Programme structure of the degree of bachelor of science with honours physics (three year) icon

Programme structure of the degree of bachelor of science with honours physics (three year)


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PROGRAMME STRUCTURE OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE WITH HONOURS - PHYSICS (THREE YEAR)


Major-Elective or Major-Minor Physics Programme


A student must attain a minimum of 2.0 CGPA ('C' average) for the whole programme and combine basic and core component.


As regards the basic and core courses, if failed, a student is allowed to replace a maximum of 8 units of the courses failed with courses of at least similar level and offered under the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours Programme of Study in Physics.


Core Courses


ZCA 101/4 - Physics I (Mechanics)

ZCA 102/4 - Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)

ZCT 103/3 - Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics)

* ZCA 110/4 - Calculus and Linear Algebra

ZCT 104E/3 - Physics IV (Modern Physics)

ZCT 106/3 - Electronics I

ZCT 191/2 - Physics Practical I

ZCT 192/2 - Physics Practical II

ZCT 205/3 - Quantum Mechanics

ZCT 206/3 - Electronics II

ZCT 207/2 - Statistical Mechanics

ZCT 210/4 - Complex Analysis and Differential Equations

ZCT 211E/2 - Vector Analysis

ZCT 212/2 - Thermodynamics

ZCT 213/2 - Optics

ZCT 218/3 - Mathematical Methods

ZCT 293/2 - Physics Practical III

ZCT 294/2 - Physics Practical IV

ZCT 304/3 - Electricity and Magnetism

ZCT 307E/3 - Solid State Physics I

ZCT 317/3 - Solid State Physics II

ZCT 390/6 - Pure Physics Project

Total: 65 units (22 courses)

* The course content of ZCA 110/4 overlaps with Mathematics courses MAA 101/4 Calculus and MAA 111/4 Linear Algebra. Students can only register either ZCA 110/4 or MAA 101/4 and MAA 111/4 .


^ Elective Courses


Students must select 20 units, at least 16 units from the group of courses below and the remaining units from either the Science or Applied Science programmes. Students are encouraged to take MAT181/4 Programming for Science Applications.




16 Units


4 units




ZCE 208/2

-

Classical Mechanics

ZCE 305/3

-

Atomic and Nuclear Physics

ZCE 331/4

-

Radiation Biophysics

ZCE 341/4

-

Energy Studies

ZCE 351/3

-

X-Ray Analysis

ZAE 282/3

-

Material Sciences

ZAT 386/4

-

Semiconductor Physics Devices

ZCE 275/4

-

Astronomy










MAT181/4

-

Programming for Science Applications

4 units

-

Other Sciences.



^ Progress Schedule for Course Registration of Bachelor of Science with Honours Degree Programme - Physics


Year Semester Courses No. of Units

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I ZCA 101/4 ZCA 102/4 ZCA 110/4 ZCT 191/2 14

1

II ZCT 103/3 ZCT 104E/3 ZCT 106/3 ZCT 192/2 11

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I ZCT 206/3 ZCT 210/4 ZCT 211E/2 ZCT 212/2 ZCT 213/2 ZCT 293/2 15

2

II ZCT 205/3 ZCT 207/2 ZCT 218/3 --- ---/4* ZCT 294/2 14

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I ZCT 307E/3 --- ---/4* --- ---/4* 14

3

ZCT 390/6@


II ZCT 304E/3 ZCT 317/3 --- ---/4* --- ---/4* 17





85


Note: * Elective Courses (according to choice)

@ Course conducted over two semesters


Minor Area of Specialisation


The recommended Minor areas of specialisation are as follows:-


1. Chemistry

2. Mathematics

3. Computer Science

4. Management

5. Islamic Studies

6. English Language


Students must pass 16 units from the Minor area of specialisation followed. Refer to the School concerned for further information.


^ LIST OF COURSES OFFERED FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE WITH HONOURS PROGRAMME - PHYSICS


Semester I


Level of

Course

Course Code/

Title

Prerequisite










100

ZCA 101/4

Physics I (Mechanics)

-




ZCA 102/4

Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)

-




ZCA 110/4

Calculus and Linear Algebra

-




ZCT 191/2

Physics Practical I

-













200

ZCT 206/3

Electronics II

(S) ZCT 106/3




ZCT 210/4

Complex Analysis and Differential Equations

(S) MAA101/4

or (S) ZCA 101/4




ZCT 211E/2

Vector Analysis

(S) MAA 101/4

or (S) ZCA110/4




ZCT 212/2

Thermodynamics

(S) ZCA 102/4




ZCT 213/2

Optics

(P) ZCT 103/3




ZAE 282E/3

Material Sciences

(C) ZCT 212/2




ZCT 293/2

Physics Practical III

(S) ZCT 192/2













300

ZCE 305/3

Atomic and Nuclear Physics

(S) ZCT 205/3




ZCT 307E/3

Solid State Physics I

(C) ZCT 207/2




ZCE 331/4

Radiation Biophysics

(P) ZCT 104E/3




ZCE 351/3

X-Ray Analysis

(C) ZCT 307E/3




ZAT 386/4

Semiconductor Physics Devices

(S) ZCT 106/3

(C) ZCT 307E/3




ZCT 390/6

Pure Physics Project (two semesters)

(S) ZCT 294/2














Semester II


Level of

Course

Course Code/

Title

Prerequisite



100

*ZCU 100/2

Energy and The Environment

-




ZCT 103/3

Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics)

-




ZCT 104E/3

Physics IV (Modern Physics)

-




ZCT 106/3

Electronics I

(S) ZCA 102/4




ZCT 192/2

Physics Practical II

(S) ZCT 191/2













200

ZCT 205/3

Quantum Mechanics

(S) ZCT 104E/3




ZCT 207/2

Statistical Mechanics

(S) ZCT 212/2




ZCE 208/2

Classical Mechanics

(P) ZCA 101/4










(S) ZCT 210/4










(S) ZCT 211E/2




ZCT 218/3

Mathematical Methods

(S) ZCT 210/4










(S) ZCT 211E/2




ZCE 275/4

Astronomy

-




ZCT 294/2

Physics Practical IV

(S) ZCT 293/2










300

ZCT 304/3

Electricity and Magnetism

(P) ZCA 102/4










(S) ZCT 210/4










(S) ZCT 211E/2




ZCT 317E/3

Solid State Physics II

(S) ZCT 307E/3




ZCE 341/4

Energy Studies

(S) ZCT 106/3




ZCT 390/6

Pure Physics Project (two semesters)


(S) ZCT 294/2



Note : * This course is not offered to all Physics Students


^ SYNOPSES OF CORE COURSES - PHYSICS


ZCA 101/4 Physics I (Mechanics)


Unit, dimension. Kinematics in one and two dimension. Vectors in physics. Newton's Laws and application. Work and energy. Conservation of energy and momentum. Collision in one and two dimension. Simple harmonic motion.


Universal gravitation, gravitional force. Motion of planets. Extended systems, moment of inertia. Angular momentum, rotational dynamics, compound pendulum. Rigid body, equilibrium, statics. Elasticity, stress, strain and torsion. Young's modulus, shear and bulk modulus. Bending of beams, bending moment.


Compression of fluids, surface tension, hydrostatics, viscosity, viscoelasticity. Hydrodynamics, continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, Poisseuille equation. Turbulent flow, sedimentation, drag.


Ref. Books:

1.

Halliday, D. & Resnick, R. Physics (6th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 2001.













2.

Serway, R.A. & Jewett, J.W. Principles of Physics (3rd Ed.) Brooks/Cole, 2002.












^ ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)


Coulomb's law, electric intensity. Gauss's law, electric flux. Electric potential and electric intensity of point charges, dipole and charge distributions. Capacitance, dielectrics, stored energy. Electric current, resistance, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's law. Microscopic view of current. D.C. RC circuit. Magnetic fields, Ampere's law, Biot-Savart law. Faraday's law. Lenz's law. Inductance, stored energy, D.C. LR circuit. A.C. current, electric power, RCL circuit. Force on current and moving charge. Lorentz equation, Hall's effect.


Dielectric materials, dipole moment, electric polarization. Material resistivity, temperature effect. Electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum. Magnetic field and electric field vector. Maxwell displacement current, Maxwell equations.


Ref. Books:

1.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker (2001), ^ Fundamentals of Physics, 6th edition, John Wiley & Sons.













2.

Raymond A.Serway & John W. Jewett (2002), ^ Principles of Physics, 3rd Edition, Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.













3.

H.D. Young, R.A. Freedman (1996). ^ University Physics, 9th Edition, Addison Wesley.


ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra


Calculus:

Sets, real numbers, rational and complex numbers. Functions and graphs. Sequences and series, convergence tests, function limits and properties of limit, continuity, and the mean value theorem.


Differentation techniques, implicit differentiation, higher order differentiation, minimum and maximum values (theory and application), Rolle’s theorem, L’ Hopital’s rule, applications of derivatives.


Integration techniques, improper integrals, fundamental theorem, lengths of curves. Trigonometric functions and their inverses, exponential and logarithmic functions, hyperbolic functions and their inverses.


^ Matrices and Determinants:

Matrix algebra, determinant, properties of determinant, inverse of a matrix, systems of equations, vector spaces, Basis and dimension, linear transformations.


Ref. Books:

1.

^ Thomas Calculus, Tenth Edition, by George B. Thomas, Ross L. Finney, Maurice D. Weir, and Frank R. Giordano, Addison-Wesley Publishing (2001).













2.

Calculus, Fifth Edition, by James Stewart, Thomson Brooks/Cole (2003).













3.

Culculus, Seven Edition, by Howard Anton, Irl Bivens, and Stephen Davis, John Wiley and Sons (2002).













4.

^ Schaum’s Outline of Linear Algebra, Third (International) Edition, by Seymour Lipschutz and Marc Lipson, McGraw-Hill (2001).













5.

Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Matrices, Si (Metric)

Edition by Frank Ayres, McGraw-Hill (1974).



^ SYNOPSES OF CORE COURSES - PHYSICS


ZCT 103/3 Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics)


Equation of motion for simple harmonic motion, damped oscillator, forced oscillator. Logarithmic decrement, relaxation time, resonance and Q factor.


Coupled oscillations. Transverse waves and longitudinal waves. The wave equation and its solutions. Reflection and transmission of waves at boundaries. Stationary waves. Superposition of waves. Phase velocity and group velocity. Dispersion of waves.


Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Plane electromagnetic waves in vacuum. Propagation of light waves, amplitude and intensity. Doppler effect. Interference, Young's double slits, Michelson interferometer. Multiple reflections, thin films, Newtons rings and Fabry-Perot interferometer. Diffraction grating. Dispersion, Cauchy formula. Polarization, Brewster angle. Light sources and light detectors.


Ref. Books:

1.

Serway, R.A. & Jewett, J.W. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics (6th Ed.), Thomson, 2004.





2.

Pain, H.J. The Physics of Vibration and Waves (5th. Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 1999.













3.

Lee, B.S. Getaran dan Gelombang, USM, 1989.













4.

Jenkins, F.A. & White, H.E. Fundamentals of Optics (4th Ed.), McGraw-Hill, 2001.













5.

Chatar Singh. Optik , USM, 1991.













6.

Hecht E. Optics, Addison-Wesley, 2001.



^ ZCT 104E/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)


Special Relativity: Reference frames, invariance of Newton's dynamics. Galilean transformation, invariance for other laws. Michelson-Morley experiment. Postulates of special relativity. Lorentz transformation. Relativistic kinematics and dynamics. Einstein formula.


Introduction to modern ideas in Physics: Blackbody radiation, Planck's law. Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, X-rays. Wave-particle duality, de Broglie waves. Old atomic models. Alpha-scattering, Rutherford model. Old quantum theory and the Bohr model of the atom. Energy levels of the atom and atomic spectra. Excitation and the Franck-Hertz experiment.


Bohr's Correspondence Principle.


Ref. Books:

1.

Arthur Beiser, Isabel Berg, ^ Concepts of Modern Physics, McGraw-Hill; 6th edition.













2.

Kenneth S. Krane, ^ Modern Physics, Wiley Text Books; 2nd edition













3.

Raymond A. Serway, Moses and Moyer, ^ Modern Physics (Saunders Golden Sunburst Series), International Thomson Publishing; 5th edition













4.

Yap Ber Chin dan Kang Chin Seng, JIF 414 – Modul 1 dan Modul 2 Pengenalan Ilmu Kuantum Mekanik, Terbitan Pertama PPLK, 1986, Unit Percetakan Pusat Universiti Sains Malaysia.



^ ZCT 106/3 Electronics I


Analysis of circuits. Alternating current circuits. Thevenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem. Characteristics of diodes and their uses in circuits., rectifying circuits. Signal processing circuits. Bipolar junction transistors and Field effect transistors, input characteristics and output characteristics. Large signal amplifiers, amplification, distortion and frequency response. Power amplifier. Small signal amplifiers and hybrid parameters. Theory of positive and negative feedback. Operational amplifiers and their applications.


This course exposes students to practical experience on various experiments to enhance theories such as: Diode, transistor, and Op-Amp characteristics and their applications.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)











Ref. Books:

1.

Smith, R.J. & Dorf R.C. Circuits, Devices and Systems. (5th Ed.) WIE, 1991.













2.

Boylestad, R.L. & Nashelsky, L. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (8th. Ed.), Prentice Hall, 2002.





3.

Brophy J.J., Basic Electronics for Scientists (5th ed) McGrew-Hill 1990.


ZCT 191/2 Physics Practical I


Consist of a selection of experiments.


^ ZCT 192/2 Physics Practical II


Consist of a selection of experiments.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 191/2 Physics Practical I


ZCT 205/3 Quantum Mechanics


Development of Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger picture and Heisenberg picture. Schrödinger equation. Wave functions. Probability. Measureable quantities. Operators and expectation values. Stationary state. Eigen function and Eigen value. Particle in a box. Harmonic oscillator. Barrier penetration. Central field problem. Hydrogen atom.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 104E/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)


Ref. Books:

1.

Zettili, N^ . Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, John Wiley, 2001













2.

Liboff R.L. ^ Introductory Quantum Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 2002













3.

Beiser, A. Concepts of Modern Physics. 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1987.













4.

Elmer E. Anderson. Modern Physics and Quantum Mechanics,

W.B. Saunders Co. Terjemahan BM oleh Abdul Latiff Awang, Penerbitan Universiti Sains Malaysia dan Dewab Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1992.













5.

Yap Ber Chin dan Kang Chin Seng, ^ JIF 414 – Modul 1 dan Modul 2 Pengenalan Ilmu Kuantum Mekanik, Terbitan Pertama PPLK, 1986, Unit Percetakan Pusat Universiti Sains Malaysia.



ZCT 206/3 Electronics II


Numbers and code system, arithmetic of binary, hexadecimal, and 2’s complement numbers. Basic logic, Boolean algebra, de Morgan theorem, and logic circuit analysis.

Design of combinational logic circuits, minimization, Karnaugh map, don’t care state, decoder, multiplexer, encoder, and demiltiplexer. Combinational logic elements: basic flip-flop, flip-flop SR, JK, D, and T. Clocked flip-flops.


Sequential logic: different types of reigsters and counters. Sequential timing, synchronous and asynchronous counters and their applications. Arithmetic’s unit: adder and substracter. Design of sequential logic systems: state diagram, truth table, and timing diagram. Extension from exited table, circuit design from truth table and timing diagram.

Examples of logic circuit applications: memory system, ROM, RAM, memory decoding, and basic architecture of microprocessor system.

This course exposes students to practical experiences on various experiments to enhance theories such as: Experiments on logic gates, flip-flop, arithmetic unit, design of registers and counters.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I


Ref. Books:

1.

Kleitz, W. 1999, ^ Digital Electronics, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall Inc, New Jersey.













2.

Marcovitz. A.B., 2002, ^ Introduction to Logic Design, Mc Graw Hill. ISBN 007120654X.













3.

Ahmad Ismail, 1982. Asas rekabentuk logik komputer, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.













4.

Floyd, T.L, 2003, ^ Digital Fundamentals, Eighth Edition, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education International.













5.

Malvino, A.P, 1993, ^ Digital Computer Electronics (3rd Ed.), Glencoe/Macmillan-McGraw-Hill, Lake Forest.













6.

Malvino, A.P. and Leach, D.P., 1986, ^ Digital Principles and Applications, Forth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.













7.

Ray Ryan and Lisa A. Doyle, 1993, ^ Digital Electronix, McGraw-Hill, International Edition.


ZCT 207/2 Statistical Mechanics


Characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic systems. Probability concepts and counting of states. Postulate of equal a priori probabilities. Microcanonical Ensemble. Definition of absolute temperature and entropy. Canonical Ensemble. Statistics of ideal quantum gases. Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Bose-Einstein statistics. Fermi-Dirac statistics. Applications of quantum statistics: specific heat of solids, black body radiation, conducting electrons in solids.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics


Ref. Books:

1.

Mandl, F. Statistical Physics (2nd Ed.), John Wiley, 1988.













2.

Bowley R. and Sanchez M. Introductory Statistical Mechanics

(2nd Ed.), Oxford Science Publications, 2002.













3.

Reichle L.E. A Modern Course in Statistical Physics

(2nd Ed.), John Wiley, 1998.


^ ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis & Differential Equations


Complex Analysis: Funtions of a complex variable - complex functions. Differentiation of complex functions; Cauchy-Riemann conditions, analytic functions, singular points, power series of analytic functions, Taylor series.


Complex Integration: Cauchy integral theorem. Cauchy integral formula. Zeroes and singularities. Laurent series. Residue theorem.


Differential Equations: Ordinary linear differential equations of first order and methods of solutions. Ordinary linear differential equations of second order – homogeneons and non-homogeneous equations and methods of solution.


Differential Equations: Series solution - power series and Frobenius methods.


Prerequisite: (S) MAA 101/4 Calculus

or (S) ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra


Text Book:

1.

Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th Ed.), John Wiley, 1999.










Ref. Books:

2.

Arfken, G.B. and Weber H.J., Mathematical Methods for Physicists (4th. Ed.), Academic Press, 2000.













3.

Boas M.L., Mathematical Methods in Physical Science (2nd Ed.), John Wiley, 1983.













4.

Nagle, R.K. and Saff E.B. , Fundamentals of Differential Egns of Boundary Value Problems, Addison-Wiley Publishing Company, 1996.



^ ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis


Vector algebra; definitions, addditon, subtraction of vectors, dot products and cross products of vectors, scalar and vector fields, geometric representation, algebraic representation, transformation; unit vectors.


Vector calculus; scalar differentiation, differentiation with respect to time. Gradient, divergence and curl of a vector. Physical examples.


Consecutive differentiation, Laplacean, D'Alembertian. Physical examples.


Vector integration; line, surface and volume integrals. Gauss Theorem. Stokes Theorem.


Application in Physics; potential theory, scalar potential, vector potential.

Coordinate Systems; Cartesian, curvilinear systems, cylindrical, spherical. Differentiation and integration. Application in Physics, position, velocity and acceleration, wave equation for and in electricity and magnetism.


Prerequisite: (S) MAA 101/4 Calculus

or (S) ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra


Ref. Books:

1.

Arfken, G.B. and Weber H.J., Mathematical Methods for Physicists (4th. Ed.), Academic Press, 2000.













2.

Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (7th Ed.), John Wiley 1993.













3.

Greenberg, M.D. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Prentice Hall, 1988.













4.

Spiegel, M.R. Theory and Problems of Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1981.



^ ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics


Simple thermodynamic systems, equation of state, work, heat, first law, internal energy, results of first law, ideal gas. Carnot cycle and heat engine.


Second law of thermodynamics, result from second law, entropy, irreversible process.


Combination of first and second laws, T-S diagram and thermodynamic relationships. Maxwell equation, Clausius- Clapeyron equation and Tds equation.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)


Ref. Books:

1.

Zemansky, M.W. & Dittman, R.H. Heat & Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill, 1997.













2.

Schroeder, D.V. An Introduction to Thermal Physics, Addison Wesley Longman, 1999.













3.

Carter, A.H. , Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics, Prentica Hall, 2001.













4.

Sears, F.W. & Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical Thermodynamics, Addison-Wesley, 1986.



^ ZCT 213/2 Optics


Polarization. Plane and circular polarization. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at boundaries. Opticall activity. Kerr effect and Faraday effect.

Dispersion theory.

Diffraction. Fresnel-Kirchhoff equations. Fraunhofer diffraction of a single slit, square and circular aperture. Diffraction gratings and their characteristics. Fresnel diffraction for circular aperture. Cornu spiral and Fresnel Integrals. Zone plates. Fresnel diffraction for straight edges and rectangular aperture.


Prerequisite: (P) ZCT 103/3 Physics III (Vibration, Waves and Optics)


Ref. Books:

1.

Jenkins, F.A. & White, H.E. Fundamentals of Optics (4th Ed.), McGraw-Hill, 2001.













2.

Jenkins, F.A. & White, H.E. Fundamentals of Optics (4th Ed.), McGraw-Hill, 1982. Terjemahan BM oleh Adja Radjeman, Penerbit USM dan DBP, 1990.













3.

Pedrotti, F.L. Pedrotti, L.S. Introduction to Optics (2nd Ed.), Prentice-Hall Int. Ed., 1993.













4.

Hecht, E. Optics (4th. Ed.), Addison-Wesley, 2001.



^ ZCT 218/3 Mathematical Methods


Integral transforms: general properties. Laplace transform: general properties, applications in physical problems. Fourier transform: general properties, applications in physical problems.


Special functions/equations: Gamma, Bessel, Legendre and Associated Legendere.


Fourier Analysis: expansion of functions in terms of sine and cosine, properties, physical examples.

Partial differential equations: Sturm – Lionrille boundary value problems. Wave equation, Heat equation, Laplace equation - solution by separation of variables.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations

(S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis



Ref. Books:

1.

Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. John Wiley and Sons, 1999.













2.

Peter V. O’Neil, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 5th edition, Brooks/Cole, 2003.













3.

G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press, 1985.



^ ZCT 304/3 Electricity and Magnetism


Revision of vector analysis, vector calculus, basic theorems, curvilinear coordinates, and Dirac-delta function. The Coulomb Law. Electric fields, E. Divergence of E. The Gauss’Law. Curl of E. Gradient of E and electrical potential, V. Electrical dipoles. The Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations. Electrostatics field in dielectric medium. The Gauss’ law for dielectric. Displacement vectors. Polarization. Electric susceptibility and dielectric constant. Electrical boundary conditions. Electrical potential energy for dielectric medium.


Magnetic fields. The Bio-Savart’s law. Divergence of ^ B. Magnetic potential vector, A. Curl of B. The Ampere’s circuit law. Magnetic dipoles. Electromagnetic induction. The Faraday’s induction laws. Magnetic materials. The Maxwell’s equations. Polarization of electric fields. The Poynting theorem. Electromagnetic boundary conditions. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in material medium.


Prerequisite: (P) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)

(S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations

(S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis


Ref. Books:

1.

Dubroff R.E., Skitek, G.G. & Marshall, S.V. Electromagnetic Concepts and Applications (4th Ed.), Prentice-Hall, 1996.













2.

Reitz, J.R., Milford, F.J. & Christy R.W. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory (4th Ed.), Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1992.













3.

Lorrain, P. & Corson, D.R. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves (3rd Ed.), W.H. Freeman Co., 1988.













4.

Jefimenko, O.D. Electricity and Magnetism - An Introduction to the Theory of Electric and Magnetic Field, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Meredith Corporation, New York, 1989.













5.

Nayfeh, M.H. & Brussel, M.K. Electricity and Magnetism, John-Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985.


^ ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


Crystal structure, classification of interatomic binding in crystals. Diffraction, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone, lattice vibration, dispersion curve, specific heat-models of Einstein and Debye. Free electron theory for metals, electrical conductivity, electron gas heat capacity. Band theory of solids, Kronig-Penney model, holes, effective mass.


Semiconductor - intrinsic and extrinsic. Carrier density. Conductivity of impurities, Hall effect. Optical properties: absorption processes, exciton, photoconductivity.


Prerequisite: (C) ZCT 207/2 Statistical Mechanics


Ref. Books:

1.

Kittel, C. Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th Ed,), John Wiley & Sons, 2005.













2.

Omar, M.A. Elementary Solid State Physics, Addison Wesley, 1993.













3.

Hook, J.R. & Hall, H.E. Solid State Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 1995













4.

Blakemore, J.S. ^ Solid State Physics, Cambridge University Press, 1987.



ZCT 293/2 Physics Practical III


Consist of a selection of experiments.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 192/2 Physics Practical II


ZCT 294/2 Physics Practical IV


Consist of a selection of experiments.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 293/2 Physics Practical III


^ ZCT 317/3 Solid State Physics II


Phonon; neutron scattering, thermal conductivity, anharmonic effect. Electron energy band in solids, Fermi surface. Electron dynamics in magnetic field, cyclotron resonance, Hall effect. Superconductivity. Dielectric and optical properties. Ferro-electrics. Magnetic properties. Properties of amorphous materials.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


Ref. Books:

1.

Kittel, C. Introduction to Solid State Physics (7th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 1996.













2.

Omar, M.A. Elementary Solid State Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1993













3.

Hook, J.R. & Hall, H.E. Solid State Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.













4.

Blakemore, J.S. Solid State Physics, Cambridge University Press, 1987.



ZCT 390/6 Pure Physics Project (2 semesters)


Project/experiments of related areas of thrust.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 294/2 Physics Practical IV


SYNOPSES OF ELECTIVE COURSES - PHYSICS

^

ZCE 208/2 Classical Mechanics



Vector calculus and kinematics.


Particle motion, system of particles, conservation laws and examples in Newtonian mechanics such as resistive motion, central force, rocket equation and so on.


Motion in non inertial frame systems, Coriolis force.


Analytical Mechanics: Calculus of variation, Euler equation. Hamilton’s principle and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics. Generalised coordinates. Lagrange equation. Generalized coordinates. Lagrange multiplier. Hamilton’s canonical equation.


Prerequite: (P) ZCA 101/4 Physics 1 (Mechanics)

(S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations

(S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis



Text Books:

1.

Stephen T. Thornton And Jerry B. Marion, Classical Dynamics Of Particles And Systems (5th Edition), Harcourt College Publishers, 2004.




2.

Murray R. Spiegel, Schaum's Outline Series: Theory And Problems Of Theoretical Mechanics, (SI [Metric] Edition), Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1982.


Ref. Books:

1.

G.R. Fowles, Analytical Mechanics (6th Edition), Saunders College Publishing, 1999.





2.

Herbert Goldstein, Charles Poole, and John Safko, Classical Mechanics (3rd Edition), Addison Wesley, 2002.



ZCE 305/3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics


Atomic structure: Hydrogen atom. States in hydrogen atom. Angular momentum. Many electron atom. Electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle. Symmetric and Antisymmetric wave functions. Spin orbit coupling. LS and JJ coupling. Atomic spectra. Selection rules. One valence electron-atom. Zeeman effect, Normal and Anomalous.


Nuclear structure: General properties of nuclear - composition, size, form, mass and atomic nuclear charge. Nuclear force and deuteron problem.


Radioactivity, alpha decay, gama decay, electron capture. Internal conversion. Nuclear reactions. Nuclear models and magic numbers.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 205/3 Quantum Mechanics


Ref. Books:

1.

Anderson, E.E. Modern Physics and Quantum Mechanics, Saunders Co., 1971. Terjemahan BM oleh Abdul Latiff Awang.













2.

Beisser, A. Perspective of Modern Physics, McGraw-Hill, 1969. Terjemahan BM oleh Liew Yong Choy.













3.

Burcham, W.E. An Introduction to Nuclear Physics, Longman.













4.

Lim, S.K. & Straits, E.M. Modern Physics for Scientist and Engineers, MacMillan Publishing Co., 1978.













5.

Little, T.A. & Thorley, N. Atomic and Nuclear Physics: An Introduction, ELBS Series, 1970.



^ ZCE 331/4 Radiation Biophysics


Interaction of radiation with matter. Interaction mechanism of photons and electrons with matter. Interaction of neutrons, alpha particles, heavy nuclei and nuclear fission fragments with matter.

Detection and measurement of radiation. Radiation dosimetry. Production of radionuclides and its use in tracer techniques. Biological effects of radiation.


Prerequisite: (P) ZCT 104/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)


Ref. Books:

1.

Attix, F.H. Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry, John Wiley & Sons, 1986 (2nd Edition, May 2002).





2.

D.T. Graham ‘Principles of Radiological Physics’ Churchill Livingstone, 2003.




3.

Johns, H.E. & Cunningham, J.R. Physics of Radiology (4th Ed.), Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1983.





4.

Alpen E.L. ‘Radiation Biophysics’ Prentice Hall, 1990.





5.

Abdul Ghaffar Ramli. ‘Keradioaktifan: Asas dan Penggunaan’ DBP, 1991.





6.

Knoll G.F. ‘Radiation Detection and Measurement’ 3rd. Edition Wiley, 2000.





7.

Coggle J.E. ‘Biological Effects of Radiation’ London, Taylor & Francis, 1983.



ZCE 341/4 Energy Studies


Production evolution and solar energy availability. Principles of solar cell operation. Material and response of silicon solar cell. Sunlight concentration. Solar cells array. Array protection and failure sensor. Power conditioning. Energy storage and connection to grid. Photovoltaic power economy.


Introduction to bioenergy. Solar radiation and photosynthesis. Biogas and alcohol production. Pyrolysis and gassification. Direct burning. Biomass energy system and bioenergy economic system.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I



Ref. Books:

1.

Martin A.Green, Solar Cells-Operating Principles Technology, Prentice Hall, 2000.













2.

Twidell J.W. , Renewable Energy Resources, Spon Press, 2000.













3.

Weider,S.)., An Introduction to Solar Energy for Scientists and Engineers, John Wiley, 1982.











^ ZCE 351/3 X-Ray Analysis


Physics of X-ray, generation and properties of X-ray, detectors, X-ray diffraction, powder methods and single crystal methods, X-ray fluorescence, interpretation and quantitative analysis, EDX spectrometer, X-ray micro-analysis with electron microscope.


Note: Exposure to equipment and practicals in the X-ray laboratory.


Prerequisite: (C) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


Ref. Books:

1.

Azaroff, L.V. Elements of X-ray Crystallography, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.













2.

Jenkins, R. & Vries, L.D. Practical X-Ray Spectrometry (2nd Ed.), Macmillan, London, 1970.













3.

Azaroff, L.V. The Powder Method in X-Ray Crystallography, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958.













4.

Buerger, M.J. Elementary Crystallography: An Introduction to the Fundamental Geometrical Features of Crystals, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1978.



^ ZAE 282E/3 Materials Science


Introduction.


Structure: Crystal structure and imperfections, phase diagrams, phase transformations, diffusion, deformation of materials, strengthening mechanisms and microstructures, corrosion and oxidation.

Materials: Iron, steel and ferrous alloys, non-ferrous metals and alloys, polymers, ceramics, composites.


Properties: Physical properties of materials.


Prerequisite: (C) ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics


Ref. Books:

1.

Callister, W.D. Jr. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction (6th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 2003.













2.

Flinn, R.A. & Trojan, P.K. Engineering Materials and Their Applications (3rd Ed.), Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1986.













3.

Van Vlack, L.H. Elements of Materials Science and Engineering (6th Ed.), Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading MA, 1989.


^ ZAT 386/3 Physics of Semiconductor Devices


Energy band, density of states, intrinsic semiconductor, Electrons and holes conduction, extrinsic semiconductor, impurities, impurity level, Fermi level, carrier concentration, Hall effect; impurity motion; minority carrier life time, recombination process, diffusion length; semiconductor surface, semiconductor-metal contact, semiconductor insulator contact; Ge, Si and III-IV compound; p-n junction devices inclusive of Zener diode, tunnel diod, varactor, variator; single junction transistor; Field effect transistor inclusive of junction FET and metal oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET), silicon controlled switch (SCS), Shockly diode and phototransistor; solar cell and semiconductor laser.


Prerequisite: (S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I

(C) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


Ref. Books:

1.

Streetman, B.G. & Banerjee S. Solid State Electronic Devices, Prentice-Hall, 1999..













3.

Zambuto, M. Semiconductor Devices, McGraw-Hill, 1989













2.

Sze, S.M. Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology, 2nd Edition

John Wiley & Sons, 2001



^ SYNOPSES OF ELECTIVE COURSE - NON BASIC APPLIED PHYSICS


MAT 181/4 Programming for Science Applications


Introduction to computer: hardware and software programming languages. Problem definition. Algorithm development.


Introduction to C language: Basic control structure: sequence, selection, recursion. Designing and developing programming module. Subprogramming. Strategies in solving complex problems. Design methodology. Testing and debugging.


Abstract data structure processing. Keeping data structure in file. Strings. Trees.


^ SYNOPSES OF UNIVERSITY COURSE


ZCU 100/2 Energy and The Environment


Energy and related concepts, history of energy use, sources of energy, energy units and quality of energy.


World energy consumption. Consumption of fossil fuels and its effect on the environment. Use of hydropower, nuclear, wind, geothermal, solar and ocean energy as well as biomass and their effects on the environment.


Energy situation in Malaysia and her energy policy. Efficient use of energy. Modeling, planning and economics.


Ref. Books:

1.

Scientific American Special Issues. Energy for Planet Earth. Septmber 1990.





2.

S.C. Curran and J.S. Curran, Energy and Human Needs .





3.

National Geographic (Various Issues).




4.

Various papers of K.O. Lim.










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