Cambridge, usa, July 7 10, 2005 icon

Cambridge, usa, July 7 10, 2005

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IPS – USA 2005

Cambridge, USA, July 7 - 10, 2005

General Chairman:

Veljko Milutinovic, Fellow of the IEEE, University of Belgrade

Serbia and Montenegro

Opening Keynote Speakers:

Jelena Vucetic

Alpha Mission, Inc. Alexandria, USA

Welcome Addresses:

Veljko Milutinovic, Fellow of the IEEE, University of Belgrade

Serbia and Montenegro


IPSI Belgrade, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro (

ISBN: 86-7466-117-3

© 2005

IPSI Belgrade

Academic Mind

July 2005


Message from the Chairman

The field of e-business, e-education, and e-science in general is fast growing, and up to now it has been noticed that there is a large body of unpublished knowledge that needs an appropriate forum for its presentation. This was the main rationale behind the idea to organize the IPSI international conference series. All IPSI conferences are organized in accordance with the latest recommendations of the world’s major research sponsoring agencies related to Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary, and Transdisciplinary research. A sign of appreciation goes also to all the people who worked hard for making this conference a success.

^ Conference Manager:

Olivera Gajcanski

Technical support:

Aleksandra Jankovic, Senad Omerovic, Nenad Korolija, Miroslav Radakovic, Aleksandar Stanic, Darko Jovic, Zoran Babovic, Aleksa Prijic

Design support:

Olivera Gajcanski, Srdjan Petrovic, Milan Lazarevic

^ Review support:

Elena Lopez, Ted Coladarci, Tremblay Dianne-Gabrielle, John J. Ritsko, Grainne Conole, Eric L. Lesser, Christian Vandenberghe, Jiawei Han, Benjamin Fung, Haofeng Zhou, Mary Grant, Dan Dewey, Jerry Grossman, Tamas Vicsek, Michael L. Littman, John Tsitsiklis, Christine Fernandez, Sebastiano Porretta, Michael Kaib, Shad Roundy, Robyn Silbey, Susan H. Picker, Ehud Kalai, Ariel Rubinstein, Ulrike Malmendier, Martijn Cremers, Christopher F. Baum, Dina Mayzlin, Graeme Gooday, Jade Clement, Massimiano Bucchi, Hal Harris, Mary Virginia Orna, Yuanjian Deng, Wolfgang H. Gerstacker, Michael Joham, Peter E. Beckmann, Jennifer Leopold, Steve Kenny, Andrew Patrick, David Wagner, Sameer Patil, Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko, Adrian Shepherd, Jeffrey James, Brian Detlor, Heinz Bonfadelli, Mike Palmquist, Paula Kaufman, Mugdha Shah, Gregory Crawford, Barrett Hazeltine, Robert Hurt, Kenny Breuer, Pradeep Guduru

Welcome to the IPS - USA 2005 conference! We hope you will all enjoy the event as much as we have enjoyed in contributing to its preparation.

Veljko Milutinovic, Program Chairman

IPS - USA 2005

VIP Forum Abstracts

Talented Students Forum Abstracts

IPSI Award Abstracts



VIP Forum Abstracts

^ An Examination on Teacher Efficacy toward Mathematics and Science of Elementary Pre-service Teachers

Chang, Y. L., Wu, S. C.

MingDao University, Taichung Healthcare and Management University, Taiwan

Beginning with research in the 1970s, teacher efficacy was first conceptualized as teachers’ general capacity to influence student performance. Since then, the concept of teacher’s sense of efficacy has developed continuously and currently is discussed relevant to Albert Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, which indicates the significance of teachers’ beliefs in their own capabilities in relation to the effects of student learning and achievement. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare the difference of their sense of efficacy (including two cognitive dimensions, personal teaching efficacy and teaching outcome expectancy) after receiving various long-term programs of teacher training. Two teachers’ self-efficacy belief instruments with higher reliability and validity will be used for data collection from 340 senior students in ten departments of National Taichung Teachers College in Taiwan.

Both of pre-service teachers’ sense of efficacy toward mathematics and science found in this study were significantly different among these ten programs. Further, both groups of students from Department of Mathematics Education and Department of Science Education had more confidence in their own teaching abilities than other students who did not specialize in either mathematics or science, as well as having more confidence in providing efficient teaching in the classroom. Moreover, statistically significant relationship was found between teachers’ sense of efficacy toward mathematics and science, while having statistically significant relationships between all four subscales. The findings and suggestions of this study provided not only critical and valuable information in rethinking the design and effectiveness of current teacher preparation programs but also significant and concrete foundation and orientation for future research focused on teachers’ sense of efficacy.

Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Preparation, Mathematics Education, Science Education, Elementary School, Pre-service Teacher

^ How Preoperative Prayer Coping Influence Mental Health of Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Surgery?

Amy L. Ai(1,2); Christopher Peterson(3);Terrence N. Tice(4); Bu Huang(1); Willard Rodgers(5); Steven F. Bolling(2)

1. University of Washington Health Sciences

2. University of Michigan Health System Section of Cardiac Surgery and Integrative Medicine

3. University of Michigan Department of Psychology

4. University of Michigan Emeritus Professor of Philosophy

5. University of Michigan Institute for Social Research

This prospective study examined both positive and negative pathways of the prayer effects on postoperative mental health. Three interviews were conducted with 310 patients (average age 62) undergoing open-heart surgery. The structural equation model showed that the preoperative prayer coping contributed to better postoperative adjustment, indirectly through optimism. However, prayer was also positively related to acute stress immediately prior to surgery, which appeared to counteract the ameliorative effect of optimism. This model suggests that optimism is a mediator of the positive effect of prayer coping on adjustment. However, acute stress response must be addressed in patients prior to open-heart surgery.

^ Depression, Faith-Based Coping, and Post-Operative Global Functioning in Adult and Older Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Amy L. Ai(1,2); Christopher Peterson(3); Steven F. Bolling(2); Willard Rodgers(4)

1. University of Washington Health Sciences

2. University of Michigan Health System Section of Cardiac Surgery and Integrative Medicine

3. University of Michigan Department of Psychology

4. University of Michigan Institute for Social Research

This prospective study examined how pre-operative depression and faith-based coping affected global functioning one month after open-heart surgery. Of the initial sample, 335 (70%) completed the thee-wave interview. Multiple regression analyses showed that depression predicted poor post-operative global functioning, after controlling for the effect of age, pre-operative illness impact, and two non-cardiac chronic conditions. Preoperative positive religious coping contributed to better post-operative global functioning, after controlling for the effects of depression and other confounders, including post-operatively prayer coping. Research should distinguish the longitudinal protection of faith-based coping from the increased usage of faith-based coping mobilized by a crisis.

Key Words: Post-operative global functioning, depression, positive and negative religious coping, prayer coping, cardiac surgery, age

Optimization of the Tests Set Selection for Decision-Making in Intelligent Systems

A. Yankovskayaa, R. Ametova, S. Kolesnikovab, V. Mozheykoc

1. Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia

2. Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Russia

3. Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia

This paper is concerned with the problem of a irredundant diagnostic test set selection optimization with the prescribed properties. It allows to construct the simple rules of decision-making in intelligent systems. The optimization criteria are formulated. Setting of the problem is given.

The paper presents the result concerning development of the logical-combinatorial algorithm and the new algorithm based on the analytical hierarchies method. Illustrative example for both algorithms is given.

Program realization of the first algorithm in the IMSLOG IST intended for applied intelligent systems designing is given. Program realization of the algorithm based on the analytical hierarchies method is described briefly. Expediency of algorithms application in medical intelligent systems and in interdisciplinary systems such as biomedical and geoecological ones is proved.

^ The Apprenticeship Model: One Option for American High School Improvement

Barbara Pevoto

Texas State University – San Marcos, Texas, USA

The topic of effective delivery of vocational/technical training in our high schools is not a new subject for public education in this country. This field-based research was conducted in Koblenz, Germany where vocational/technical training is offered through an apprenticeship model, while students complete the equivalent of the last two or three years of the United States high school program. An extensive number of training options are available and businesses in the community are a partner to the success of the training provided to students. The researcher examines the German dual system model and offers recommendations to the existing vocational/technical training programs in the US.

^ Fixed Wireless Carrier Economics: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

Bart Stuck

Signal Lake Management LLC, USA

The network access economics for fixed wireless telecommunications carriers is contrasted with that of wireline telecommunications carriers. At the present time, technology is shifted the economics (both capital expenditure and operating expenditure) in favor of fixed wireless over wireline, and with advances in semiconductor circuitry this gap will widen over the next decade. This becomes all the more compelling when fixed wireless is bundled with mobile wireless services, for voice, data, and video, both switched and store and forward messaging.

^ Determining “Pleasurability” in Requirements Analysis: Modelling Propositions on Interaction in Adventure and Role Play Videogames

Bride Mallon, Brian Webb

School of Management and Economics; Queen’s University Belfast, N. Ireland

What do players want in videogames? Whilst research into playability has increased, methods for studying the phenomenon are often lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to the analysis of videogames that is grounded in the experiences of twenty-five players using two different but closely related genres –adventure and role play games. Our five-step analysis produced a total of fifteen propositions across two empirical studies that seek to explain player – game interactions. Previously six of these propositions were published (Mallon and Webb, 2000) but these were based solely on adventure games and the process of developing the propositions was not set out in a manner that either researchers or game developers could easily follow. In this paper in response to the need for such research, the objective is to make our process more transparent. Since the objective of the paper is to explicate the process of the research, rather than to report its findings per se, only one proposition, related to interaction, will be examined in detail. Whilst the paper is primarily aimed at games researchers and games developers it is of interest to researchers and developers in other fields since product or process improvements in games research often anticipate developments elsewhere. It is also of interest to consumers since players and potential players may use the reported outcomes of the research to evaluate a game’s quality.

Keywords: requirements elicitation, analysis and modelling; interaction; videogames.

^ Distributed Coordination of Project Information Changes: An Ontology-Based Multi-Agent Framework

Qiying Cai, F. F. Ng

Department of Real Estate & Construction, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Department of Real Estate & Construction, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

During a project lifecycle, changes are inevitable due to various uncertainties, complexity of tasks and mobility of people involved. Once happen, these changes are propagated to different disciplines through the project value chain. Yet the impacts of such changes are embedded implicitly in the prevalent Internet-based project management systems. Stakeholders need to interpret the changes and evaluate their im-pacts manually. Due to the lack of coordination in decision-making, conflicts always happen. With the up-coming Semantic Web, technologies become available to enable intelligent software agents to access the dis-tributed information resources in a semantic rich way. This enables the agents to represent the stakeholders to manage the information changes in a distributed environment. This paper describes an ongoing research to develop an ontology-based multi-agent framework to coordinate the information changes. After a brief review of technology background, a hybrid infrastructure consisting of ontology layer, agent layer and interface layer is presented, followed by an example to investigate how agents work in a “fast-track” project. The related works and future research plans are also discussed at the end of the paper.

^ Effective Knowledge Dissemination Using RSS

Claude R. Baudoin, Karyn Muller

Schlumberger, France

Knowledge workers, such as scientists and engineers, need timely access to relevant knowledge and technical news. However, current knowledge dissemination mechanisms have become ineffective, due in part to spam and in part to poorly classified and redundant messages. In this paper, we describe how RSS (Really Simple Syndication) can be used to aggregate and deliver internal and external news as a single feed for each topic of interest to an individual. News can be submitted by email, through a browser, or it can come from external RSS feeds. In turn, recipients can get the news through an RSS client, a browser, or in their email, according to their preferences.

This flexibility means that users are not forced to switch suddenly to a new system, which allows a smooth transition to an RSS-based system.

^ Adaptive Gameworlds: Meddling With Middleware to Create a Designed Approach to Integration Research

Darla V. Lindberg

Pennsylvania State University, USA

The virtues of interactive media and database queries are not limited to e-commerce – companies tracking what we like to read or buy – but hold enormous potential for the gathering of information about choices and decision-making strategies contributing to our understanding about nutrition and health. This paper will present the adaptation of a computer-based 2-dimensional game designed in Macromedia Flash, addressing dietary carbohydrates and the glycemic index. The game is integrated with a database server-side application to query databases and relay data back and forth. Results capture a novel approach for research, analysis and for teaching college-aged students about healthy dietary choices and consequences.

^ Communities of Practice

Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

Socio-Organizational Challenges of the Knowledge Economy, Télé-université, Montréal, Québec, Canada

This paper highlights various results from an action-research on communities of practice in Canada, in particular the main conditions and challenges of such new modes of knowledge creation and management. It does so on the basis of seven case studies analysed in detail, as well as the results of a questionnaire survey administered to the participants of these communities of practice. Participants’ commitment and motivation in the project, dynamism and continuity of leadership, organizational support and recognition of employees’ involvement appear to be the key elements, and some of these variables present interesting differences by gender and by age, or by type of organization. This will lead us to question the possible global generalization or transferability of such a knowledge management tool as of communities of practice.

^ Prediction of the Global Warming: Some evidences from India

Dwijendra Nath Dwivedi, Vinod Kumar Sharma

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, India

Proponents of the hypothesis of anthropogenic global warming assert that the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere is the major contributor to the “greenhouse effect”. Climate forcing by CO2 is the largest forcing among all other anthropogenic green house gases. The concentration of anthropogenic CO2 and other green house gases has risen significantly in the atmosphere. Global average temperature has raised .15 oC per decade from 1976 to 2001 According to Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC 2001). This paper analyzes the CO2 emission data from the India and world. A time series model is build to project the new forecast of emissions and temperature of globe and India on an average, other than the given by existing models by IPCC. For India temperature has been consistently rising in the last 90 years. A Vector auto Regression (VAR) analysis establishes a causal relationship between the CO2 forcing and the global warming.

Key words: Global Warming, Univariate time series modeling and forecasting, Granger Causality

^ Preference-based Frequent Pattern Mining – from Base Preferences to Combined Preferences

Elena Braynova, Hemant Pendharkar

Department of Computer Science, Worcester State College, USA

For a few years, Data Mining researchers have been concerned with preferences for data mining process. Preferences often occur in the problems when a user looks for information, but is unable to describe it precisely. Hence, preference-based mining is a good alternative for such type problems. In this paper we focus on preference-based frequent pattern mining. Most results in this field consider simple (in some literature referred as base) preferences. But what if a user preference is a combination of simple ones? What types of combinations of preferences are meaningful in the data mining context? How to represent a combined preference based on its base preferences representations? In this paper we address the above issues. We define some classes of combined preferences analytically, using the utility function approach, investigate their properties, and show how they can be pushed deep into the mining process.

Key words: data mining, frequent pattern mining, preferences, combined preferences, utility function

^ The Need of Gender Perspectives in e-Learning Processes

Elisabeth Menschl

Büro des AKGleich, Austria

In the symposium presentation I will focus on the ways we took account of gender, what gender needs and issues can be identified and the learning points on gender that emerged from the action research and subsequently. E-learning is presented as "neutral" and it suggests that gender doesn't matter as much online. My aim is to increase Gender Diversity awareness for all reasons to consider gender initiatives in e-learning. My main target is to reduce gender conflicts and improve male/female communication for more productive work teams.

This paper will present the following and try to answer these key questions:

1. Internet, identity and a gendered view from nowhere

2. Is gender important in e-learning?

3. What gender-stereotyped styles of learning can be detected?

4. Does an online environment facilitate or inhibit women?

5. Are the success factors of e-learning different from men and women?

6. Conclusion

Multi Layered System Security

Fabio Ghioni

Telecom Italia Group, Milano, Italy

Technology and the Internet have transformed criminals into pervasive entities that are able to launch attacks at any time and from virtually anywhere in the world. Information security specialists are thus challenged with protecting the cyber-space against unpredictable and ever changing attacks. Information security in a business must be rethought on a multi-layered basis with the objective of defending all the levels and processes of an information system from both internal (employees or brute force) and external (such as distributed denial of service and above all industrial and competitive intelligence) malicious attacks.

Keywords: Multilayered security, Cyber crime, data encryption, intrusion detection system

^ Internet as an Empowering Agent for Small, Medium and Micro Tourism Enterprises in Poor Countries

Faustin Kamuzora

Cybernetics, Internet and Virtual Systems Department, University of Bradford, UK

The paper summarises evidence of how some of the Internet services are empowering small, medium and micro tourist enterprises (SMMTEs) in poor countries through disintermediation. Using some of the results from a study on the state of electronic tourism in Tanzania it is revealed that the majority of these SMMTEs are already employing some of the Internet services to conduct their business despite the existing digital divide limitations. More than 90 percent of the SMMTEs have an access to the Internet, while more than 66% have functional websites and rate the Internet to have had positive impact on their business operations.

^ CITYCLUSTER: From the Renaissance to the Gigabits Networking Age

A Virtual Reality & High Speed Networking Project

Franz Fischnaller(1,2), Alex Hill(2)

1. F.A.B.R.I.CATORS, Milan, Italy

2. School of Art and Design, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

[CC] is a virtual reality networking matrix, a high-tech container with original technological features, navigation, interactivity, and graphic and content style. In which multiple environments, ambiences, cities both real and imagined, can be hosted, coexist and be interrelated within themselves through a common, virtual territory, interconnected by high-speed network, enabling remote participants to interact and collaborate in shared environments. Visitors, with their own creativity and communicative skills, can become protagonist and/or free citizen: navigate, interact, intervene exchange buildings, objects, concepts, and ideas and/or create their own ideal ambience, space and or urban setting. [CC] framework, may be expanded and modify in accordance of the environments to be incorporated. The Meta-Net-Page [MNP], is a Virtual Reality networking interface display and an interactive tool, designed and implemented ad hoc for [CC], through which the user can access to a great array of functionality, several interaction modalities and navigation techniques in virtual reality, including “gaze-directed” navigation, “target -selection” teleportation, and “grabbing-the-air” movement.

The project designed to run either locally or through remote networking in both SGI’s and Linux systems. The networked experience can take place in real time between the CAVE™ ("Cave Automatic Virtual Environment") and the AGAVE™. (Access Grid Augmented Virtual Environment). Both platforms interconnect and run over high-speed networks, enabling local and remote visitors to navigate, interact, and communicate with each other through the avatars as well as with three-dimensional models over distance in real time, in a common virtual space. The implementation of [CC] has given rise to a range of technological challenges. In order to satisfy specific performances, networking and quality levels of interactivity, new features, and a series of special features and enhancements have been added to the Ygdrasil system, the software utilized for developing the application.

^ Bioconversion of Produced MSW in Bioreactor Landfills and Made MSW - in Municipal Bioreactors

Dubinin, G.N., Private Scientific, Technical, Methodical and Healthing Centre “AVATARA”, US EPA LMOP Industry Partner,Dniepropetrovsk, Ukraine

In my Manuscript mathematically argued is shown objectivelly existing Threat of Avalanche-like Increase of Quantity of Organic MSW of People of Planet, Made and Accumulated in Landfills. On our forecast, already in nearest ten-year periods the Quantity of Organic MSW Accumulated in Landfills in tens times exceeds Quantity of Organic MSW, which can spontaneously are decomposed in Landfills without Appreciable Pollution of Environment, and to 2100 year Pollution of Environment by Landfills makes Environment Unsuitable for Life of the People. By us was developed General Conception of total Utilization for all Organic MSW, formerly Produced and Buryed in Landfills, by Conversion of all Landfills, also - Mixed Landfills, in huge Bioreactor Landfills and by way of Equiption of all of Regions of Planet by sufficient quantity of Municipal Bioreactors of sufficient Productivity for accelerated Bioconversion of all continuously Made Organic MSW. For realization this Conception by us was developed Hi- Tech Technology of Conversion of Usual Landfills, also - Mixed Landfills, in Bioreactor Landfills and was developed Hi-Tech Technology of Operation for Bioreactor Landfills, enabling to produce in Process of Bioconversion of

MSW not only Landfill Gas, but also Organic Fertilizers, by us was developed Hi-Tech Technologies for Accelerated Bioconversion of MSW in Municipal Bioreactors and was developed Designs of Process Equipment for Practical realization for all these Hi-Tech Technologies. By us was produced Technical and Economic Ground of Base Project for Conversion of Usual Landfill of city with Population of 1 million Persons in Bioreactor Landfill with subsequent Extraction and Utilization of Landfill Gas in Energy and for Greenhouses.

^ Using Java and Linda for Parallel Processing in Bioinformatics for Simplicity, Power and Portability

George Wells, Tim Akhurst

Department of Computer Science, Rhodes University, South Africa

This paper discusses the use of Java and the Linda coordination language (specifically, IBM’s TSpaces implementation) for the construction of parallel processing applications in the field of bioinformatics. Much existing work in this field makes use of scripting languages such as Perl. Java provides a more powerful programming and deployment environment with strong support for processing genetic data. Furthermore, the Linda approach greatly simplifies the parallelization of bioinformatics applications. Results of a DNA string searching application show very favorable performance benefits arising from the use of Java and TSpaces on a network of commodity workstations. Near-linear speedup is observed for configurations of up to 15 processors, and execution times are reduced by up to 96%.

^ The Adaptive Organization - Moving from Hierarchies to Networks

Greg Oxton

Consortium for Service Innovation, USA

Knowledge management and internet connectivity are enabling a new organizational model. The members of the Consortium for Service Innovation have developed a framework for a model that moves the organization from a command and control, hierarchical structure with linear processes to a self organizing network structure with non-linear processes. This new model is based on new organizational principles such as continuous learning, relevance of interaction, identity and reputation, transparency and measures that are largely implicit. This session will explore these emerging principles in the context of the work and experience of the Consortium members.

About the Consortium:

The Consortium for Service Innovation is a non profit alliance of customer support organizations. To improve the customer experience the members work in collaboration to develop operational models. This innovative work bridges emerging academic principles to practices which optimize business results. To benefit or contribute to the work of the Consortium please visit the web site at

^ Display Scope Control System of e-Learning Courseware Based on the Learning Progress

Hisayoshi Kunimune, Masaaki Niimura, Katsumi Wasaki, Yasushi Fuwa, Yasunari Shidama, and Yatsuka Nakamura

Department of Information Technology, Shinshu University, JAPAN

We developed an e-Learning courseware system that controls the scope of e-Learning materials to be presented to a student according to his or her learning progress. This system provides a framework for sequential learning to help students acquire intended knowledge and skills. In designing the courseware system, we made sure to: 1) make it easy to use with existing materials written in HTML, 2) make the installation and operation simple, and 3) disable unauthorized access using the progression data of other students or courses in the system. The system treats the progress of online exercises as the progress of learners and the sequential learning environment is provided by a combination of the exercise and courseware systems. In this paper, we present an overview of the system and evaluations from our students.

Keywords—Courseware, e-Learning, Learning progress

The Algebra of Emotions in Concept Development and Concept Research

Howard Moskowitz(1), John Ben Lawlor(1), Samuel Rabino(2), Jacqueline Beckley(3), Hollis Ashman(3)

1. White Plains, NY USA

2. Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA

3. The Understanding and Insight Group, Denville, NJ USA

Conjoint analysis uses experimental design in combination with concepts which comprise a set of short phrases (concept elements). By systematically varying the concept elements and instructing respondents to rate these test combinations (i.e., concepts) the researcher discovers which particular concept elements drive the consumer reactions. We show in this paper how the approach can be ported to the Internet to make study development faster and more generally available; how the approach can use emotional elements in addition to the more typical rational product features; how interactions among concept elements and brands can be used to identify emotional drivers of consumer reactions; and how using the foregoing information one can engineer better concepts, fine-tuned to specific brands and consumer mind-sets. Although we deal with food products, the aforementioned method provides a general solution to the problem of emotions, interactions and concept optimization.

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