 166 doctors, among which there are 10 students from abroad.




Project Manager Wang Han, Mr. Bilbro


^ Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for the NUST attendees taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Project Manager Wang then began the discussions with a brief history of the University.


PM Wang:

Nanjing University of Science and Technology was established in 1953, it includes 175 hectares and is state run. It is the 39th ranked University in China. There are 9 schools 1 graduate school and two joint schools one with U. Birmingham, England and one with U. Coventry, England. There grant degrees in 40 doctoral areas, 100 areas, 57 Bachelors areas, They have 12 post doctoral programs.

They have 9 national disciplines and 19 key disciplines. The University as a whole has 20,283 students, 14,950 undergraduates, 4,246 graduate students, 219 foreign students mostly undergraduates from Vietnam, France, Russia 7 Japan.

99% of undergraduates are hired

96% of graduate students are hired

10,000 graduates since the school was founded 7 are in the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) or Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE).

There is a staff of 3,102 with 1,466 faculty.

There are 1.116 Professors/Associate professors, 205 Doctoral supervisors 5 members of the CAE.

There is one National Key Laboratory of Transient Physics and one National Engineering R&D lab on ultra fine materials.

They are 336 among world universities based on papers published.

They have cooperative ties with 100 universities or institutes from more than 20 countries & regions.

They have 200 student exchange programs in America, France, Germany & Korea (California State University in Long Beach is one of the major U.S. exchange programs).

More than 200 foreign scholars visit each year teaching or collaborating on campus.

They have conferred 100 honorary Doctorates world wide.

They have 5 joint education programs w/foreign universities.


Research Areas of NUST attendees:


Wanrong Gao – biomedical optics, imaging, optical tomography.


Zhonghua Shen – laser applications, material interaction, laser excitation.


Zhenhua Li – laser radar, material interaction, optical property of biological tissues, laser particle(?)


Lei Chen – interferometry, metrology (worked for Jim Burge at the U. of Arizona in 2000)


Presentation by Dr. Mungas providing an overview on his work on a scannable laser spectroscope for a remote arm on a Mars rover. details in the power point presentation.


Ms. Williams:

Is there anyone with interest in climate change?

Answer after making a call to the Department of Chemical Engineering – No, you will need to visit Nanjing Information University for that area.


Ms. Williams:

How about large scale camera manufacturing?

Professor Zhenhua Li:

Knows someone in Hanjo and will provide contact information.


Professor Davis:

What kind of detection do you use?

Professor Zhonghua Shen:

Use two kinds of detection optical interferometry and deflection. Also use non-optical technique – surface acoustic wave (SAW).

Professor Davis:

Are you looking at grain structure using electron microscopy?

Professor Zhonghua Shen:

Yes

Professor Davis:

Dr. Gao, can you give more information on confocal work – are you developing it or just using it?

Dr. Gao:

Working to develop single Photon device.


Professor Davis:

Dr. Zhonghua Shen do you develop lasers or buy them?

Professor Zhonghua Shen:

We buy them commercially. Dr. Davis what kind of laser applications?

Professor Davis:

Pharmaceutical laser interaction with proteins – single molecule detection (?) to do during drug binding measurements. Also do material processing.

Professor Zhonghua Shen:

Very interesting.

Professor Davis:

Uses of femtosecond lasers to machine structures in nano-diamond.


Professor Davis gave a power point presentation of his students work (details in power point slides).


Dr. Zhenhua Li:

How do you drill deep holes?

Professor Davis:

The technique was described in last months Optic Express. It basically uses spherical aberration to focus down deep as well as at the surface so you can drill 10 micron deep holes 1 nano-meter in diameter in transparent fused silica.

May we visit your laboratories?


Answer:

We are not able to visit the labs because of classified work related to national defense.


Question: Professor Davis what are your requirements for students?

Professor Davis:

Must have prerequisites for physics, i.e. quantum mechanics.

Pan Rui:

How much time spent on English for undergraduates?


Answer:

In optical Engineering it is easier to find a job if they are bi-lingual. In the first two years a lot of time is spent on English. There is a national exam, if they pass it then there is no further work in English. Two levels CET Level 4, CET Level 6


Ms. Ogle:

What kind of companies are hiring your students?


Answer:

Companies come to the university to hire in communications and computer science.


Question:

How do students get into the university?

Answer:

The University gets a quota for each area.

The students indicate which universities they want to get into (they get to pick 4 in order of preference) and then they take a test.

Students are then assigned to the University based on their scores.

Every year 500,000 students in Jingsu province take the test. The University will only take the top 8,000. The rest go to another university.

About 60% (300,000) overall pass and go to a university.

The schools pick based on the # of students that they have been allocated in a given area based solely on the score of the exam. (i.e. from the top score down).

There are funds from the Chinese Scholarship council for about 5,000 graduate students per year to go abroad.

There is interest in possibility of student exchanges where no degree is granted and no tuition charged, just living expenses.

Mr. Bilbro:

I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provided by the members of the delegation – an SPIE series book, some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


^ Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics:

Date: October 20, 2008 Time: 14:00-16:00

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator


^ NUST Attendees:


Professor Jin Quanyuan

Director of International Cooperation Office

Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics

29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016, P.R. China

Tel: 86-25-84891458

Fax: 86-25-84498069

Mobile 13805182135

E-mail: jinquanyuan@nuaa.edu.cn

http://ice.nuaa.edu.cn


Li Peng – PhD student in fine mechanisms

Liu Li – PhD student in the College of Automation

Wang Tian Hu – College of Science optical Engineering detection and processing

Guo Linfeng PhD (associate professor?) Fiber optics gyroscopes, interested in microlenses and micromechanical systems. Working on navigations systems for tanks.

Hua Jing – PhD student in College of Automation using optical technology for material detection (determining the type of wood used in furniture; stated to be for counterfeit detection in the premium furniture industry, but could also be applied to natural resource/forestry inventory).


^ Summary of the Institution:

Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA), established in 1952, is situated on the very site of the ancient Ming Palace of Nanjing. Its campus covers an area of 160 hectares, with a building space of 510,000 square metres. The library has a collection of over 1,000,000 books. NUAA is one of the key universities in China that mainly offers courses in science and engineering and strives for the coordinated development in applied science, management, humanities and social sciences with the combined features of aeronautics, civil aviation and astronautics. It is among the nation's first institutions of higher learning authorized to grant degrees of doctor, master and bachelor. In 1996 it succeeded in becoming one of the China's 100 most key universities for the 21st century (China's 211 Project). It is subordinated to the Commission of National Defense Science, Technology and Industry of China.

NUAA consists of 10 colleges. There are as many as 27 programs with 50 majors, among which, 42 offer master's degrees and 21 doctor's degrees. There are 3 national key programs: Aircraft Design, Mechanical Manufacture and Automation, and Fluid Mechanics; NUAA has set up as many as 50 research institutes. NUAA now has over 13,100 students pursuing degree programs at different levels. Among them.11,100 are undergraduates and about 2,000 postgraduate students. It has a staff of 2,450,among whom 1,380 are faculty members and researchers with 160 being professors and 540 being associate professors




Mr. Bilbro, Professor Jin Quanyuan, Ms. Ogle, Dr. Guo Linfeng, students and delegates


^ Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for the NUAA attendees taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Professor Jin then began the discussions with a brief history of the University.


Professor Jin:

Today is the 56th anniversary of the University. There are 2 campuses, this one is on the remains of the Ming Dynasty Palace. It was established October 20, 1952. The new campus is halfway to the airport. Commercial pilot training is done by the university, in the final phase, the pilots are sent to the US (Delta Training academy e.g.)

The university has 9 National Key Disciplines and 18 Provincial Key Disciplines. There are 56 labs including the 15 National & Provincial Key Labs. They have a close relationship with Airbus including a research project in CFD. Airbus set up a small library about Airbus and a scholarship program. They sponsor a masters course in Toulouse. The areas of interest include micro air vehicles, nano science & technology, ultra-sonic motors, bio-mimetic structures, MEMS, mag. lev., micromachining, medical physics. They invite 150 scholars & researchers per year to lecture at the university. They are holding 3 international conferences this month (materials, IT & the UK/China Science & Technology Forum, Oct. 22-23).


Introduction of attendees: (see above)


Guo Lin Feng asked Mr. Karpinski about the commercial application of MEMS mirrors. (Guo works on optical MEMS, fiber optics, and fiber-optic gyros.)


Mr. Karpinski:

IT produces a commercial product, the iphone display uses them as well.

Professor Davis:

Wang Tian Hu, what aspects of optical signal detection and processing?

Wang Tian Hu:

Spectroscopy for chemical make up of a material in the laboratory.

Ms. Williams:

Do you make the spectrometer or buy it?

Wang Tian Hu:

We buy it, we are developing the process.

Ms. Williams:

What kind of material?

Wang Tian Hu:

Blood.

Dr. Mungas:

What type of spectroscopy?

Wang Tian Hu:

Reflectance & IR.


Professor Davis:

How much time is spent doing course work versus work on research?

Answer:

1/3 on classes 2/3 on research.

Professor Davis:

Are there exams for the courses?

Answer:

Yes


Question to Ms. Davis:

Does your interest include under water?

Ms. Davis:

No


Professor Davis:

Are there any women in your college?

Answer:

In the College of Automation 20-30% are women. PhDs as well as Bachelors.

Ms. Davis:

Are there any women professors?

Answer:

150 PhD advisors, only 8 are women.


Question from the students(?):

What is your feeling about the effect of the financial crisis?

Answer:

Longer working, no retirement, reduced buying, small business loans and new start ups.

Question:

What about the impact on S&T?

Answer:

It will have a big impact, reduced income to government and companies means no spending on R&T.


Professor Davis:

China hopes that as the market in the U.S. decreases, China’s internal market will take up the slack, do you think this will happen?


Answer:

5,000 people were laid off this week in a toy factory because of drop in demand in the U.S.


Mr. Bilbro:

Markets are so interrelated that no one knows how the impact will play out. Everyone is dependent upon everyone else.


Professor Davis:

Do students think about Global Warming?

Answer:

Yes, some schools have majors in environment and environmental protection. We are doing now what you were doing 20 years ago, we are starting – limiting # cars on road, moving to European standards for pollution on all cars.


Every week 1 new coal fired power plant comes on line in China.


Mr. Bilbro:

I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provided by the members of the delegation –some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


^ Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics:

Date: October 22, 2008 Time: 9:00-11:00

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator


^ SITP Attendees:


Professor Dai Ning

Vice Director, Professor

Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics

Chinese Academy of Sciences

500 Yu Tian Road

Shanghai 200083, P.R. China

Tel: 86-21-65161674

Fax: 86-21-658303734

E-mail: ndai@mail.sitp.ac.cn, ndaiz@yahoo.com


Mr. Gu Qiang (arranged meeting with SITP and SIOFM)

Department of cooperation & Exchanges

Shanghai Pudong Association of Science & Technology

7F, No. 1, Lane 1080 Yunshan Rd

Shanghai, P.C. 200136

Tel: 86-21-50765373

Fax: 86-21-50765373

Mobile: 13391326635

E-mail: alexgu113@hotmail.com


Professor Zheng Li Hua

Director of Center for Optics Manufacturing


Professor Zuo Xiang – Next generation meteorological satellite 2 primary instruments on FY-4 Atmospheric sounder & scanning radiometer.

Professor Hu Ziao Ling – Leads a group of 15 people in semiconductor device fabrication. She was a 1993 graduate from the institute; they are working in focal plane arrays 30 micron X 30 micron HgCdTe devices. Professor Ling worked in Munich at the Technical University of Munich and at the Schottky Institute in Mid-IR quantum-cascade lasers.


Mr. Xu Yao Zhou – Optical system Design & fabrication


Mr. Wu Ming Qi – aspheric mirror fabrication, 0.5 nano-meters surface roughness in sintered silicon carbide mirrors.


Mr. Wang Jing – optical design and assembly, metrology


Mr. Wang Peng – optical systems design manufacture & assembly


Mr. Zhing Dong Dong – 11 years in lasers


Mr. Xiao Gong Hai – system design airborne remote sensor, multi-spectral/hyper spectral imager and lidar. Looking at medical application.


Mr. Ma Yan Hua – Engineer for laser altimeter, airborne sensing, multispectral imaging, hyper spectral imaging, OMIS Optical Measuring Imaging Spectrometer, PHI Pushbroom Hyper-spectral Imager. Near IR 1 -2.5 microns.


Mr. Wei Yan Feng – Fabrication of HgCdTe thin films (Dr. Dai: we also work in silicon)


Mr. Zhen Yan – 6 years in optical design, ocean color, polarization.


Mr Fang Wei Sheng – 11 years in mfg of CdZnTe trying to grow 60 mmX490 mm for substrate. Largest is 40X30 mm 1 mm thick with a yield of 50%.


Mr. Ye Zhen Hua – 2 color (SWIR/MWIR) focal plane array. HgCdTe grown by MBE.


^ Summary of the Institution:

The Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was set up in October 1958. It is an engineering-type and base-type institute which takes the basic application of infrared physics and optoelectronics as its main research direction and integrates the research on engineering technology with high-tech industrialization. It was selected as one of the first institutes for the knowledge innovation program initiated by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1998.

The institute is now mainly engaged in research on infrared optoelectronics and takes the basic research on new infrared photoelectric materials, new devices and new methods etc. as its main research direction toward the 21st century. It has placed its emphasis on the development of advanced airborne and space-borne payloads, infrared staring imaging and signal processing, infrared focal plane array and infrared photoelectric devices, optical coating, miniature coolers, processing of medical images and remote sensing information etc.



Professor Dai Ning addressing the delegates


^ Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for the SITP attendees taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Professor Dai then began the discussions with a brief history of the Institute.


Professor Dai:

There are large research projects here in environmental monitoring, not just air pollution, but also water pollution and solid waste. There are 14 institutes in Shanghai belonging to the CAS.

I would like the individuals to introduce themselves beginning with Professor Zheng Li Hua.


Professor Zheng Li Hua:

Provided a presentation on their optical manufacturing. 50% of the space cameras made here (meteorological)

Scanning radiometer on FY-2

Spectrometer on FY-3

Spectrometer on SZ-3

Ocean Color sensor on HY-1

IR camera on a government satellite

IR earth sensors

Next generation camera on meteorological satellite FY-4

Cameras are designed, manufactured and assembled here.

There is a small optics manufacturing facility here.

1st light weight mirror in space fused silica 400 mm diameter 50% light weighted using supersonic machining (hexagonal cells).

600 mm Si C manufactured elsewhere, but ground and polished here, 3 mirror anastigmat. CCOS machined.


Professor Dai:

Background is theoretical physics, PhD from Notre Dame in solidstate physics – semiconductor, laser spectroscopy, quantum dots (for biomedical applications), multi layer IR thin films – Bragg reflector. Came back to China in 2001 to SITP. There are 700 researchers 400 graduate students. The average age is ~40.


1.About 40 researchers are in fundamental research. A large part of the funding is from the Chinese NSF they can work on whatever they get funded to do.

2. material fabrication – IR devices (also UV & visible)

3. IR systems (including refrigerators).


Return to introductions of SITP attendees (see above).


Dr. Dai:

The institute is self contained – can do most anything, we also have a large machine shop.

We will provide a list of people w/research areas and contact information.

Presentation by Dr. Mungas providing an overview on his work on a scannable laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) for a remote arm on a Mars rover. In response to this presentation, Prof. Ning Dai mentioned that SITP is also evaluating LIBS, but for terrestrial environmental monitoring applications. He also stated that they were interested in collaborating with the U.S. on Solar System exploration projects.


Mr. Bilbro:

I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provided by the members of the delegation –some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


Following the meeting we were given a tour of their exhibit hall showing past instruments.


Material provided by SITP: Brochure on SITP along with brochures on individual instruments.


^ Shanghai Institute of Fine Optics and Fine Mechanics:

Date: October 22, 2008 Time: 15:15-17:15

Delegate Attendees:

Mr. James W. Bilbro – Delegate Lead

Professor Lloyd Davis – Delegate

Mr. John Karpinski – Delegate

Dr. Greg Mungas - Delegate

Ms. Patricia Ogle – Delegate

Dr. David Tratt – Delegate

Ms. Janis Williams – Delegate

Mr. Pan Rui – National Guide & Translator


^ SIOM Attendees:


Professor Dr. Changehe Zhou

Information Optics Lab

Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Jiading, Qinghe Road 390

P.O. Box 800-211

Shanghai 201800, P.R. china

Tel: 86-21-69918664

Fax 86-21-69918213

Email: chazhou@mail.schcnc.ac.cn


Mr. Gu Qiang (arranged meeting with SITP and SIOM)

Department of cooperation & Exchanges

Shanghai Pudong Association of Science & Technology

7F, No. 1, Lane 1080 Yunshan Rd

Shanghai, P.C. 200136

Tel: 86-21-50765373

Fax: 86-21-50765373

Mobile: 13391326635

E-mail: alexgu113@hotmail.com


Name email research area

Prof. Xiaoyan Liang lianxy@siom.ac.cn Ultrafast laser technology and nonlinear optics

Prof. Xiaolei Zhu xlzhu@mail.siom.ac.cn Solid-state Laser

Prof. Qing Cao qingcao@siom.ac.cn Nanophotonics

Prof. Changhe Zhou chazhou@mail.shcnc.ac.cn Microoptics


Summary of the Institution:

Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), was established in 1964. It is the earliest and the largest institute in China specializing in laser science and technology. It has now developed into a comprehensive scientific research institute with modern optics as the leading orientation, with the exploring of significant fundamental science frontiers and development of large engineering techniques and pioneering laser and optoelectronic application as the focal point, with high-tech innovation and basic research for application as the major task.
The main research fields are: High Power Laser Technique, Strong-Field Physics and High Intensity Optics, Information Optics, Quantum Optics, Laser & Optoelectronic devices, and Optical Materials, etc. 



Professor Dr. Changehe Zhou addressing the delegates


^ Meeting Notes:

The meeting was opened with appreciation being expressed for the SIOM attendees taking the time and effort to meet with the Delegation members. The individual delegates then gave a brief introduction of themselves and their reasons for being part of the delegation. Professor Changhe then began the discussions with a brief history of the Institute.


Professor Changhe: (Note see summary notes above)

There is a staff of 750 with 8 members of the CAS or CAE. 38 are PhD supervisors, 150 senior researchers, 260 graduate students. We have activities in hi power lasers, strong field physics and high intensity optics, Information Optics, Quantum optics, lasers and optoelectronics, and optical materials. We have had 700 significant S&T achievements, 769 patents have been applied for and 338 granted. We have produced 6700 papers. There are 3 basic research labs, a State Key Lab on Hi field physics, a CAS Key Lab on Quantum Optics, a Lab for Information Optics and 4 R&D centers. There are 3 Hi-tech app. Joint Lab for high power lasers, High density optical storage, novel laser techniques and applied systems, high intensity laser fusion.

The Shen Guang II laser facility has nine beams similar to NIF with 30 femtosecond lasers. SG II is being built near Cheng Du.

The first atom chip in China was developed here.(?)

They work on airborne laser altimetry and bathymetry.

Yb doped double clad fiber laser w/440 w output.

Laser crystals, crystal growth facilities.


High-intensity lasers are pursued for inertial confinement fusion research, coherent X-ray generation, and femtosecond applications such as particle acceleration and laser/plasma interactions. They also have a facility dedicated to high-power coatings for the IR thru X-ray spectral regions. So far they have achieved 1.9PW at 30fs using optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification.


Areas of interest on SIOM attendees (see above notes on attendees)

Qing Cao graduated from the Harbin Institute (Mr. Bilbro had previous contacts with professors from Harbin in Coherent Laser Radar) and also attended the Institute of Optics in Paris, where he worked on surface plasmons and grating waveguides. Additional areas of interest include micro/nano optics- gratings, diffractive elements for soft x-ray microscope (work done at Univ. Haagen in Germany), diffractive elements for space telescope (referenced idea from the Air Force Academy).


They operate an extensive international cooperation and exchange program, with one of the largest activities being “Photoncraft” – a joint venture with Japan.


Mr. Bilbro:

I would like to close the meeting by again expressing my appreciation for the time and effort expended in meeting with us and would like to present you with this certificate of appreciation from the delegation along with some materials provided by the members of the delegation –some expanded resumes, published papers, and visitor material from the US.


Material provided by SIOM: Brochure on SIOM along with a copy of Chinese Optics Letters, October 10, 2008 and the Call for Paper for the 8th Pacific Rim conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics to be held September 13-17, 2009 in Shanghai.




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