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I: The Igbo people(s), culture and her diaspora

Chair: Chima Korieh, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Negotiating the Writer’s Individuality and Culture through a Language Code, Or, Language and Literature in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

Ada Uzoamaka Azodo, Indiana University Northwest, Gary

^ Achebe’s Fathers, Obiwu, Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio

Igbo-Jewish Nexus, Daniel Lis, University of Basel, Switzerland

Food-Reserve-Deficit Economy, the Nigeria-Biafra Civil War, and the Food Crisis in Biafra, 1967-1970, Chima Korieh, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

God’s favors upon the Igbo people, our use of them, Acho Emeruwa, The 100 Igbos, USA

Ohaneze Ndi Igbo” Value, dynamism and prospect, Cornelius Gogo, New Health Ways Co., Lagos, Nigeria

J: Roundtable: The Role of the Media in Creating New Igbo Frontiers

Moderator: R. Chude Okonkwor, Moraine Park Technical College, West Bend, Wisconsin

Discussants: , ^ Chuks Iloegbunam. Government House, Anambra State, Awka, Nigeria

R. Chude Okonkwor, Moraine Park Technical College, West Bend, Wisconsin

Pini Jason, Government House, Imo State, Owerri

Vera Ifudu, New York

Okey Ndibe, The Sun Newspaper

3:00-3:10: Break; refreshments provided.

3:10-5:15pm: Concurrent Session IV

K: Special Youth Panel: What we mean when we say ‘Igbo Kwenu’,

Presenter/Chair: J. Akuma-Kalu Njoku, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green

L: Igbo Women, culture, language and religion

Chair: Gloria Chuku, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore

Igbo Female Singers and Freedom of Speech: Countering the Culture of Silence in a Christianized Igbo Society, Frances Ngozi Chukwukere, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

Dehumanization of Igbo Woman: Evidence from Igbo Literary Genres,

Okediadi Nkechinyere Anthonia, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

^ The status of women in Igbo economics/commercial enterprise, Ifeanyi Fiac Mmeremikwu, Imo State, Nigeria

Proliferation of Igbo names: An intrinsic technique in preserving Igbo culture, Bellarmine Ezuma, Howard University, Washington, DC

Protecting One’s Own: Enslavement, Oral history and the crisis of representation among Ogwa-Igbo, Dorothy Ukaegbu, College of Southern Nevada, Las Vegas.

^ Igbo, Ibo or Igboid? A critical review of the Igbo cultural and linguistic conflict, Carol Njoku, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

5:15-5:45pm: M: Concluding Address: The First Festival On Igbo Civilization: Lessons and Opportunities for Collaboration and Advancement, T.U. Nwala, University of Abuja, Nigeria

5:45-7pm: N: Conference Conclusion: A Communique: Conference Planning Committee

8pm-Midnight: Post conference reception: Crowne Plaza Hotel, Silver Spring, Maryland

With a Cultural performance by Christian Egboka Ebighgbo and Christian Onyeka Ebighgbo, Ichi Cultural Group, Nigeria.

Reception Drinks provided courtesy of Africa World Press, Trenton, New Jersey.

Note: Presenters should plan to present their paper in no more than 15 minutes, with additional time allowed for Q/A---after all presentations.

^ Past Keynote Speakers & Conference Themes

Prof. Pat Utomi, Ozoemena: Igbo Human Rights Experiences: At Home and Abroad, April 4-5, 2008

Dr. Sylvester Ugo , Ezi n’ulo: Concept, practice, values and history of the Igbo family and community, April 3-4, 2007.

Prof. Ogbu Kalu, The Rain and the Sojourner: Igbo Scholarship and the Challenge of Contemporary Igbo Experience." March 31 to April 1 2006

Prof. Emmanuel Obiechina NKE ANYI BU NKE ANYI: Consolidating the Intellectual Harvests in the Field of Igbo Studies." April 1-2, 2005

^ Prof. T.U. Nwala & Prof. MJC Echeruo, April 2-3, 2004

Professor Adiele Afigbo:  Future Directions in Igbo Studies, April 4-5, 2003

Conference Planning Committee:

Ernest Uwazie, Chair

Chris Aniedobe, Publicity

Mike Mbanaso, Chief Host

John Ukawuilulu, Protocols

Kanayo Odeluga, Outreach

Chima Korieh, Publication

Student Assistants:

Karren Lastimosa, CSU-Sacramento

Heather Edwards, Howard University School of Social Work

Charles Chukwuani, Howard University School of Social Work

Joy Muhamamd, Howard University School of Social Work

Kamalla McCain, Howard University School of Social Work

De’Orlean Claiborne, Howard University School of Social Work

Publications: Submit your papers in publishable quality, in Chicago manual to Prof. ^ Chima Korieh:

Special Thanks to

Ernest Uwazie, California State University, Sacramento

Conference Chair, 2009 ISA Conference

Michael Mbanaso
Howard University, Washington, DC,

School of Social Work, E. Franklin Frazier Center for Social Work Research

^ John Obioma Ukawuilulu
Bethune-Cookman University, Daytona Beach, Florida

Kanayo Odeluga, ISA

Chris Aniedobe, ISA

Chima Korieh, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Faculty, Staff & Students of Howard School of Social Work, E. Franklin Frazier Center for Social Work Research for conference support

^ The Center for African Peace & Conflict Resolution at California State University-Sacramento

Africa World Press, Trenton, New Jersey


To promote and encourage scholarship on IGBO history, culture and society in African studies as inaugurated and initiated at the African Studies Association (ASA) Confer­ence in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 8, 1999. To forge intellectual links and network with scholars, policy makers, and activists inside and outside NIGERIA. To participate actively and collaboratively in continental and global debates with interested organizations in Nigeria, the U.S. and other countries on issues specifically relevant correlated to Igbo studies. To work actively for the promotion of Igbo language with interested organizations and/ or institutions in diverse regions of the world.


Chair: Nkiru Nzegwu, Ph.D. Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902 607-777-2000

Secretary: Anthonia Kalu, Ph.D. The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1319; Phone: (614) 292-2114

Treasurer: Gloria Chuku, Ph.D. University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilton circle, Baltimore MD 21250


Membership is open to individuals who are interested in the issues related to Ndigbo. Membership is open to Igbo scholars everywhere committed to engendering and promoting scholarship in all disciplines in Igbo studies.

Registration fees shall be paid annually by all members the Igbo Studies Association. All members will be expected to deposit a $25.00 contingency fee. Dues are for the membership year January 1 - December 31. The differentiated levels of registration fees due and payable by members of the organization are as follows:

1. Individuals — Those persons eligible for membership who pay the annual dues set by the Executive Committee. Regular (Professionals and Scholars) - $25.00 Members based in Africa - $10.00 Students - $15.00 2. Sustaining - Those persons or organizations that elect to pay the annual dues for this class as set by the Execu­tive Committee.

If you are interested in renewing your membership or becoming a new member, please send your request with payment to the address indicated below.

Driving Directions

From the north (I-95 South): Take I-495West, take Connecticut Avenue exit southbound. Travel for about 4 miles, turn left onto Van Ness Street and proceed until you pass a mini-circle (round about). Continue straight ahead into the Howard University School of Law (West Campus). While inside the campus, pass the two brick buildings on your right and bear left behind the new Law Library. Park in any un-marked space behind the Library. Facing the Library, walk towards your left (east of the library) and around the library to the brick building facing the library which is Holy Cross Hall. Walk through the glass doors and take the elevator (if out of order, please use the stairs) immediately on your left to the 3rd floor of the E. Franklin Frazier Center for Social Work Research.

From downtown Washington, D.C.: take Connecticut Avenue northbound and go pass the Washington National Zoo. Turn right onto Van Ness Street (see above).

^ From the Metro: take Red Line to Van Ness/UDC Station. Walk southbound on Connecticut Avenue, turn left onto Van Ness Street and proceed to Howard University School of Law (West Campus). Walking time from Metro is approx. 10 minutes. You’ll see apartments/condos on both sides of the street


Crowne Plaza Washington DC/ Silver Spring MD

8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910


with IHG 

with Lodgian

ISA member Conference price: $129, plus tax.

^ Transportation in Washington, DC

Remedy Sedan Service – (301)-233-2713  24hrs service

Baltimore Washington International Airport (BWI) - $60

National Airport - $50

Washington Dulles International Airport - $65

Union Station (Amtrak) - $35

These estimates are to the Hotel in Silver Spring

Please call (preferably 24hrs) in advance, before departure.

Limited home stays for some Nigeria participants maybe available upon timely request to either member of the conference planning committee.

Participant Email Directory

Acholonu, Catherine

Agoha, Adindu

Aguwa, Jude C.

^ Anthonia, Okediadi Nkechinyere

Anyanwu, Ukachukwu D.

Azodo, Ada Uzoamaka

Azuonye, Chukwuma

Chambers, Douglas B.

^ Chuku, Gloria

Chukwukere, Frances Ngozi

Dom, Onwuneme

Ebighgbo, Chris

^ Echewa, T. Obinkaram

Ejiofor, Pita

Emeruwa, Acho

Ené, M.O.

Ezuma, Bellarmine

^ Gogo, Cornelius

Ifudu, Vera

Ikwubuzo, Iwu

Iloegbunam, Chuks

Inyama, Emma O.

^ Jason, Pini

Jell-Bahlsen, Sabine

Kalu, Anthonia

Korie, Chima

^ Lis, Daniel

Mbanaso. Michael

Mbonu, Caroline N.

Mmeremikwu, Ifeanyi Fiac

^ Ndibe, Okey

Njoku, Carol

Njoku, J. Akuma-Kalu

Nwala, T.U.

^ Nwauwa, Apollos

Nwosu, Appolonia

Nzegwu, Nkiru

Obiozor, Emeka Williams

^ Obiwu

Odeluga, Kanayo

Ogbonna, Maduawuchi Stanislaus

Okonkwor, R. Chude

^ Okoye, Zebulon S.C.

Olumba, Eddy

Ozichi, Iheanachor

Prabhakar, Ajay

Reynolds, Rachel R.

Udechukwu, Obiora

^ Ukaegbu, Dorothy

Ukawuilulu, John

Uwazie, Ernest

Uwazurike, Chudi

^ Uzoigwe, Godfrey

Conference Abstracts

Chima J. Korieh

Marquette University

The Iroko Still Stands: Professor Ogbu Uke Kalu—Scholar and Humanist

Professor Ogbu Uke Kalu, the Henry Winters Luce Professor of World Christianity and Missions? at McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago, died unexpectedly, after a brief hospital stay, on January 7, 2009. He was 66. He is survived by a wife Wilhelmina and four children: Edward, Stella, Jayne, and Patience.

I first met Professor Ogbu Kalu in 1997 when I was a graduate student at the University of Toronto. He was at the University of Toronto on a sabbatical leave. In those 11 years, Professor Ogbu Kalu remained one of the greatest inspirations in my life, a mentor, and a friend. I was frequently invited by Professor Ogbu and his wife to their temporary home in Toronto during his sabbatical at Toronto. I looked forward to those visits and my occasional task of barbing his hair. Even though sometimes I did not do a good job as a barber, he was always gracious with his praise for my skills as a barber. I came to love him as a human being but most importantly as someone who genuinely loved and cared about other people.

Professor Kalu attended the University of Toronto. Graduating with honors in 1967, he began postgraduate studies at McMaster University where he graduated with MA in history (Summa cum laude) in 1968. He began doctoral studies at the University of Toronto in 1968 and obtained his PhD in history in 1972. His quest for education took him to the Institute of Historical Research, University of London between 1970 and 1972. He obtained Master of Divinity from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1974. He was awarded Doctor of Divinity (DD) honoris causa in 1997 by Presbyterian College, Montreal, Canada.

Note must be made of his exceptional academic brilliance. He was awarded the Owuwa Anyanwu Native Authority Scholarship in 1958. Other prestigious awards and prizes include: Presbyterian Church of Canada Scholarship (1963-1967); University Teaching Fellowship, McMaster University (1967-1968); McMaster University Scholarship [Faculty of Arts, (1967). He was also nominated for Woodrow Wilson National fellowship at McMaster. At the University of Toronto, he was awarded The Waring Fellowship (1968-1969), University of Toronto Open Fellowship (1968-1969), Province of Ontario Graduate Award (1968/69-1969-70), and the Canada Council for the Arts Fellowship (1970-1972). At Princeton, he was awarded Princeton Theological Seminary Fellowship (1972-1974), Ecumenical Commission Research Grant 91973), and the prestigious Grier-Davies Award in Homiletics.

He began his illustrious academic carrier in 1974 at the University of Nigeria where he rose to the rank of Professor in 1978 and was awarded the Vice-Chancellor’s Research Leadership Prize in 1986. He has served as coordinator, Humanities section, Division of General Studies (1976-1978), Director, Division of General Studies, 1978-1980, Member, Governing Council (1980-1984), Head of Department of Religion (1984-1986). He became Dean of the Faculty of the Social Sciences in 1980, and Director of Institute of African Studies at the University of Nigeria in 1983 and 1995/96. He had been a member of the University of Nigeria Senate since 1976.

Professor Kalu taught at various institutions as a visiting professor. In 1987, he was Visiting Lilly Professor at Christian Theological Seminary, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The following year, he became the Visiting Professor for World Missions at the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Seoul, South Korea. Between 1992 and 1993, he was invited to serve as Senior Research Fellow at the Center of the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World and Visiting Professor at New College in the University of Edinburgh, UK. He has served as a Charles Johnston Scholar and a visiting professor at Knox College, University of Toronto (1996/97) as at McGill University’s Presbyterian College and Faculty of Religious Studies. In 1997 he became a visiting Professor at Emmanuel College, University of Toronto. In 1998, he was appointed a Visiting Professor at Harvard Divinity School and Center for the Study of World Religions.

In 2001, he was appointed Henry Winters Luce Professor of World Christianity and Mission at McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago, USA. As a resident of Chicago, Dr. Kalu was a member of Progressive Community Center – The People’s Church, where he worshipped regularly and taught adult education classes.

Professor Kalu was one of the most influential Nigerian scholars. He was respected internationally as a towering figure in the fields of Global Missions, African Christianity and Global Pentecostalism. From the early 1970s until his death in 2009, he provided leadership in theological education in Africa and expanded the boundaries of Church History. A prolific writer on a wide range of subjects, Kalu has authored or edited more than 16 published books including Divided People of God: Church Union Movement in Nigeria (New York, 1978); The History of Christianity in West Africa (London: Longman, 1980); African Church Historiography: An Ecumenical Perspective (Berne, 1988); Embattled Gods: Christianization of Igboland (Lagos/London, 1996); Power, Poverty and Prayer: The Challenges of Poverty and Pluralism in African Christianity (Frankfurt, 2000); African Christianity: An African Story (University of Pretoria Press, 2005), African Pentecostalism (2008); Clio In A Sacred Garb: Christian Presence and African Responses, 1900-2000 (2008); and over 180 articles in journals and as book chapters. One of his latest books was African Pentecostalism: An Introduction, published by Oxford University Press in 2008, which is already regarded by many as the authoritative work on the subject.

He served his field as a member of the editorial board of over 15 academic journals including ^ Journal of Religion in Africa; Mbari: The International Journal of Igbo Studies; Ikenga; African Theological Journal among others. He was also editor of West African Religion (1975-1987), Religion (1977-1980), and Nigerian Journal of Social Studies (1979-1982).

He also served Christianity in many ways. He was the Secretary General of African Theological Institutions (Nairobi, Kenya) from 1970-1981; Chairman, Conference of African Theological Institutions (Nairobi, Kenya). Until his death, he was Secretary and Coordinator, Associations of African Church Historians and Member of the Governing Council, Spiritan School of Theology, Enugu, Nigeria. He was also a member of the Executive Board of Currents in World Christianity, University of Cambridge and chair of the Executive Board section on Evangelism and Globalism in 1998.

Ogbu Kalu was respected internationally not only for his scholarship but for his church leadership. He was a man of deep Christian faith and conviction and served as an elder in the Presbyterian Church of Nigeria. I enjoyed every moment that I had the opportunity to sit down with him or speak with him. Going through some of my numerous e-mail correspondences with him over the past few years just reminded me what a rare human being he was. I still marvel at how he lifted up any one who crossed his path. I am grateful and blessed to have known him. But the most important thing to him had always been the family. My last conversation with him before Xmas he said: “Chima, congratulations of your new book. This has been a very productive year, but I hope you also have time for the family and doing your job in that angle.” This is the man, Ogbu Kalu. Those who knew him on a professional and personal level will miss him dearly.

^ Apollos O. Nwauwa

Bowling Green State University, Ohio

The Enduring Legacies of Professor Adiele E. Afigbo

The sudden temporal exit of Professor Adiele Eberechukwu Afigbo on March 09, 2009 shocked the intellectual world of Igbo, Nigerian and African historians. Yet, as we have learned from various sources, Afigbo did not like to mourn, especially in a dramatic fashion. Therefore, it is proper for this eulogy to be reckoned as a celebration of his active and productive life as a teacher-scholar for that was essentially what he was. His legacies indicate that Afigbo was here, and he is still here!

Professor Afigbo was born at Ihube, Okigwe, in present day Imo State in 1937. He attended the Methodist Central School, Ihube before proceeding to St. Augustine's (CMS) Grammar School, Nkwerre, Orlu, Imo State, with an Okigwe Native Administration scholarship won in a competitive examination. From St. Augustine's, Afigbo gained admission to study history at the University College, Ibadan (then affiliated with University of London), also with a scholarship from the government of Eastern Nigeria. With the help of post-graduate scholarships awarded by the university to the best graduating students, Afigbo was able to commence his doctoral studies, which he completed in 1964. It is on record that Afigbo was the first to be awarded a doctorate in history by the University of Ibadan in Nigerian soil.

Professor Afigbo held numerous academic and political positions. He was at more than one occasion the Director of the Leo Hansberry Institute of African Studies at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka; Chairman, East-Central State Committee on Chieftaincy Matters; Chairman, Imo State Sub-Committee on FESTAC 1977; Member, Imo State University Planning Council; pioneer Director of Research at the National Institute for policy and Strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos; Commissioner first for Education and then for Local Government in the Government of Imo State; Chairman of the Michael Okpara College of Agriculture, Umuagwo in Imo State; and Sole Administrator of the Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri. As an eminent Nigerian, Professor Afigbo was honored with several awards including the Nigerian Academy of Letters, Order of the Niger, and the Nigerian National Merit Award. He was also inducted into many prestigious professional societies, and conferred with several traditional chieftaincy titles including Ogbute-Okewe-Ibe, Ogbuzuo, and Olaudah.

Delivering a citation on Afigbo before he delivered the Third Annual Ahiajoku lecture in 1981 entitled “^ The Age of Innocence: The Igbo and Their Neighbors in Pre-colonial Times,” the late Professor Ogbu Kalu, then Dean of Faculty of Arts at UNN stated: “Mr. Chairman, distinguished ladies and gentlemen, my task should be a brief one because it should not require a long speech to introduce a man who has been honoured with prizes, burdened with State and National duties, listed in various biographical dictionaries and honoured with the vice-presidency of the academic association to which he belongs.” By the time Professor Kalu ended his introduction, it was almost 7 pages short. As he concluded, “Professor Adiele Eberechukwu Afigbo, the big drum welcomes you to the centre of the attention of your own people both for your past achievements and for the prospects of the future. Do a dance for us to the tune of your professional training.”1 That dance was the very powerful Ahiajoku lecture on the Age of Innocence in Igboland. Professors Ogbu Kalu and Adiele Afigbo were good friends; they were both intellectual irokos of whom the Igbo were proud. It is quite ironic that both Kalu and Afigbo passed on this same year, barely two months apart from each other.

For many of us, nevertheless, Professor Afigbo was an intellectual icon; what Igbo scholars would describe as an intellectual oracle, or iroko. He threaded on the heels of other eminent Igbo historians such as K.O. Dike, J.C. Anene, and Chieka Ifemesia. Just as Afigbo pointed to the aforementioned scholars as his role models who shaped his career as a historian, so did others after Afigbo viewed him as their archetypical historian. Indeed, he left his footprints on the sands of time. I was personally inspired by Afigbo in a rather different but very special way. His dazzling career as a scholar on Igbo studies, British imperialism and its impact on modern Nigeria, especially the Igbo, was quite compelling and infectious. In a sense, I was his student despite that I neither attended Ibadan, his alma mater, nor Nsukka, his scholarly domain. Although he never knew this, my resolve to pursue advanced training in history was indirectly connected to him whereas my focus on the Igbo was directly related to his pace-setting inquiry.

While at high schools, class texts by K.B.C. Onwubiko, F.K. Buah and Adu Boahen were essential introductory texts on West African history, at the universities, it was difficult for history students to graduate without familiarity with Afigbo’s writings. Afigbo’s seminal works on the Igbo especially, The Warrant Chiefs and Ropes of Sand, had a profound impact on me as an undergraduate at the then Bendel State University, Ekpoma, in the early 1980s. These and many of his other writings became compelling reference texts for many of my generation interested in the history of Igboland, colonial impact and African responses. There is no doubt that my choice of research topic and resultant investigation of the chieftaincy tussle that rocked my hometown, Ekwe, in the former Orlu Province in 1978 was largely a localized extension of Afigbo’s works. This little local research, supervised by the late Professor A.C. Unomah, also formerly of the Ibadan School of History, ultimately won a prize at the university. Thus, a combination of Afigbo, Unomah and the research prize directed me towards history, Igbo history for that matter. It is salutary that the expanded version of that “little” research on the aftermath of the warrant chief system in Ekwe was one of the chapters included in the recent commemorative volume, edited by Toyin Falola and Adam Paddock, which was dedicated to Professor Afigbo in November last year.

At the height of his scholarly accomplishments, Afigbo authored, co-authored and edited twelve books altogether, and published well over a hundred journal articles. Ndi-Igbo historians as well as those of Nigeria, Africa and the world held Professor Afigbo in high esteem. It was not by accident that the late Dr. Don Ohadike invited Afigbo to give the inaugural keynote lecture during the First International Conference on Igbo Studies in honor of Simon Ottenberg at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York in 2003. As it turned out, it was that gathering that gave birth to the current Igbo Studies Association (ISA). Both Ohadike and Afigbo left an impressive legacy that is now ISA. Thus, considering the body of works that Afigbo bequeathed to us, much of which are devoted to Igbo studies, the man and his ideas live on. Professor Afigbo was an inspiration; his legacies will continue to endure. Adieu, great scholar!


University of Benin




The judgment of the Election Petition Appeal Tribunal, at Enugu on Wednesday, March 15th 2006 upheld the ruling of the lower tribunal at Awka on August 12, 2005, that Peter Obi of the All Progressive Grand Alliance (APGA), won the April 19th 2003 gubernatorial election in Anambra State. “It seemed an anticlimax for all the parties to the case” (Tell 200:26). Hence the Incumbent governor, Dr. Chris Ngige was out. Since the election of Dr. Ngige into office as the Governor of Anambra State, the State had never known peace. Where did the troubles arise? Was he the only governor that won the election the way he won? How did he rule for the past 2 ½ years? What are the feelings of the Igbo in the whole scenario? Finally, what standard and measures can be adopted to bring peace in Anambra State? The smoking wood has been removed; can the fire now burn well in Anambra State? (Anọpugo nku n’akwu anwulu; ka amalu na ọku ọ ga-enwu ọfuma). This paper stems from an artist’s looking mirror of “distortedness” of Nigerian Polity. Anambra State is the case study.

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