PROGRAMME STRUCTURE OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE WITH HONOURS  PHYSICS (THREE YEAR) MajorElective or MajorMinor Physics Programme A student must attain a minimum of 2.0 CGPA ('C' average) for the whole programme and combine basic and core component. As regards the basic and core courses, if failed, a student is allowed to replace a maximum of 8 units of the courses failed with courses of at least similar level and offered under the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours Programme of Study in Physics. Core Courses ZCA 101/4  Physics I (Mechanics) ZCA 102/4  Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism) ZCT 103/3  Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics) * ZCA 110/4  Calculus and Linear Algebra ZCT 104E/3  Physics IV (Modern Physics) ZCT 106/3  Electronics I ZCT 191/2  Physics Practical I ZCT 192/2  Physics Practical II ZCT 205/3  Quantum Mechanics ZCT 206/3  Electronics II ZCT 207/2  Statistical Mechanics ZCT 210/4  Complex Analysis and Differential Equations ZCT 211E/2  Vector Analysis ZCT 212/2  Thermodynamics ZCT 213/2  Optics ZCT 218/3  Mathematical Methods ZCT 293/2  Physics Practical III ZCT 294/2  Physics Practical IV ZCT 304/3  Electricity and Magnetism ZCT 307E/3  Solid State Physics I ZCT 317/3  Solid State Physics II ZCT 390/6  Pure Physics Project Total: 65 units (22 courses) * The course content of ZCA 110/4 overlaps with Mathematics courses MAA 101/4 Calculus and MAA 111/4 Linear Algebra. Students can only register either ZCA 110/4 or MAA 101/4 and MAA 111/4 . ^ Students must select 20 units, at least 16 units from the group of courses below and the remaining units from either the Science or Applied Science programmes. Students are encouraged to take MAT181/4 Programming for Science Applications.
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Note: * Elective Courses (according to choice) @ Course conducted over two semesters Minor Area of Specialisation The recommended Minor areas of specialisation are as follows: 1. Chemistry 2. Mathematics 3. Computer Science 4. Management 5. Islamic Studies 6. English Language Students must pass 16 units from the Minor area of specialisation followed. Refer to the School concerned for further information. ^ Semester I
Semester II
Note : * This course is not offered to all Physics Students ^ ZCA 101/4 Physics I (Mechanics) Unit, dimension. Kinematics in one and two dimension. Vectors in physics. Newton's Laws and application. Work and energy. Conservation of energy and momentum. Collision in one and two dimension. Simple harmonic motion. Universal gravitation, gravitional force. Motion of planets. Extended systems, moment of inertia. Angular momentum, rotational dynamics, compound pendulum. Rigid body, equilibrium, statics. Elasticity, stress, strain and torsion. Young's modulus, shear and bulk modulus. Bending of beams, bending moment. Compression of fluids, surface tension, hydrostatics, viscosity, viscoelasticity. Hydrodynamics, continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, Poisseuille equation. Turbulent flow, sedimentation, drag.
^ Coulomb's law, electric intensity. Gauss's law, electric flux. Electric potential and electric intensity of point charges, dipole and charge distributions. Capacitance, dielectrics, stored energy. Electric current, resistance, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's law. Microscopic view of current. D.C. RC circuit. Magnetic fields, Ampere's law, BiotSavart law. Faraday's law. Lenz's law. Inductance, stored energy, D.C. LR circuit. A.C. current, electric power, RCL circuit. Force on current and moving charge. Lorentz equation, Hall's effect. Dielectric materials, dipole moment, electric polarization. Material resistivity, temperature effect. Electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum. Magnetic field and electric field vector. Maxwell displacement current, Maxwell equations.
ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra Calculus: Sets, real numbers, rational and complex numbers. Functions and graphs. Sequences and series, convergence tests, function limits and properties of limit, continuity, and the mean value theorem. Differentation techniques, implicit differentiation, higher order differentiation, minimum and maximum values (theory and application), Rolle’s theorem, L’ Hopital’s rule, applications of derivatives. Integration techniques, improper integrals, fundamental theorem, lengths of curves. Trigonometric functions and their inverses, exponential and logarithmic functions, hyperbolic functions and their inverses. ^ Matrix algebra, determinant, properties of determinant, inverse of a matrix, systems of equations, vector spaces, Basis and dimension, linear transformations.
^ ZCT 103/3 Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics) Equation of motion for simple harmonic motion, damped oscillator, forced oscillator. Logarithmic decrement, relaxation time, resonance and Q factor. Coupled oscillations. Transverse waves and longitudinal waves. The wave equation and its solutions. Reflection and transmission of waves at boundaries. Stationary waves. Superposition of waves. Phase velocity and group velocity. Dispersion of waves. Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Plane electromagnetic waves in vacuum. Propagation of light waves, amplitude and intensity. Doppler effect. Interference, Young's double slits, Michelson interferometer. Multiple reflections, thin films, Newtons rings and FabryPerot interferometer. Diffraction grating. Dispersion, Cauchy formula. Polarization, Brewster angle. Light sources and light detectors.
^ Special Relativity: Reference frames, invariance of Newton's dynamics. Galilean transformation, invariance for other laws. MichelsonMorley experiment. Postulates of special relativity. Lorentz transformation. Relativistic kinematics and dynamics. Einstein formula. Introduction to modern ideas in Physics: Blackbody radiation, Planck's law. Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Xrays. Waveparticle duality, de Broglie waves. Old atomic models. Alphascattering, Rutherford model. Old quantum theory and the Bohr model of the atom. Energy levels of the atom and atomic spectra. Excitation and the FranckHertz experiment. Bohr's Correspondence Principle.
^ Analysis of circuits. Alternating current circuits. Thevenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem. Characteristics of diodes and their uses in circuits., rectifying circuits. Signal processing circuits. Bipolar junction transistors and Field effect transistors, input characteristics and output characteristics. Large signal amplifiers, amplification, distortion and frequency response. Power amplifier. Small signal amplifiers and hybrid parameters. Theory of positive and negative feedback. Operational amplifiers and their applications. This course exposes students to practical experience on various experiments to enhance theories such as: Diode, transistor, and OpAmp characteristics and their applications. Prerequisite: (S) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)
ZCT 191/2 Physics Practical I Consist of a selection of experiments. ^ Consist of a selection of experiments. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 191/2 Physics Practical I ZCT 205/3 Quantum Mechanics Development of Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger picture and Heisenberg picture. Schrödinger equation. Wave functions. Probability. Measureable quantities. Operators and expectation values. Stationary state. Eigen function and Eigen value. Particle in a box. Harmonic oscillator. Barrier penetration. Central field problem. Hydrogen atom. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 104E/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)
ZCT 206/3 Electronics II Numbers and code system, arithmetic of binary, hexadecimal, and 2’s complement numbers. Basic logic, Boolean algebra, de Morgan theorem, and logic circuit analysis. Design of combinational logic circuits, minimization, Karnaugh map, don’t care state, decoder, multiplexer, encoder, and demiltiplexer. Combinational logic elements: basic flipflop, flipflop SR, JK, D, and T. Clocked flipflops. Sequential logic: different types of reigsters and counters. Sequential timing, synchronous and asynchronous counters and their applications. Arithmetic’s unit: adder and substracter. Design of sequential logic systems: state diagram, truth table, and timing diagram. Extension from exited table, circuit design from truth table and timing diagram. Examples of logic circuit applications: memory system, ROM, RAM, memory decoding, and basic architecture of microprocessor system. This course exposes students to practical experiences on various experiments to enhance theories such as: Experiments on logic gates, flipflop, arithmetic unit, design of registers and counters. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I
ZCT 207/2 Statistical Mechanics Characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic systems. Probability concepts and counting of states. Postulate of equal a priori probabilities. Microcanonical Ensemble. Definition of absolute temperature and entropy. Canonical Ensemble. Statistics of ideal quantum gases. MaxwellBoltzmann statistics. BoseEinstein statistics. FermiDirac statistics. Applications of quantum statistics: specific heat of solids, black body radiation, conducting electrons in solids. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics
^ Complex Analysis: Funtions of a complex variable  complex functions. Differentiation of complex functions; CauchyRiemann conditions, analytic functions, singular points, power series of analytic functions, Taylor series. Complex Integration: Cauchy integral theorem. Cauchy integral formula. Zeroes and singularities. Laurent series. Residue theorem. Differential Equations: Ordinary linear differential equations of first order and methods of solutions. Ordinary linear differential equations of second order – homogeneons and nonhomogeneous equations and methods of solution. Differential Equations: Series solution  power series and Frobenius methods. Prerequisite: (S) MAA 101/4 Calculus or (S) ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra
^ Vector algebra; definitions, addditon, subtraction of vectors, dot products and cross products of vectors, scalar and vector fields, geometric representation, algebraic representation, transformation; unit vectors. Vector calculus; scalar differentiation, differentiation with respect to time. Gradient, divergence and curl of a vector. Physical examples. Consecutive differentiation, Laplacean, D'Alembertian. Physical examples. Vector integration; line, surface and volume integrals. Gauss Theorem. Stokes Theorem. Application in Physics; potential theory, scalar potential, vector potential. Coordinate Systems; Cartesian, curvilinear systems, cylindrical, spherical. Differentiation and integration. Application in Physics, position, velocity and acceleration, wave equation for and in electricity and magnetism. Prerequisite: (S) MAA 101/4 Calculus or (S) ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra
^ Simple thermodynamic systems, equation of state, work, heat, first law, internal energy, results of first law, ideal gas. Carnot cycle and heat engine. Second law of thermodynamics, result from second law, entropy, irreversible process. Combination of first and second laws, TS diagram and thermodynamic relationships. Maxwell equation, Clausius Clapeyron equation and Tds equation. Prerequisite: (S) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)
^ Polarization. Plane and circular polarization. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at boundaries. Opticall activity. Kerr effect and Faraday effect. Dispersion theory. Diffraction. FresnelKirchhoff equations. Fraunhofer diffraction of a single slit, square and circular aperture. Diffraction gratings and their characteristics. Fresnel diffraction for circular aperture. Cornu spiral and Fresnel Integrals. Zone plates. Fresnel diffraction for straight edges and rectangular aperture. Prerequisite: (P) ZCT 103/3 Physics III (Vibration, Waves and Optics)
^ Integral transforms: general properties. Laplace transform: general properties, applications in physical problems. Fourier transform: general properties, applications in physical problems. Special functions/equations: Gamma, Bessel, Legendre and Associated Legendere. Fourier Analysis: expansion of functions in terms of sine and cosine, properties, physical examples. Partial differential equations: Sturm – Lionrille boundary value problems. Wave equation, Heat equation, Laplace equation  solution by separation of variables. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations (S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis
^ Revision of vector analysis, vector calculus, basic theorems, curvilinear coordinates, and Diracdelta function. The Coulomb Law. Electric fields, E. Divergence of E. The Gauss’Law. Curl of E. Gradient of E and electrical potential, V. Electrical dipoles. The Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations. Electrostatics field in dielectric medium. The Gauss’ law for dielectric. Displacement vectors. Polarization. Electric susceptibility and dielectric constant. Electrical boundary conditions. Electrical potential energy for dielectric medium. Magnetic fields. The BioSavart’s law. Divergence of ^ Magnetic potential vector, A. Curl of B. The Ampere’s circuit law. Magnetic dipoles. Electromagnetic induction. The Faraday’s induction laws. Magnetic materials. The Maxwell’s equations. Polarization of electric fields. The Poynting theorem. Electromagnetic boundary conditions. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in material medium. Prerequisite: (P) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism) (S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations (S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis
^ Crystal structure, classification of interatomic binding in crystals. Diffraction, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone, lattice vibration, dispersion curve, specific heatmodels of Einstein and Debye. Free electron theory for metals, electrical conductivity, electron gas heat capacity. Band theory of solids, KronigPenney model, holes, effective mass. Semiconductor  intrinsic and extrinsic. Carrier density. Conductivity of impurities, Hall effect. Optical properties: absorption processes, exciton, photoconductivity. Prerequisite: (C) ZCT 207/2 Statistical Mechanics
ZCT 293/2 Physics Practical III Consist of a selection of experiments. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 192/2 Physics Practical II ZCT 294/2 Physics Practical IV Consist of a selection of experiments. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 293/2 Physics Practical III ^ Phonon; neutron scattering, thermal conductivity, anharmonic effect. Electron energy band in solids, Fermi surface. Electron dynamics in magnetic field, cyclotron resonance, Hall effect. Superconductivity. Dielectric and optical properties. Ferroelectrics. Magnetic properties. Properties of amorphous materials. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I
ZCT 390/6 Pure Physics Project (2 semesters) Project/experiments of related areas of thrust. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 294/2 Physics Practical IV SYNOPSES OF ELECTIVE COURSES  PHYSICS ^ Vector calculus and kinematics. Particle motion, system of particles, conservation laws and examples in Newtonian mechanics such as resistive motion, central force, rocket equation and so on. Motion in non inertial frame systems, Coriolis force. Analytical Mechanics: Calculus of variation, Euler equation. Hamilton’s principle and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics. Generalised coordinates. Lagrange equation. Generalized coordinates. Lagrange multiplier. Hamilton’s canonical equation. Prerequite: (P) ZCA 101/4 Physics 1 (Mechanics) (S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations (S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis
ZCE 305/3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Atomic structure: Hydrogen atom. States in hydrogen atom. Angular momentum. Many electron atom. Electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle. Symmetric and Antisymmetric wave functions. Spin orbit coupling. LS and JJ coupling. Atomic spectra. Selection rules. One valence electronatom. Zeeman effect, Normal and Anomalous. Nuclear structure: General properties of nuclear  composition, size, form, mass and atomic nuclear charge. Nuclear force and deuteron problem. Radioactivity, alpha decay, gama decay, electron capture. Internal conversion. Nuclear reactions. Nuclear models and magic numbers. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 205/3 Quantum Mechanics
^ Interaction of radiation with matter. Interaction mechanism of photons and electrons with matter. Interaction of neutrons, alpha particles, heavy nuclei and nuclear fission fragments with matter. Detection and measurement of radiation. Radiation dosimetry. Production of radionuclides and its use in tracer techniques. Biological effects of radiation. Prerequisite: (P) ZCT 104/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)
ZCE 341/4 Energy Studies Production evolution and solar energy availability. Principles of solar cell operation. Material and response of silicon solar cell. Sunlight concentration. Solar cells array. Array protection and failure sensor. Power conditioning. Energy storage and connection to grid. Photovoltaic power economy. Introduction to bioenergy. Solar radiation and photosynthesis. Biogas and alcohol production. Pyrolysis and gassification. Direct burning. Biomass energy system and bioenergy economic system. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I
^ Physics of Xray, generation and properties of Xray, detectors, Xray diffraction, powder methods and single crystal methods, Xray fluorescence, interpretation and quantitative analysis, EDX spectrometer, Xray microanalysis with electron microscope. Note: Exposure to equipment and practicals in the Xray laboratory. Prerequisite: (C) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I
^ Introduction. Structure: Crystal structure and imperfections, phase diagrams, phase transformations, diffusion, deformation of materials, strengthening mechanisms and microstructures, corrosion and oxidation. Materials: Iron, steel and ferrous alloys, nonferrous metals and alloys, polymers, ceramics, composites. Properties: Physical properties of materials. Prerequisite: (C) ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics
^ Energy band, density of states, intrinsic semiconductor, Electrons and holes conduction, extrinsic semiconductor, impurities, impurity level, Fermi level, carrier concentration, Hall effect; impurity motion; minority carrier life time, recombination process, diffusion length; semiconductor surface, semiconductormetal contact, semiconductor insulator contact; Ge, Si and IIIIV compound; pn junction devices inclusive of Zener diode, tunnel diod, varactor, variator; single junction transistor; Field effect transistor inclusive of junction FET and metal oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET), silicon controlled switch (SCS), Shockly diode and phototransistor; solar cell and semiconductor laser. Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I (C) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I
^ MAT 181/4 Programming for Science Applications Introduction to computer: hardware and software programming languages. Problem definition. Algorithm development. Introduction to C language: Basic control structure: sequence, selection, recursion. Designing and developing programming module. Subprogramming. Strategies in solving complex problems. Design methodology. Testing and debugging. Abstract data structure processing. Keeping data structure in file. Strings. Trees. ^ ZCU 100/2 Energy and The Environment Energy and related concepts, history of energy use, sources of energy, energy units and quality of energy. World energy consumption. Consumption of fossil fuels and its effect on the environment. Use of hydropower, nuclear, wind, geothermal, solar and ocean energy as well as biomass and their effects on the environment. Energy situation in Malaysia and her energy policy. Efficient use of energy. Modeling, planning and economics.
