INFLUENCE OF INFORMAL GROUPS ON PRODUCTIVITY
(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL, ENUGU.)
PROJECT RESEARCH SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI-NIKE, ENUGU, ENUGU STATE.
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B,Sc)DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
With all humility and love, I dedicate this work to God Almighty who is only source of knowledge and wisdom. To God be the Glory forever and ever.
This is to certify that this project satisfies the requirement for award of (B.Sc.) in Business Administration. It has been supervised by me.
Mr. Walter Ani Prof. U. Nwanguma
Project Supervisor Head of Department
…………… ……. ……………………….
My determined effort to produce this project work would have yielded no result if not for the mercies and grace of the Most High God.
Firstly, to God be the glory for making this project a success. My profound gratitude also goes to my research mentor and supervisor Mr. Walter Ani whose advice, encouragement and critical supervision facilitated the completion for this project. The encouragement given to me by my HOD, Prof. G.U.Nwanguma and other lecturers in the department Mr. Agbo Melletus, Mr. Kenneth Eziedo and Mr. Innocent Ubawike did also contribute to the successful completion of the project.
I am particularly grateful to my parents and friends, Mr. and Mrs. Damain Akhame, and Toyie Obe.
Informal group came into existence through the interaction of people as a result of socialization. When individual meet and interact with one another, there is the tendency for individuals with similar interest and characteristics to form powerful cohesive groups in order to obtain organizational objectives. It therefore, the objective of this research was find out the relationship that existed between informal groups activities on productivity levels in organizations for effective management of the informal groups in Nigeria organizations. A review of the related interactive was made to provide a sound theoretical background of the concept of informal groups. This was done by review of work previously done by scholars on the concept of informal groups. By making use of a case study, questionnaires was distributed or rather administrated to the workers at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. The data collected from the filed was analyzed, the hypotheses, which were formulated, were tested through the use of statistical models. The findings of the research were that workers were found to be keenly interested in belonging to informal groups in their work places such as the trade unions. They agreed that they derive benefits groups offered by the groups to workers given the opportunity to work for their benefits. Workers should realize their primary objectives through group association. Managers should realize that team spirit is the important characteristics of informal groups which motivate them to be effective in organization. Informal organization are not officially recognized and do not have any space in organizations organigram. My conclusion is that since informal organizations continue to exist and can not be stopped or terminated in any set up, it should continue to be accommodated as much as it does not adversely affect the attainment of organizational goals. During recruitment, selection and orientation, new employees should be made to join informal groups such as trade union or any other, this makes the workers to socialize and adopt quickly and better to the values existing in the organization. More consultation of the informal groups by the management should be encouraged and suggestions made by the workers be utilized as this motivates the workers more for greater performance.
Title page - - - - - - - - - -i
Dedication - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - viii
The review of the related literature
2.1 Theoretical Frame Work for the Study - - - 10-13
2.2 Historical Background - - - - - - 13-16
2.3 Current literature on postulated above- - - 16-45
Research Design and Methodology - - - - 47
3.1 The research design - - - - - - - 47-48
3.2 The source of data - - - - - - - 48
3.2.1 Primary sources of data - - - - - - 48
3.2.2 Secondary sources of data - - - - - 48
3.3 The Population for the Study - - - - - 49
3.4 The Sample Design and determinations of
Sample size - - - - - - - - - 49
3.5 Method of data collection - - - - - - 50
3.5.2 Secondary methods of data collection - - - 51
3.6 Methods of data presentation and Analysis- - - 51
4.1 Data presentation - - - - - - - 53
4.1.2 Demographical Characteristics - - - - 58
4.1.3 Presentation according to key research
Questions - - - - - - - - - 62
4.1.4 Analysis Based on Research Questions - - - 68
5.1 Summary of finding - - - - - - - 70
5.2 Recommendations - - - - - - - 70-73
5.3 Conclusions - - - - - - - - 73
ii. List of frame for sampling
1.1 THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The organization development is a vital exercise that must be carried out with a successful conclusion if technological bondage is to be avoided in the nation. In our society today there is need for adopting a creative approach for our technological take off. The reason is to encouraged employees to cultivate the ability of making maximum use of resource available to them, develop new ways of resources utilization that may come in the course of their job.
Since Nigeria independence, the nation has gone through a gradual rise in the level of industrialization and the evolution of both small and complex organization. An organization as defined by Griffin (1984:86) is a combination of people, or human efforts, working in pursuit of certain common purposes called organization goals. It is any group of two or more people working to achieve a goal or goals.
Organization range from the small business units to the very large and complex corporate bodies. There are two groups the formal and informal groups.
The formal group come into being as a result of organizational hierarchy which defines expected relationships among its workers in most cases, a group of people come together and discuss about the problems of the company, individual problems and how the problems should be handled. Also, talk about those with different opinion from other and how such people should be treated or handled. Furthermore, this kind of group will usually have its mission or area of activity spelled out.
Informal groups, on the other hand, Michael (1985:1990).develop in response to the needs of the people making up the group. As a result they do not have an explicitly stated set of goals nor are there institutionally defined in and position of authority. These aspects of an informal group develop as a result of group of individual with the same objectives. Hence, informal groups are not set up by the management of the organization but arise as a result of people with similar interest interacting and also as a result of friendship association. Most cases, group of people come together and discuss about the company’s problems, some individual problems and how they should be dealt with, does who have contrary opinion from others would be convinced, are forced to accept the opinion spell out by other members of the groups.
The above comment succinctly shows the existence of informal groups in an organization. These groups although not created by the management of the organization are very powerful and have considerable influence on individual members. Members are observed to be often committed to the achievement of the group objectives. These objectives of the informal groups sometimes go contrary with organizations objectives.
Therefore it is very important for the management to be aware of the existence of these groups and understand how they work. Some managers fail to realize the fact that informal groups work under certain conditions which dominate the formal organization and neglect the efforts of management.
Moreover, they can be pervasive with some managers themselves belonging to the informal groups. Depending on whether they are favourable or unfavourable, this may result to the increase or decrease in the productivity of the organization. Improper management of the informal groups may also lead to dissatisfaction of workers, absenteeism, personal turnovers, grievances and conflicts and these may adversely affect the stability of an organization.
As a matter of fact, there are potential benefits to be tapped from the existence and activities of the informal groups. The management can only tap the benefits when it is willing to work with them effectively without engaging in measures to suppress the informal organization.
Management of organizations have been trying to improve individual productivity through researches and product development, employment of high skilled and experienced workers. Despite these efforts, productivity is declining in a organization who is to be blamed is still declining or has remained low and unimpressive.
What is actually responsible for the continuous decline in productivity despite serious efforts by the management, who have control over these group is yet to be achieved from the above assertions, it become imperative or necessary to research and conduct an assessment on the influence of informal groups on organizational productivity.
Do informal group activities influence organization decision-making?
To provide answers to this problem motivated the researcher to carry out this project.
It become imperative or necessary to research and conduct an assessment on the influence of informal groups on organizational productivity.
The objectives of this research are:
The researcher formulated under listed questions to provide a guide in the course of this research.
The existence of informal groups in organizations have negative or positive influence which may pronounced or silent but vital to the achievement of organizational objectives.
Understanding and controlling the informal group activities might become possible when an empirical study has been conducted and some facts about the relationship existing between these factors informal groups, formal groups and the management within an organization are revealed the identification of the needs of the individual workers will help the management to motivate the workers better for improved productivity.
Thus, the research would be useful to organizations, academia and consultants to organizations. If also provide a platform for further work on the topic by other scholars.
Research works are subject to one form of limitation or the other especially during a period of economic meltdown. Thus the researcher was financially constrained to elaborately, thus this research was limited to University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu.
During the course of the study, the respondents got a lot of information concealments.
Equally time constraints affected the research considerably as the period was too short for submission of this research.
The scope of this study was limited to cover type of groups, reasons for joining groups, activities of informal groups informal group leadership roles, problems of informal groups and the effects on the productivity in the organization.
For easy understanding of this work the following technical terms are necessary to be interpreted by the researcher:
UNTH: University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
WAEC: West African Examination Council
^ Higher National Diploma
OND: Ordinary National Diploma
BSc: Bachelor Degree of Science
Griffin R.W (1984) Management in modern organization New
York, Honghton Miffin Co.
Mescon M.H (1985) Management, New York, Aarper and Low
Haurian, T.S (1970) Management New York: Honghton Miffin
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical frame work
This research will be anchored on the need theory. This need theory will be summarized to offer an effective understanding.
Benson-Eluwa, (1998:35). of Caritas University contributed to three types of basic motivating needs. He classified these as needs of power, affiliations and needs of achievement. The needs are of special importance to management since all must be recognized in order to make an organized enterprise work well.
It is necessary to note that in the employment relationship, the concept, union management relations or labour management relations is also known as employee relations which are temporary association existing in the organizations that tend to persist over time. Informal groups are major instruments through which organizational members resist management strategies for change.
When there is a change, organizational members study how it affects them individually. Informal groups may then be, the available instrument to exert pressure on management to make a change when needed which affect after or provide an alternative when it affects the group negatively.
According to Stoner (2001:35) informal groups emerge whenever people come together and interact regularly. Such groups develop within the organization structure, informal groups are formed on the basis of members interest, so, they will be committed to the organizational structure.
Informal organization in the real sense is part of the behavioural interaction of member in an organizational structure which is not identical with the normative structure formal goal and expectations of the organizations.
Informal groups have both negative and positive impact on formal organizations. Informal groups perpetuate held social and cultural values. People who belong to a group may share certain common norms and values.
As present member of informal group interact with one another, respect each other values and attitude and enjoy satisfaction, status and safety. This is why members belong to groups.
(University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital news letter 2010 volume 2)
Profile of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu.The University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku/Ozalla Enugu, has come a long way. The hospital began in the early 20th century as Standard General Hospital on the attainment of Nigeria’s independence in the 1960.
However, at the end of the Nigeria civil war 1970, the then government of the eastern central state transformed it into a specialist Hospital with effect from July 1, 1970. At this time the hospital had a total of 50 doctors, 10 wards and 300 beds and archest bay of 50 beds.
However, The bed capacity of the hospital at permanent site over 500 beds and the number of its personnel both professionals and non-professionals has increased tremendously. By decree number 23 of 1974, the Federal Military Government took over the hospital, but later left the management in the hands of the Council of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
The University of Nigeria became independent in July 1976 with appointment of autonomous Management Board.
The physical constrain at site of the hospital made it impossible for the needed expansion to be implemented. It was also appreciated that the old site was developed and used as a general hospital therefore could no longer cope with challenges of a teaching hospital in the 21st century.
Consequently, the approval of the Federal Military Government for the construction of a complex for the teaching hospital was sought and it became a welcome relief.
Today this new site which is at the permanent site of the Teaching Hospital at Ituku/Ozalla is fully functional. It is located at 21 kilometers along Enugu-PortHarcourt express way.
All services hitherto rendered at the old site has now been moved to the permanent site with effect from 8th January 2007.
The hospital site covers an area of about 200 acres of while the entire parcel of land is about 306 hectares (747acres). There is now room for expansion and this is hoped to assist in solving the accommodation needs of the hospital once and for all.
The new hospital complex is also better equipped under the Federal Government assisted VAMED Engineering Equipment programme which has elevated it some other teaching hospital in the country to international standard.
The University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku/Ozalla has broad objectives of service, Teaching and research. The hospital tries to achieve this through provision of in-patient and out-patient services to it’s clients at the aid of her highly trained staffs, provision of adequate clinical materials for services and training as well as equipment for research, provision of teaching facilities for training her students and other persons in the health delivery team and conduction and promotion of research on all matters pertaining to health.
Altogether there are 41 main department with three out-post comprehensive health centers at Obukpa near Nsukka, Enugu, State.
There are nine training school/programmes in the hospital viz. the school of nursing, midwifery, medical laboratory technology, Nurse Anesthetics, Community health and post basic ophthalmic nursing. Others are Peri-Operative Nursing, Cardiothoscic Nursing and Medical Records.
These schools currently operate at old site but plans are already on ground to provide structure for them in the new site as soon as possible.
It is also worthy to mention that community service rendered by University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital extends to various states in the country particularly those in the South-East and South-South geo-political.
Most authors define groups on the basis of specific characteristic such as perception, motivation, organization, interdependency and interactions. Hodgetts and Altman (1979:295) defined group on the basis of perception as any number of persons engaged in interaction with one another in a face to face meeting or series of such meetings in which member receives some impression or perception as a community in other to find solution, through member contributions. Also make suggestion to what is being discussed as an individual person.
The above definition points out the fact member of an groups just have to perceive the existence of each other as well as the existence of the group. They will have to appreciate their relationship with one another in order to be considered a group.
Furthermore, group can also be defined in terms of motivation. Bass (1960:39) defined group as, collection of individuals whose existence and rewarding individual collectively from the above definition it is clear that for group to continue to exist and function, it is important that members should understand and satisfy one another the group and as a group should try to satisfy the needs of individual otherwise, they will look outwards for unsatisfied needs. Some other schools of thought are of the view that interaction and interdependency is the aim of group formation. Hence Thomas (1950:1) defined groups: as a number of persons who communicate with one another often over a specific period of time, and who are few enough so that each person is able to communicate with others, not through people but through face to face discussion. Sociologists also have a particular view of group in terms of organization and David and Harai (1968:237) defined group as: an organized system of two or more individuals who are interrelated so that the system performs functions that have standard, relationship among its members, and has a set of norms that regulate the function of the group and member.
Types of group can be identified by the different manner in which they come into being, their purposes, and the ways they conduct their affairs. These differences are important because the constitute leverage point that managers can consider as they perform their corporate tasks. There are two groups identified in every organization which make use of some technical requirements for the accomplishment of certain goals in the organization, the achievement of these goals also require certain tasks to be performed. This lead to the formation of informal group. On the other hand, whenever individual or employees associate and interact, there is tendency for groups to form its activities and objectives differently from the organizational requirement. This is regarded as informal group.
Gibson (1989:6) identified two types of formal groups. The command group and task group.
Mascon 182:429 identified three basic types of formal groups in an organization. They are command group, work team and committees.
This can simply be defined as the work of communications in the firm; it is an official channel through which information passes.
The organization group is referred as formal when activities of two or more persons are consciously co-ordinated towards a given objectives.
According to Koontz and Weihrich (1988:163) “formal organization means intentional structure of roles in a formally organized enterprise”. Formal groups come to been as result of organizational hierarchy which defines expected relationship among it members. Furthermore, this kind of group will usually have its mission and area of activity spelled out.
This type of groups comprises a manager and the subordinates within the management the relationship between the departmental managers such as production manager, purchasing manager and quality control manager, the relationship between the department manager and the foemen.
This type is generally composed of individual working together to complete a given job or task. It is typically formed to complete a specific task; then it is disbanded. This group, although may have a manager, differs from command group by having more anatomy in planning and in carrying out their functions. The members of a work team are usually assigned to specials skills and knowledge which they posses. The managers’ task is to develop there group of individual with their different profession and personalities into an effective working team.
Most of the success acquired in managing a work team depends on the effective communication channel and unrestricted flow of information. People are not likely to feel they belong to a group when they are non-chalant about the welfare of the group.
This is the group of persons constituted by an authority; the committees are common organizational groups. They often include representatives’ form several parts of the formal organization. They have advantages and disadvantages of a relationship with diverse backgrounds, interest needs and loyalties.
Committees are criticized as being inefficient and incompetent nevertheless, they survive and are continually called upon to serve organizational objectives. Problems which they faces can be reduced when their leaders assist the group in assessing its progress towards its goals as well as in maintaining a clear understanding of those goals.
Informal groups was a established network of personnel and social patterns which influence the behaviour of the group to resulting friendship and interest group in organization they develop in response to the needs of the people making up the group. As a result of these they do not have an explicitly stated set of goals nor are their institutionally defined positions of authority. These is an aspect of informal group and individual activities.
Gibson (1979:6) defines informal groups as natural grouping of people in the work situation in response to social needs. In other words, they do not arise as a result of deliberate design, but rather involved naturally.
From the above definition, it is being accepted that informal groups develop from natural impulse not caused or pre-determine by something or something outside. However, it is worthy of note that informal organizations within a large organization are loosely inter-connected in a kind of network.
The relationship in every informal group is dynamic and inter personal and is influenced by the number of people in the group. Hayman (1970:435) supplied reasons why informal organizations arise. He stated that informal organizations and small groups small enough to permit intimate, direct and personal contact among individuals, informal organizations give people special satisfaction, a sense of belonging which is unique and from that obtained in other formal association, the company, the city, the college.
This may comprise of individuals that are not in the same command or task group but who associate to achieve a mutual goal or objective of the organization.
2.5.1 Interest Groups
In may comprise of individuals that are not in the same command or task group but who associate to achieve a mutual goal or objective. This kind of group has objective quite unrelated to the objective of the organization.
Individuals’ members of this type of group have something to share in common such as beliefs, age ethnic background and so on. In this group, friendship interactions are extended to activities outside the work place and not concerning the job.
Whether the group is friendship or interest they are highly overlapping and are formed to satisfy the basic needs of members.
Although, there had been some research for the understanding of the informal groups, however, the most prominent was the one conducted by the group of researchers at the Western Electric Company in Hawthorne in November 1924 led by F.J. Roethlisberger and William J.
Dickson. There original interest was to determine the relationship between observable working condition and productivity. Accidentally, and unfortunately too, the researcher discovered something of more importance which is the foundation of human relations school of management. A set of experiments was carried out focusing on the effect of carrying illumination on the workers productivity. Three departments were used for the experiment. When illumination was increased regularly, productivity increased in two to three proportionally to the changes in illumination.
A second study divided one department into an experimental and control groups, with illumination being increased into an experimental and held constant in the control. Production also increased in both of the groups. A third experiment reduced illumination in the experimental group again, productivity of workers increased until such, a time workers were no longer seeing their work.
The researcher at this point concluded that increased in productivity was not a result of increased in illuminant; many relevant conditions including social ones has not been controlled. The change striking was that groups of workers routinely engaged in monotonous task was single out for attention by management and made their job more interesting and consequently grater work satisfaction led them inadvertently to work faster.
As Elton Mayo later joined the group, the researcher continued into the relay assembly test room; the conclusion finally arrived at was that “increased productivity was a function of improved human relation”. The alteration of entire social situation fostered friendly relations among workers. In addition, the supervision of workers was done by researcher who in the experiment were very informal and non directive in their approach.
According to Blan and SOH:(1982:89) there were uniformities in the behaviours of the group under observation that did not follow the formal organization blue-point. Informal relations developed among the men and gave rise to organized patterns of conduct in the group that is there was an informal organization.
The Hawthorne experiment left us with very important findings such as the Hawthorne effect, supervisory climate and behavioural factors.
Hawthorne effect- It is observed that extra attention was lavished on the subjects and this caused distorted and favourable result. Hence the subjects in the experiment tried harder than ordinarily would know that they were part of the experiment. This phenomenon occurs today in our contemporary society. For instance many companies fall into trap of skewing their market testing of a new products by exerting more effort during the test than could be expected in the normal practice. As a result the new product might fail when it goes into full production because sales no longer treat it as special. In the same vein, a new training programme for improving communication and moral between manager and subordinates is often successful initiated. However, as time passes, the manager may go back to their old practices because they no longer get support and special attentions receive during the training period.
Supervisor climate: Productivity was dearly influenced, but was not all the researchers view that the type of supervision was another major cause of improvement. During the experiment, workers were less closely supervised than usual. Accordingly, Mescon (1985:433) has it that when supervision was carried out by regular foremen, it appears supervisors after did a much better job than usual because observation made them more conscious of what they were doing.
The realization that his quality and type of supervision can strongly influence productivity can awake management interest in leadership.
Behavioural factors: Just like Taylor and Gilbert did in the research to find the relationship between physical working condition and productivity, subsequently, it turned out that their findings the Hawthorne center was that social and psychological factors influence productivity more strongly than physical one with the consumption that task design was already efficient.
The work place is essentially a place where workers assemble daily to work. Just as in every other meeting place, the work environment becomes a medium that favours group formation. It is essentially the formal structure and the tasks of the organization that bring the employees into close physical proximity everyday and this will continue for years. People who could not have meet often come to spend more time with co-workers than even their own families. Moreover, the nature of the tasks they perform in many cases forces them to communicate and interact with one another very frequently. Another fact is that since the members of the organization depend often on one another an intense social interaction that is resultant leads the spontaneous emergence of informal organizations. Informal group have a lot in common with the formal organization with respect to leadership, objectives and literacy.
Mesaon (1985:436).They also have unwritten rules, called norms which serves as guideline for reward and sanctions. As identified by The crucial difference is that a formal organization is deliberate, conscious creation response to unfilled active individual needs.
As members in the work place interact, favourable sentiments build between fellow members. This sentiment becomes foundation for an increased activities not specified in the job description. An activity such as special lunch arrangements, gambling, and sometimes quarrels and so on. The group becomes something more than a mere collection of people. It develops a customary way of doing thing eventually a set of stable characteristics that are hard to change.
People normally have reasons for joining formal group or organization. It is an accomplishment of some objectives of the organization, or need a reward such as income and prestige derive from the affiliation. People also join formal organization for distinct reasons. Membership in informal group may give people the psychological benefit as important to them as wages paid by employers. The most important of the reasons are affiliation, assistance, communication, protection, proximity and attraction.
Affiliation: This is one of man’s strongest needs. The desire to belong and to have a sense of belonging. This is true not only of the job but also outside the work place as noticed in the many political, civic and fraternal and clandestine organization that exist.
Assistance: The reason of mutual assistance could be ideal for joining groups. For instance, in the work place subordinates should feel to seek advice and discuss over problems with their immediate superior. People often prefer to resolve their needs for assistance in some situation through their pears. For example, a new production worker will tend to ask another production for instructions. This causes new workers to seek participation in an established social group that include experienced employers. Receiving from a co-worker is valuable both to giver and receiver. The giver acquire prestige and self esteem as a result of helping the receiver receive the need guidance, thus the need for assistance motives informal organization in two ways.
Protection: There is this aphorism which says that unity is strength. One of the reasons our ancestors lived in groups and communicates was for the feeling of security. Although there seldom are red physical dangers in the work placed thee days early trade union’s evolved from social groups who met in secretes to discuss management abuses. Today, members informal organizations made up of being level workers protect one another from being caught infringing rules. By being in groups, employers can become involve in group activities and discuss management demands with other members who have supportive views. Managers too sometimes form informal organization for protection. Their aim is usually to defend against encroachment by other sub-units of the organization.
Communication: It is very important that to know what is going on around them, especially if it affect their jobs. Sometimes, managements deliberately withhold certain information from subordinate therefore, by joining informal organizations the worker joins up to the informal communication channel, that is grapevine. The grapevine causes social information that either unavailable from formal sources or would take time to travel through formal channels.
Proximity and Attractions: Individuals often join informal groups for reason of being close to people they appreciate and admire. It could be for perceptual motivational department who often work in halls partitions between desks may have lunch together, discuss work and personal problems. Through coffee breaks they may decide to petition management for higher salaries.
In the study of organization behaviours, there are certain general characteristics of the groups whether formal or informal such as group structure, group norm group roles, group hierarchy, leadership and group conformity. However, in this work, certain characteristics have been identified as being peculiar to the informal groups and therefore are the ones to be discussed. These characteristic include social control, resistance to change and informal leadership.
2.8.1. Social Control
The social control is exerted by experienced employees. It is the same as group norms. Norms are the acceptable and unacceptable standards of behaviours in a group. The individual must confirm to these norms to be accepted by the group and maintain or her position within it. It is not uncommon for an informal organization to have well defined mode of dressings strong sanctions are used to check deviance. The members’ motivation to work toward objectives of the formal organization. It may influence how the individuals perceive managers and the fairness of management decisions.
Informal organizations have the tendency and ability to resist change. This happens especially when the change poses a threat o their survival. Such changes as restructuring, new technology or work system, expansion that might bring in new hands, could early result in dispersal of groups members, diminishing their opportunities for interaction and social need satisfaction.
There is a fact that people always respond to what they perceiver to be occurring and not to what is objectively happening. A proposed change such as introduction of computers middle manager may resist it for fear that their jobs will be made absolute responsibility.