Secretaría del Medio Ambiente, Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Agricultura No. 21, Pb, Miguel Hidalgo, México, D. F. 11800 icon

Secretaría del Medio Ambiente, Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Agricultura No. 21, Pb, Miguel Hidalgo, México, D. F. 11800


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Path Sitting and Design Criteria Review in Mexico City Air Monitoring Network

Paper # 1173

Roberto Muñoz, Monica Jaimes, Cristina Ortuño, Rocio Carmona, Rafael Ramos, Víctor H. Paramo

Secretaría del Medio Ambiente, Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Agricultura No. 21, PB, Miguel Hidalgo, México, D.F. 11800.


ABSTRACT

Mexico City is one of the most polluted and populated cities in the world. As a result, pollution has repercussions on the public health. Since 1982, Mexico City has been operated an air quality monitoring network.

Air quality data from the network has been used for a variety of purposes including making Mexican ambient air quality standards; determining maximum concentration locations; determining the effectiveness control programs; evaluating the effects on public health, etc. However, the monitoring stations have evolved through time due to changes in the use of land, urban development and even nearby vegetation growth. Therefore, the initial representative ness of these stations have changed their Spatial scale and the overall adequacy of monitoring network should be assessed in order to determine the fulfillment of the monitoring objectives.

This work was developed in order to release the first network review about "Probe and Path Siting criteria" (Appendices E, 40 CFR Part 58) and "Network Design Criteria" (Appendices D, 40 CFR Part 58) in the Air Quality Monitoring Network in Mexico City.

The results show that locations of some monitor stations should be modified with corrective actions, some stations have to relocation and others monitor stations lost spatial scale of representativeness and its should be consider the adequacy of the network in meeting additional performance objectives.

INTRODUCTION

In Mexico City the air pollutant registers start during 1974 with manual equipments and with automatic equipments in 1982. The actual monitoring network is a surveillance type monitoring network for the determination of hourly concentrations of criteria pollutants in order to observe the compliance of the national health standards related to air quality, evaluate the performance of the environmental programs and timely public information dissemination (Air Quality Index). To observe these objectives the monitoring stations required one boundary or urban scale representation for some air pollutants measure (ozone - O3, nitrogen dioxide - NO2, sulfur dioxide - SO2, particles) or medium scale in case of carbon monoxide - CO (SEDUE, 1987).

Throughout the time physical contour in the monitoring stations has been change due to different factors (building and ways construction, reforest, etc.), the result is the spatial al physical representative lost (GDF, 1996).

In Mexico don’t exist technical criteria to asses the air quality monitoring representative, nevertheless the Environmental Protection Agency from the United States of America (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended the annual diagnostic in monitoring stations like a warranty of the representative or to justify the possible monitoring station suppress or re-location, or the new station establish (EPA, 1998; WHO, 1980).

The purpose of this paper is to asses the spatial and physical representative of the air quality monitoring stations in the Mexico City air quality network, like a base to define its actual state and the necessary changes to recover its representative.

METHODS

The spatial and physical asses was conducted using two complementary methods:

I) Spatial scale criteria. To asses the spatial scale the next points were perform:

  1. Spatial scale guide processing for each pollutant in base to Federal Code of Regulation 40, part 58 annex D and EPA-454/R-98-044 (Table 1).

  2. Field information compilation and data analysis for each monitoring station:

  1. Physical contour: Identify and description of the physical contour and emission sources location on 300 mts around.

  2. Soil use: Soil use identify (residential, commercial, offices, industrial, services or rural).

  3. People density. Number of inhabitants around the monitoring station in base to national census.

  4. High concentrations register. Identify of the hot spot monitoring station.

  5. Wind field: Identify of the NO2 and O3 monitoring stations to define its wind down or up location in relation to emission sources.

  1. Definition of the spatial scale properties. One diagnostic table to asses representatives and monitoring objective by pollutant and spatial scale was elaborate with criteria information of the Federal Code of Regulation 40, part 58 annex D (see Table 2).

  2. The field information by monitoring station was compare with the spatial scale guide to identify the scale type and asses the objective carrying out.

Table 1. Characteristics of Spatial Scales Related to Each Pollutant

Pollutant
^

Spatial Scale


Characteristics

CO

Micro

Measurements on this scale would represent distributions within street canyons, over sidewalks, and near major roadways.

Middle

This category covers dimensions from 100 meters to 0.5 kilometer. In certain cases, it may apply to regions that have a total length of several kilometers. If an attempt is made to characterize street-side conditions throughout the downtown area or along an extended stretch of freeway, the dimensions may be tens of meters by kilometers. Also include the parking lots and feeder streets associated with indirect sources (shopping centers, stadia, and office buildings) which attract significant numbers of pollutant emitters.

Neighborhood

Homogeneous urban subregions, with dimensions of a few kilometers

SO2

Middle

Assessing the effects of control strategies to reduce urban concentrations (especially for the 3-hour and 24-hour averaging times) and monitoring air pollution episodes.

Neighborhood

This scale applies in areas where the SO concentration gradient is relatively flat (mainly suburban areas surrounding the urban center) or in large sections of small cities and towns. May be associated with baseline concentrations in areas of projected growth.

Urban

Data from this scale could be used for the assessment of air quality trends and the effect of control strategies on urban scale air quality

Regional

Provide information on background air quality and interregional pollutant transport.


O3

Middle

Represents conditions close to sources of NOx such as roads where it would be expected that suppression of O concentrations would occur.

Neighborhood

Represents conditions throughout some reasonably homogeneous urban subregion, with dimensions of a few kilometers. Useful for developing, testing, and revising concepts and models that describe urban/regional concentration patterns.

Urban

Used to estimate concentrations over large portions of an urban area with dimensions of several kilometers to 50 or more kilometers. Such measurements will be used for determining trends, and designing area-wide control strategies. The urban scale stations would also be used to measure high concentrations downwind of the area having the highest precursor emissions.

Regional

Used to typify concentrations over large portions of a metropolitan area and even larger areas with dimensions of as much as hundreds of kilometers. Such measurements will be useful for assessing the ozone that is transported into an urban area.

NO2

Middle

Dimensions from about 100 meters to 0.5 kilometer. These measurements would characterize the public exposure to NO2 in populated areas

Neighborhood

Represents conditions throughout some reasonably homogeneous urban subregion, with dimensions of a few kilometers. Useful for developing, testing, and revising concepts and models that describe urban/regional concentration patterns.

Urban

Used to estimate concentrations over large portions of an urban area with dimensions of several kilometers to 50 or more kilometers. Such measurements will be used for determining trends, and designing area-wide control strategies. The urban scale stations would also be used to measure high concentrations downwind of the area having the highest precursor emissions.

PM10

Micro

Areas such as downtown street canyons and traffic corridors; generally not extending more than 15 meters from the roadway but could continue the length of the roadway. Sites should be located near inhabited buildings or locations where the general public can be expected to be exposed to the concentration measured

Middle

Measurements of this type would be appropriate for the evaluation of possible short-term public health effects

of particulate matter pollution. This scale also includes the characteristic concentrations for other areas with dimensions of a few hundred meters such as the parking lot and feeder streets associated with shopping centers, stadia, and office buildings. In the case of PM10, unpaved or seldom swept parking lots associated with these sources could be an important source in addition to the vehicular emissions themselves.

Neighborhood

Measurements in this category would represent conditions throughout some reasonably homogeneous urban sub region with dimensions of a few kilometers. This category also includes industrial and commercial neighborhoods, as well as residential.

Urban

This class of measurement would be made to characterize the particulate matter concentration over an entire metropolitan or rural area. Such measurements would be useful for assessing trends in area-wide air quality, and hence, the effectiveness of large scale air pollution control strategies.

Regional

These measurements would characterize conditions over areas with dimensions of as much as hundreds of kilometers. Using representative conditions for an area implies some degree of homogeneity in that area. For this reason, regional scale measurements would be most applicable to sparsely populated areas with reasonably uniform ground cover. Data characteristics of this scale would provide information about larger scale processes of particulate matter emissions, losses and transport.

PM2.5

Micro

Areas such as downtown street canyons and traffic corridors where the general public can be expected to be exposed to maximum concentrations from mobile sources. In some circumstances, the micro scale is appropriate for particulate stations; core SLAMS on the micro scale should however, be limited to urban sites that are representative of long term human exposure and of many such microenvironments in the area.

Middle

Measurements of this type would be appropriate for the evaluation of possible short-term exposure public health effects of particulate matter pollution. This scale also includes the characteristic concentrations for other areas with dimensions of a few hundred meters such as the parking lot and feeder streets associated with shopping centers, stadia, and office buildings.

Neighborhood

Measurements in this category would represent conditions throughout some reasonably homogeneous urban subregion with dimensions of a few kilometers and of generally more regular shape than middle scale. Much of the PM2.5 exposures are expected to be associated with this scale of measurement. This category also include industrial and commercial neighborhoods, as well as residential.

Urban

This class of measurement would be made to characterize the particulate matter concentration over an entire metropolitan or rural area. Such measurements would be useful for assessing trends in area-wide air quality, and hence, the effectiveness of large scale air pollution control strategies.

Regional

These measurements would characterize conditions over areas with dimensions of as much as hundreds of kilometers. Using representative conditions for an area implies some degree of homogeneity in that area. For this reason, regional scale measurements would be most applicable to sparsely populated areas with reasonably uniform ground cover. Data characteristics of this scale would provide information about larger scale processes of particulate matter emissions, losses and transport.

PST y Pb

Micro

Would typify areas such as downtown street canyons and traffic corridors where the general public would be exposed to maximum concentrations from mobile sources. Because of the very steep ambient Pb gradients resulting from Pb emissions from mobile sources, the dimensions of the Micro scale for Pb generally would not extend beyond 15 meters from the roadway.

Middle

Represents Pb air quality levels in areas up to several city blocks in size with dimensions on the order of approximately 100 meters to 500 meters. However, the dimensions for middle scale roadway type stations would probably be on the order of 50-150 meters because of the exponential decrease in lead concentration with increasing distances from roadways. The middle scale may for example, include schools and playgrounds in center city areas which are close to major roadways.

Neighborhood

Would characterize air quality conditions throughout some relatively uniform land use areas with dimensions in the 0.5 to 4.0 kilometer range. Stations of this scale would provide monitoring data in areas representing conditions where children live and play.

Urban

Would characterize air quality conditions throughout some relatively uniform land use areas with dimensions in the 0.5 to 4.0 kilometer range. Stations of this scale would provide monitoring data in areas representing conditions where children live and play.

Regional

Would be used to present ambient Pb concentrations over an entire metropolitan area with dimensions in the 4 to 50 kilometer range.



^ Table 2. Spatial scale properties for monitoring station (40 CFR Part 58, App.D).

Sitting Scales

Length and width of a grid square, with a monitor at its center

Monitoring Objectives

Pollutant

Micro


10 to 100 m

  • Highest concentration

  • Source impact

CO, PM10, PM2.5, Pb and PST

Middle


100 to 500 m.

  • Highest concentration

  • Source impact

SO2, CO, O3, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, Pb and PST

Neighborhood


500 m to 4 km.

  • Highest concentration

  • Population

  • Source impact

  • General / Background

SO2, CO, O3, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, Pb and PST

Urban


4 a 100 km.

  • Population

  • General / Background

  • Regional transport

  • Welfare-related impacts

SO2, O3, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, Pb and PST

Regional


100 to 1,000 km.

  • General / Background

  • Regional transport

  • Welfare-related impacts

SO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5, Pb and PST


II) Physical contour criteria. The technical criteria was obtained from the Federal Code of Regulation 40, part 58 annex E, and the Network Review Guidance document (see Table 3). The information to asses the physical contour was obtained from field work (Field report – SIMAT, 2001).

The valuate criteria were:

  1. Spatial scale

  2. Vertical probe placement.

  3. Spacing from trees.

  4. Obstacle distance

  5. Unrestricted airflow

  6. Furnace or incinerator flues

  7. Distance between collocated monitors

  8. Spacing from station to road

  9. Paving

The field work information was asses to review the valuate criteria (1 to 9). When the monitoring station observance 75% of the criteria receive the O.K. qualification, then the station is consider like one adequacy physical contour. In case of less 75%, the station receive the Wrong qualification .

Table 3. Criteria for monitoring station location

Criteria

CO

Pb y PST

NO2

O3

PM10 y PM2.5

SO2

1. Vertical Probe Placement

3-3.5 m for micro

3-15 m for other scales

2-15 m

3-15 m

3-15 m

2-7 m for micro

2-15 m for other scales

3-15 m

2. Obstructions of Roof

NA

 2m (walls, parapets, penthouses,etc.)

NA

NA

 2m (walls, parapets, penthouses,etc.)

NA

3. Spacing from Trees

Should be  10 m

From dripline of trees if tree is  5 m above sampler and is between the probe and the road.

Should be  20 m from dripline of trees.

 10 m when trees act as an obstruction

 10 m

 10 m

Should be  20 m from dripline of trees.

 10 m when trees act as an obstruction

Should be  20 m from dripline of

trees.

 10 m when trees

act as an obstruction

4. Obstacle Distance

NA

2 x height differential (street canyon sites exempt)

 Twice the height the obstacle protrudes above probe

 Twice the height the obstacle protrudes above probe

2 x height differential (street canyon sites exempt)

 Twice the height the obstacle

protrudes above probe

5. Unrestricted Airflow

 270° or 180° if on side of building

At least 270° inluding the predominant wind direction

Must be 270° or 180° if on side of building

Must be 270° or 180° if on side of building

At least 270° inluding the predominant wind direction

Must be 270° or

180° if on side of building

6. Furnace or Incinerator Flues

NA

No furnace or incineration flues should be nearby

NA

NA

No furnace or incineration flues should be nearby

No furnace or incineration flues should be nearby

7. Distance between Collocated Monitors

NA

2 a 4 m

NA

NA

1 a 4 m

NA

8. Spacing from Station to Road

2-10 m from edge of nearest traffic lane for microscale;  10 m from intersection, preferably at midblock

5-15 m for micro

distance between roadways depends of average daily traffic

distance between roadways depends of average daily traffic

distance between roadways depends of average daily traffic

distance between roadways depends of average daily traffic

NA

9. Paving

NA

Area should be paved or have vegetative ground cover

NA

NA

Area should be paved or have vegetative ground cover

NA

NA = No Aplication



RESULTS

The spatial scale definition and the physical contour qualification for each monitoring station (O.K. or Wrong) and the spatial scale definition (micro, middle, Neighborhood, Urban or Regional), the recommend lines and comments in relation to physical modifies, objectives changes or re location are given in Table 3.

One example is the Aragon station (ARA) for CO pollutant: In this case the scale is middle and the physical contour is OK, then the technical point of view is that Aragon station is satisfactory to measure CO. In case of SO2, the physical scale in Neighborhood and the physical contour is Wrong, due to free air obstacles and the need to contour adequacies for one representative SO2 measures.



Table 3. State of the Mexico City

Monitoring Network Stations – 2003

EST

CO

SO2

O3

NO2

PM10

PST y Pb

ARA

O.K.

Wrong













Middle

Neighborhood

ATI

O.K.

O.K.




O.K.







Neighborhood

Urban

Urban

AZC

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.







Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

BJU

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong







Micro

Middle

Neighborhood

Middle

CES

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Middle

Neighborhood

Middle

Middle

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

CUA







O.K.










Urban

CHA







O.K.










Regional

*CUI

Wrong
















Micro

EAC

O.K.

O.K.

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong




Middle

Urban

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

HAN

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

O.K.




Micro

Middle

Middle

Middle

Middle

LOM













O.K.




Urban

IMP

Wrong
















Neighborhood

LAG

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.







Middle

Neighborhood

Middle

Middle

LPR




Wrong







Wrong




Neighborhood

Neighborhood

LVI




O.K.







O.K.




Neighborhood

Neighborhood

LLA




Wrong













Urban

MCM













O.K.




Neighborhood

MER

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

Middle

Neighborhood

Middle

Middle

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

MIN

O.K.
















Micro

*NET1

O.K.

O.K.







Wrong




Middle

Neighborhood

Micro

NTS













O.K.




Vecianal

PED

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Neighborhood

Urban

Urban

Urban

Neighborhood

Urban

PLA

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong




Middle

Urban

Urban

Urban

Neighborhood

SAG

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong




Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Middle

SHA













O.K.




Neighborhood

SUR

Wrong

O.K.

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong




Neighborhood

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

TAC

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.







Neighborhood

Middle

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

TAH




O.K.

O.K.




O.K.




Regional

Regional

Neighborhood

TAX

O.K.

O.K.

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong




Micro

Neighborhood

Middle

Middle

Middle

TLA

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Middle

Middle

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

TLI

O.K.

O.K.




O.K.

O.K.




Neighborhood

Urban

Urban

Neighborhood

TPN







Wrong










Urban

UIZ

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong

Wrong




Middle

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

Neighborhood

VAL

O.K.

O.K.













Middle

Neighborhood

VIF

O.K.

O.K.




O.K.

O.K.




Neighborhood

Regional

Urban

Urban

XAL

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

O.K.

Middle

Middle

Middle

Middle

Micro

Middle



* Stations without CO equipments

Stations with manual PM10 equipments

Stations with manual and automatic PM10 equipments

1 At the moment are outside

CONCLUSION

The path sitting and design criteria asses for the Mexico City Air Monitoring Network obtained in this paper, is the preliminary diagnostic for the physical contour and spatial scale in each monitoring stations. In some cases the spatial scale results suggest the possibility to change the objective to save monetary and structure resources, other cases suggest the need to re locate the station or the equipments to certain pollutants due to loss representative. Other cases involve low cost inversions to modify the physical contour and recover the physical representatives.


AKNOWLEDGMENTS

Authors wish to thanks to Guadalupe Granados, Samuel López, Vicente Pérez, Antonio Valdés, Eduardo Preciado, Laura Ocampo, Felipe Rosales, Angel Sánchez and Marco Morales for his help in the development the this paper.


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KEY WORDS

Mexico City

Environmental Projects

Redesing Monitoring Network

Path Siting.

Air Monitoring Network

Design Criteria Review.







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