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Dai, G. 1998. Surveys of molluscs in the estuarine of the Changjiang River. ^ Marine Fisheries/Haiyang Yuye, Shanghai 20(1):20-22. [Chinese with English summary]

Based on the survey data collected from the estuarine of the Changjiang River from 1980 through 1996, the surveys indicated that the species of molluscs were rather poor in the estuarine of the Changjiang River, and a total of 10 species of molluscs were collected. The annual biomass are 54.25 g.m -2 on average, representing 88.4% of the total biomass of benthos in the estuarine of the Changjiang River. Among them, Corbicula flaminea are the predominant, whose biomass account for 93.8% of the molluscs. The distribution of molluscs and the lack of species in the estuarine of the Changjiang River bear a close relationship to the flow rate, sand content and the changing rate of the estuarine salinity. In addition, the only Arconaia specimen was collected for the first time at the Shanghai segment in the estuarine of the Changjiang River.

Dailey, D. H. and W. P. Popenoe. 1966. Mollusca from the upper Cretaceous Jalama Formation, Santa Barbara County, California. University of California Publications in Geological Science 65:1 40.

Corbicula astartoides sp. nov. is described from the late Campanian formation, bed of Jalama Creek, Lompoc Hills Quadrangle, Santa Barbara County, California.

Dall, W. H. 1902. Note on Neocorbicula Fischer. The Nautilus 16:82 83.

The genus Neocorbicula and its systematics are discussed.

Dall, W. H. 1903. Review of the classification of the Cyrenacea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 16:5 8.

The systematics of the superfamily Cyrenacea is presented.

Dall, W. H. 1903 Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida with especial reference to the silex beds of Tampa and the Pliocene beds of the Caloosahatchie River, including in many cases a complete revision of the generic groups treated of and their American Tertiary species. Part IV. Concluding the work. Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science (Philadelphia) Vol. 3, Part. 6:1219 1654.

Corbicula subtrigonalis (Meek, 1870); Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) augheyi White, 1882; Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) berthoudi White, 1882; Cyrena (Leptesthes) cardiniaeformis (White, 1877); Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) cleburni White, 1877; Cyrena (Leptesthes?) macropistha White, 1878; Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) obesa White, 1878; Corbicula (Veloritina) occidentalis (Meek and Hayden, 1856); Cyrena (Leptesthes) planumbona (Meek, 1875); Cyrena (Leptesthes) subelliptica (Meek and Hayden, 1856); Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) moreauensis (Meek and Hayden, 1856); Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) umbonella 'Meek' White, 1883; Corbicula pugetensis White, 1889; Corbicula willisi White, 1889; and Corbicula cornelliana Harris, 1897 are discussed. Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) californica (Gabb, 1869) is reported from the Pliocene of Washington. Corbicula (Veloritina) durkeei (Meek, 1869) is reported from the Bear River Cretaceous of Wyoming. Corbicula (Veloritina) cytheriformis is reported from the Judith River. Cyrena (Leptesthes) fracta Meek, 1870 is reported from the Eocene of the Wasatch. Corbicula (Veloritina) nebrascensis (Meek and Hayden 1856) is reported from the Judith River beds. Corbicula densata (Conrad, 1843) is reported from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Massachusetts.

Dall, W. H. 1925. Illustrations of unfigured types of shells in the collection of the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 66(17):1 41.

Type specimens of Corbicula (Cyrenodonax) formosana Dall, 1903, and Corbicula (Cyanocyclas) oleana Marshall, 1924, are figured. Type materials are housed in the collection of the U. S. National Museum of Natural History.

Dana, J. D. 1885. Manual of Geology, 4th Ed. (New York).

Corbicula cytheriformis (Meek and Hayden, 1860) and Corbicula occidentiformis (Meek and Hayden, 1856) are reported from the upper part of the Laramie beds at Judith River (p. 856).

Danford, D. W. and J. E. Joy. 1984. Aspidogastrid (Trematoda) parasites of bivalve molluscs in western West Virginia. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 51(2):301 305.

Five hundred bivalve molluscs (22 species including Corbicula fluminea [Müller, 1774]) from 32 localities in western West Virginia were examined for aspidogastrid trematodes. Specimens of C. fluminea from the Little Kanawha River were infected with Aspidogaster conchicola von Baer and Cotylapsis insignis Leidy. Infection of other native bivalves species is discussed.

Darrigran, G. 2002. Potential impact of filter-feeding invaders on temperate inland freshwater environments. ^ Biological Invasions 4(1-2):145-156.

Since the 1990s, biological invasions have captured the attention of the scientific community as an important element of global change and a major threat to biodiversity. The inland waters of South America provide two examples of biological invasions. This review examines bivalve invasions in South America, summarizes the research results for two species, the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), and suggests further studies. The rapid expansion of invasive bivalves into these environments involves significant changes. Until now, C. fluminea, the Asian clam, did not produce generalized macrofouling in the Neotropical region, as is common in the Holarctic region. However, the first specific cases of macrofouling by C. fluminea were recently detected in heat interchangers of power stations in Brazil. On the other hand, L. fortunei is provoking new economic impacts in South American freshwaters through macrofouling. Before the invasion by the golden mussel, macrofouling was recorded only in the marine and estuarine environments of the Neotropical region. The impact caused by invasive bivalves in this region is not only economic, however. Rapid changes in the benthic community, favoring the presence of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, as well as the displacement of native species of mollusks, are among the problems related to the presence of the golden mussel. Another issue is the settlement of golden mussels on native bivalves. This bivalve is now a new element in the diet of some native fish species, being the main food item in some cases.

Darrigran, G. and G. Pastorino. 1995. The recent introduction of a freshwater Asiatic bivalve, ^ Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae) into South America. Veliger 38(2):171-175.

The temporal and spatial distribution of Limnoperna fortunei in the Argentine littoral of the Rio de la Plata is reported. Its distribution is limited by the most contaminated area and by an increment in the saline concentration. A decrease in density was recorded between August 1992 and January 1993. Subsequently there was an increase in density up to a maximum of 82,000 ind/m2 in May 1993. It is concluded that because of its functional and morphological characteristics, L. fortunei will spread quickly. With Corbicula fluminea and C. largillierti, Limnoperna fortunei is the third invading species to be introduced into South America from Southeast Asia. Its possible entry into Argentina, by trading ships from Korea and Hong Kong, is suggested. Import peaks correspond with the estimated arrival of these three invaders.

Darteville, E. 1948. Contribution á la faune malacologique des terrasses de la region des lacs Edouard et Kivu. ^ Bulletin du Service Geologique (Leopoldville) 3:97 142.

Corbicula radiata is reported as living in Lake Edward, Lake Kivu, and Lake Albert. It also occurs as a fossil and subfossil in Lake Edward and Lake Kivu. Corbicula radiata edwardsi is found living in, and as a subfossil, only in Lake Edward. Corbicula fluminalis consobrina (Philippi) is found only as a fossil and subfossil in Lake Edward terraces.

Dauble, D. D., D. S. Daley, and C. S. Abernethy. 1984. Factors affecting growth and survival of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula sp., under controlled laboratory conditions. IN: Proceedings of the American Society of Testing and Materials 7th Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. American Society of Testing and Materials (Philadelphia). ASTM Special Publication No. 854. pp. 138 144. [Also Department of Energy Report No. PNL SA 10845, and NTIS DE84002597]

Growth of Asiatic clams (Corbicula sp.) was determined in relation to food supply, water temperature, and clam size as an aid to researchers conducting chronic effects toxicity studies. Linear models provided good relationships between clam shell length, total weight, and wet/dry tissue weights. Clam growth was minimal during low phytoplankton densities (similar to 300 cells/ml), and all three size groups lost weight at 20 and 30oC. Mortality of small clams at 30oC was 100% after 71 days. At phytoplankton densities greater than 1000 cells/ml, overall differences in growth with respect to clam size and temperature were detectable at p>0.01; growth of all clam groups was greatest at 30oC. Small clams exhibited the greatest absolute increase in mean shell length at all test temperatures and their weight gains were similar to those of medium and large clams. Clams in well water that were fed trout chow at 117 mg/ml dry weight had an estimated conversion efficiency of 2.0%.

Dauer, D. M., M. W. Luckenbach and A. J. Rodi, Jr. 1993. Abundance biomass comparison (ABC method): Effects of an estuarine gradient, anoxic/hypoxic events and contaminated sediments. Marine Biology 116(3):507-518.

The ABC method for evaluating pollution-induced stress was tested using data from the hesapeake Bay, Virginia, collected between 1985 and 1989. Three predictions were tested: (1) benthic communities from estuarine transitional regions with salinities near the range of 5 to 8 parts per thousand (horohalinicium) should be classified highly stressed due to major shifts in ionic composition producing physiological stress; (2) benthic communities from regions subjected to summer low dissolved oxygen conditions (anoxia or hypoxia) should be classified as highly stressed after such events; and (3) benthic communities from sediments contaminated with heavy metals and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons should be classified as highly stressed. Only partial support for each of these predictions was found and several problems with the ABC method were obvious. A small number of large-sized species, particularly in mesohaline and polyhaline regions of the estuary, greatly affected the analysis. Similar designations of stress could be produced by simply sampling only for these rare, large species. Regions of the estuary considered a priori as highly stressed were sometimes designated as unstressed due to (1) minor shifts in dominance patterns in benthic communities with low absolute numbers of individuals and biomass, e.g. in regions affected by anoxia/hypoxia, and (2) collection of rare, but large species, such as the tubiculous polychaete, Diopatra cuprea, in contaminated sediments. Regions of the estuary considered a priori as unstressed were sometimes designated as highly stressed due to dense recruitment events. Dominant species were Diopatra cuprea, Macoma balthica, Corbicula fluminea and Macroclymene zonalis.

Daum, K. A., L. W. Newland, J. C. Britton, L. Champagne and J. Hagen. 1979. Responses of Corbicula to potassium. IN: Proceedings of the First International Corbicula Symposium, J. C. Britton, Ed. Texas Christian University Research Foundation (Ft. Worth). pp. 215 226.

Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) (= C. manilensis [Philippi, 1841]) was found to be adversely affected by the presence of potassium in water. When potassium concentration reached a threshold level, the foot would become enlarged, extend to the exterior, and become unresponsive to tactile stimulation. EC50 concentrations to produce the response were 25 to 50 ppm K+ as KH2PO4, 25 to 50 ppm K+ as K2PO4, and 39 to 44 ppm K+ as KCl. Histological sections of the potassium affected foot revealed extensive fluid engorgement in the muscular tissue, but little apparent loss of internal cellular components.

Dautzenberg, P. 1894. Liste des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis par M. Th. Barrois en Palestine et an Syrie. Revue Biologique du Nord de la France 6:329 354.

Corbicula fluminalis is reported from the Middle East.

Dautzenberg, P. and H. Fischer. 1905. Liste des mollusques recoltes par M. le Capitain de Frigate Blaise au Tonkin, et description d'especées nouvelles. Journal de Conchyliologie 53:58 234.

Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774), Corbicula fluminea tonkiniana Morlet, 1886, Corbicula fluminea petiti Morlet, 1886, Corbicula fluminea moreletiana Prime, 1867, Corbicula fluminea bocourti Morlet, 1865, Corbicula fluminea orientalis (Lamarck, 1818), Corbicula fluminea indigotina Huede, 1880, and Corbicula fluminea baudoni Morlet, 1886 are discussed from Indochina. Zoogeographic records, ecology, and systematics of these bivalves are also presented.

Dautzenberg, P. and H. Fischer. 1905. Liste des mollusques recoltes par M. H. Mansuy en Indo Chine et au Yunnan et description d'especes nouvelles. ^ Journal de Conchyliologie 53:343 471.

Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula souverbieana are reported from Saigon (Ho Chi Mihn City, Vietnam). Corbicula fluminea tonkiniana is reported from Hanoi (Vietnam) and Grand Lac (Cambodia). Corbicula fluminea petiti, Corbicula fluminea moreletiana, and Corbicula fluminea bocourti are reported from prehistoric sites of Somron Seng, Cambodia.

Dautzenberg, P. and B. d'Hammonville. 1887. Description d'especes nouvelles du Tonkin et observations sur quelques autrer mollusques de la même region. Journal de Conchyliologie 35:213 225.

Corbicula baudoni and Corbiucula tonkiniana are reported from Rizieres near Hanoi.

Dawson, G. M. 1875. Report on the geological resources of the region in the vicinity of the 49th Parallel, from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. British North American Boundary Commission.

Cyrena occidentalis Meek and Hayden, 1856) and Corbicula occidentalis (Meek and Hayden, 1856) are reported (p. 133) from the St. Mary's River series, St. Mary's River, Canada.

Deaton. L. E. 1981. Ion regulation in freshwater and brackish water bivalve mollusks. ^ Physiological Zoology 54:109 121.

The relationship between external salinity and the blood concentrations of Na, Ca, K, Cl, and bicarbonate was examined for six species of bivalve molluscs: Rangia cuneata and Polymesoda caroliniana (oligohaline); Lampsilis claibornensis and Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1841) (freshwater); and Ostrea palmula and Polymesoda maritima (marine euryhaline). The two euryhaline species are osmotic and ionic conformers in media of from 100   1,000 mOsM. The oligohaline species are conformers above ambient osmoalities of 100 mOsM; in more dilute media the blood is hypertonic with respect to Na, Ca, K, and Cl. In ambient osmoalities below 20 mOsM, the blood concentrations of Na and Cl, and blood osmoality decrease sharply. Blood Ca and bicarbonate concetrations show a concomitant increase. The two freshwater animals are conformers above, and regulators below, 100 mOsM. There is no decrease in the blood concentrations of Na or Cl in very dilute media.

Deaton, L. E. 1982. Tissue (Na+K) activated adenosinetriphosphatase activities in freshwater and brackish water bivalve molluscs. ^ Marine Biology Letters 3:107 112.

The (Na + K) activated ATPase activity was measured in microsomal preparations of gill, mantle, and kidney tissues from four bivalves (Rangia cuneata, Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1841), Polymesoda caroliniana, and Lampsilis claibornensis) acclimated to freshwater (3 mOsM) and to brackish water (200 mOsM). In freshwater acclimated P. caroliniana, R. cuneata, and C. manilensis, the mantle and kidney enzyme activity increased over than in animals acclimated to 200 mOsM. The activity of (Na + K) activated ATPase in gill tissue was higher in osmoconforming P. caroliniana, R. cuneata, and C. manilensis (200 mOsM) than in osmoregulating individuals (e mOsM). There were no salinity related changes in enzyme activity in L. claibornensis tissues. This lack of response reflects the long geologic history of the Paleoheterodont subclass (which includes L. claibornensis).

Decksbach, N. K. 1943. The mollusc Corbicula fluminalis Mull. in the valley of the Murgab River. ^ Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow, N. S.) 40(1):33 34.

Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) has been found in Azerbaidjan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, at the mouth of the Amu Darya River and in the Amur Basin. Corbicula fluminalis is also reported in Turkemia in the valley of the Murgab River. Measurements of 23 specimens are given. The finding in Turkmenia confirms geological opinion that the Murgab belongs to the Amu Darya Uzboy system.

Degner, E. 1928. Spolia metawiensis. Binnen Mollusken von den Neutawei Inselin, mit einen Anhang: Verzeichnis alles bisher von Sumatra bekannt geordenen land  und süsswasser mollusken. ^ Treubia 10:319 390.

The systematics and distribution of the following species of Corbicula are discussed: C. angulifera von Martens, 1897, C. ducalis Prime, 1862, C. gibba von Martens, 1897, C. lacustris von Martens, 1897, C. moltkiana Prime, 1878, C. moussoni Deshayes, 1854, C. pullata Philippi, 1850, C. tobae von Martens, 1900, C. trapezoidea von Martens, 1897, and C. tumida Deshayes, 1854.

Delafond, F. and C. Depéret. 1893 1894. Études des gîites mineraux de la France. Les terrains tertiares de la Bresse et leurs gîtes de lignites et de minerais de fer. Ministére des Travaux Publics (Paris). pp. 332, 155, and 256.

Delessert, B. 1841. Recueil des Coquilles Descrites par Lamarck, dans son Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertébres et non encore figurées.

Cyrena orientalis is figured (pl. 7, figs 8a c).

DeMoor, G. 1974. The formation of Denermonde and its significance for the Neoquaternary of the Flemish Valley. Natural Science Journal of the Dutch Indies 56:1 4. [Dutch with French and English abstracts]

Near the confluence of the Dendre and the Schledt and Dendermonde, a large excavation allowed the study of fluvatile sediments of the Holocene Scheldt, resting upon the course and Mammalia rests containing sediments of a large fluvio periglacial Wurmaian Dendre fan, which lithostratigraphically belongs to the formation of Dendermonde.

The genesis and the chronostratigraphic position of the fan and its significance within the Quaternary geological history of the Flemish Valley is based on paleomorphologic, sedimentologic, and lithostratigraphic arguments. Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) shells are found in the sediments.

DeMoor, G. 1975. De afzetting van Dendermonde en haas betekenis voor de jongkwartaire evolutie van de Vlaamse Vallei. Natuurwetenschappelijk Tijdschrift 56:45 75.

DeMoor, G. 1981. Periglacial deposits and sedimentary structures in the upper Pleistocene infilling of the Flemish Valley (N. W. Belgium). Biuletyn Peryglacjalny 28:277 290.

The Flemish Valley forms the upper Pleistocene outlet of the Scheldt River in northern Belgium. It consists of a very wide thalweg pattern, deeply cut into sandy clayey Tertiary substratum and filled up by Saalian fluvioperiglacial deposits, by Eemian marine and fluvitile (containing shells of Corbicula fluminalis [Müller, 1774]) sediments and mainly by Vistulial deposits of dominantly fluvioperiglacial nature (containing shells of Corbicula fluminalis), covered by a rather sheet of Tardiglacial eolian sediments, which dammed and deviated the northward directed upper Pleistocene drainage. An outline of the evolution of the Flemish Valley is presented and describes outcrops in eo Vistulian, meso Vistulian, fini Vistulian and Tardiglacial infillings of the valley, especially focusing on fossil periglacial structures, their nature and their paleoclimatic meaning n a stratigraphical and paleomorphological framework.

DeMoor, G. and I. Heyse. 1974. Litostratigrafie van de kwartaire afzettingen in de overgangszone tussen de kustvlake en de Vlaamse Vallei in noordwest Belgie. Natuurwetenschappelijk Tijdschrift 56:85 109. [Dutch with French and English abstracts]

The lithostratigraphy of Quaternary sediments in the transition zone between the coastal plain and the Flemish Valley of Northwest Belgium are described. Fossils of Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) are found in estuarine sediments.

DeMoor, G. and I. Heyse. 1978. Depots quaternaires et geomorphologie dans le nord ouest de la Flandre. Bulletin Société Belge Geologie 87(1):37 47. [French]

Fossil plant and animal remains (including Corbicula fluminalis [Müller, 1774] are discussed in relation to the geomorphology of the Quaternary deposits of northwest Flanders.

DeMoor, G. and M. Lootens. 1975. Corbicula fluminalis occurrences in some Quaternary sediments from Lys Valley south of Deinze Belgium. Natuurwetenshappelijk Tijdschrift (Natga) 15(5):165 184.

Borings and excavations in the neopleistocene Lys Valley provide new information about the Quaternary deposits and about the maximal extension of the Eemian transgression in the Deinze St. Baafs Vijve reach of that valley. The erosive valley bottom (with a maximal incision reaching the  14 level) is covered with remnants of an important loamy deposit with sandy lenses containing Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) and Cardium edule. Locally the strongly eroded top sill reaches the +3 level. That Eemian sediment has principally a fluviatile origin, but the sandy digitations witness to the temporary estuary invasions coming from the northerly situated large Eemian Flemish Valley embayment. A new incision, dating from the very early Wuermian, has been followed by a sandy fluvioperiglacial aggradation. Only locally a second loamy complex and a second sandy layer are present. The overlying loamy sediments, also of Wuermian age, are mostly snow thaw runoff sediments originated from previous niveo eolian deposits. Nevertheless, east of the Lys of the lithofacies is much more sandy than west of the river. A new incision preceded the deposition of a third sandy fluvioperiglacial complex, again crossing the whole valley and sill of Wuermian age. Finally, only west of the Lys, occurs a sandy loam cover while discontinuous, mainly peaty and loamy clayey post Wuermian deposits fill the flood plains of the present day watercourses. A local lithostratigraphic sequence is established and a description of the different lithostratigraphic units is given. A sedimentogenic interpretation and a lithostratigraphic correlation of the Flemish Valley sediments are given and a chronostratigraphic interpretation is proposed. The latter is partly based upon malacologic determinations, palynologic analyses and radiocarbon datings.

Denahena, R. S. 1947. Biological sketch of the Yalaminskikh River. ^ Trudy Institutea Zoologiskii Akademyii Nauk Azerbaijan C.C.R. 12: [Russian]

Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) is reported from the Yalaminskikh River basin.

Deng, D., H. Li, W. Hu, Q. Zhou and L. Guo. 2005. [Effects of eutrophication on distribution and population density of Corbicula fluminea and Bellamya sp. in Chaohu Lake]. The Journal of Applied Ecology 16(8):1502-1506.

The investigation on the distribution an d population density of C. fluminea and Bellamya sp. in Chaohu Lake during September 2001 and September 2002 showed that in the west region of the lake where was seriously eutrophic, the density and biomass of C. fluminea were 5.1 ind. x m-2) and 17.87 g x m-2 in 2001, and 8.8 ind. x m-2 and 47.29 g x m-2 in 2002, while those of Bellamya sp. were 13.3 ind. x m-2 and 45.45 g x m-2 in 2001, and 3.8 ind. x m-2 and 12.56 g x m-2 in 2002, respectively. In the east region of the lake where was eutrophic, the density and biomass of C. fluminea were 23.8 ind. x m(-2) and 67.86 g x m-2 in 2001, and 29.2 ind. x m-2 and 96.18 g x m-2 in 2002, while those of Bellamya sp. were 10.1 ind. x m-2 and 32.00 g x m-2 in 2001, and 9.4 ind. x m-2 and 31.21 g x m-2 in 2002, respectively. The density and biomass of C. fluminea and Bellamya sp. were declined with increasing eutrophication. In hypertrophic region, C. fluminea and Bellamya sp. were absent. The density and biomass of the two species were obviously higher in littoral than in pelagic region. The distribution type of C. fluminea was core-model, while that of Bellamya sp. was random. The correlation between the density and biomass of C. fluminea and Bellamya sp. and water depth was not significant (P > 0.05). The biomass of Bellamya sp. was negatively correlated with water TN (P < 0.01), NO3-N (P < 0.05), TP(P < 0.01) and PO4-P (P < 0.05), while that of C. fluminea only had a significantly negative correlation with PO4-P(P < 0.05). Compared with 1981, there was fewer C. fluminea in the lake nowadays. The effects of other environmental factors on the population distribution and growth of C. fluminea and Bellamya sp. were also discussed.

Denizot, D. 1917. Observations sur les dépôts superficiels de la vallée de l'Aisne, dans la région de Sainte Menéhould. Comptes Rendus de la Société Géologique France 5(9):173 174.

Deshayes, G. P. 1830 1832. Histoire des Vers par Bruguiére et Lamarck, complété par Deshayes. IN: Encyclopédie Méthodique, Vol. II.

Lamarckian species of Corbicula are discussed and described.

Deshayes, G. P. 1854. Descriptions of new shells from the collection of Hugh Cuming, esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 22:317 371.

Corbicula ambigua sp. nov. is described (p. 345) from the Euphrates River; Corbicula bengalensis sp. nov. is described (p. 344) from Bengal, India; Corbicula bensonii sp. nov. is described (p. 345) from Bengal, India; Corbicula cashmiriensis sp. nov. is described (p. 344) from India; Corbicula convexa sp. nov. is described (p. 342) from Mexico; Corbicula grandis sp. nov. is described (p. 344) from China; Corbicula incrassata is described from an unknown habitat; Corbicula malaccensis sp. nov. is described (p. 343) from the streams of Malacca; Corbicula obscura sp. nov. is described (p. 342) from an unknown locality; Corbicula obsoleta sp. nov. is described (p. 343) from Uruguay; Corbicula semisulcata sp. nov. is described (p. 343) from Australia; Corbicula squalida sp. nov. is described (p. 342) from the Philippine Islands; Corbicula striatella sp. nov. (p. 344) and Corbicula tribeniensis are described from Pondicherry, India; Corbicula sulcatina sp. nov. is described (p. 345) from Canton, China; and Corbicula tumida sp. nov. is described (p. 343) from Borneo.

Deshayes, G. P. 1854. ^ Catalogue of the Conchifera or Bivalve Shells in the Collection of the British Museum. Part II. Petricoladae (sic) (concluded); Corbiculadae (sic). Taylor and Francis (London). 218 234 pp.

Known species of bivalves in the genus Corbicula are redescribed or their descriptions republished. They are: Corbicula consobrina, Corbicula cor, Corbicula pusilla, Corbicula radiata, Corbicula africana, all from Africa; Corbicula fluminalis, Corbicula ambigua, all from Asia; Corbicula occidens, Corbicula bensoni, Corbicula bengalensis, Corbicula striatella, Corbicula trigona, Corbicula cashmirensis, all from India; Corbicula woodiana, Corbicula grandis, Corbicula similis, Corbicula largillierti, Corbicula recurvata, Corbicula fluminea, Corbicula fluviatilis, Corbicula orientalis, Corbicula nitens, all from China; Corbicula compressa, Corbicula moussoni, Corbicula pulchella, Corbicula rivalis, all from Java; Corbicula cumingii, from Luzon, Philippine Islands; Corbicula malaccensis from Malacca; Corbicula tumida from Borneo; Corbicula ovalina, Corbicula australis, Corbicula nepeanensis, Corbicula semisulcata, all from Australia; Corbicula obsoleta, Corbicula cuneata, Corbicula paranensis, Corbicula limosa, Corbicula convexa, Corbicula brasiliana, Corbicula variegata, all from South America. Other species described from unknown localities include: Corbicula pullata, Corbicula obscura, Corbicula incrassata, Corbicula squalida, Corbicula sulcatina, and Corbicula triangularis. Dubious species include Corbicula debilis, Corbicula euphratica and Corbicula trigonella.

Deshayes, G. P. 1856   1865. Description des Animaux sans Vertebrates Decouverts dans le Bassin de Paris pour Servir de Supplement a la Description des Coquilles Fossiles des Environs de Paris Comprenant une Revue General de Toutes les Especes Actullement Conues. J. B. Bailliene et fils (Paris). Vol. 2, 1814 pp.

^ Cyrena acutangularis (=Corbicula acutangularis) is described from the Eocene of Europe; Cyrena angusta (=Corbicula angusta) and Corbicula planulata are described from Eocene sediments of the Paris Basin.

Detterman, R. L. and D. L. Jones. 1974. Mesozoic fossils from Augustine Island, Cook Inlet, Alaska. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 58(5):868 870.

Corbicula sp. (?) may be used as a stratigraphic indicator of the Mesozoic in Alaska.

Devillers, C. and J. M. Peres. 1939. Notes sur quelques gisements de coquilles fluviatiles du Sahara Centrale. Bulletin Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 11(5):437 478.

Quaternary beds of the Erg of Tihodaine, near Amquid, central Sahara, yielded sub fossil and living freshwater molluscs including Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774).

Diaz, R. J. 1974. Asiatic clam, Corbicula manilensis (Philippi), in the tidal James River, Virginia. Chesapeake Science 15(2):118 120.

Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1841) is reported from the James River between Richmond (River Mile 80) and Hog Island (River Mile 30). C. manilensis was also taken from three transects of the Appomattox River. The date of invasion of the James River is believed to be 1968 or earlier. Notes on ecology of these bivalves in the river and notes on industrial foulings are also presented.

Diaz, R. J. 1989. Pollution and Tidal Benthic Communities of the James River Estuary, Virginia. Hydrobiologia 180:195-211.

Distribution of benthic communities in the estuarine portion of the James River is controlled mainly by salinity. Pollution effects were localized and difficult to assess because of a rigorous physical environment. Mesohaline and oligohaline communities were very similar to those in other estuaries of the eastern United States. Macrobenthic densities were most severely depressed in tidal freshwater habitats near Richmond and Hopewell, where the major portion of the pollution load enters the river. Cluster analysis of species distributional patterns and ordination of pollution and physical parameters produced similar results, dividing the river into mesohaline, oligohaline , and upper and lower tidal freshwater zones. Further analysis of only the tidal freshwater portion indicated the distribution of benthic communities reflected the location and concentration of pollution sources along the river. Tidal freshwater communities were dominated by the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, tubificid oligochaetes of the genus Limnodrilus and the chironomid insect larva Coelotanypus scapularis. The fauna of the freshwater zones was very eurytopic with respect to sediment type and has a great resemblance to the fauna of eutrophic lakes. The classical concept of a shaper increase in number of species occurring from oligohaline to freshwater zones is found misleading. This increase does not occur until free flowing (or lotic) freshwater areas of greater habitat diversity are reached.

Diaz, R. J. 1994. Response of tidal freshwater macrobenthos to sediment disturbance. Hydrobiologia 278(1-3).

The macrobenthic fauna in the tidal freshwater James River, Virginia, USA, exhibited a high degree of resilience and limited temporal response to sediment disturbance caused by large quantities of low bulk density (< 1.3 g cm-3)) fluid mud. The fluid mud was produced by hydraulic dredge deepening of a ship channel with disposal of dredged sediments onto a nearby shoal. The response of tidal freshwater communities to fluid mud was limited to mainly quantitative changes in abundance of dominant taxa (Limnodrilus spp., L. hoffmeisteri, Ilyodrilus templetoni, Corbicula fluminea, Coelotanypus scapularis) and was directly related to the thickness of fluid mud layers. Disturbance effects were short lived and for tubificids most obvious in areas with > 0.3 m fluid mud. In areas that received < 0.3 m fluid mud, acute effects were limited to chironomids and small (< 10 mm) C. fluminea. The fauna colonizing the areas disturbed by fluid mud was the same as that inhabiting the shoal prior to disturbance. There was no indication of a successional sequence, as reported for other freshwater and marine habitats. Three weeks after the disturbance ended, all but a few insect taxa had recolonized. Changes in community structure from fluid mud disturbance were slight with total taxa best characterizing the disturbance. The insensitivity of community structure measures reflects the high resiliency of macrobenthic communities to physical stresses in tidal freshwater systems.

Diaz, R. J. and D. F. Boesch. 1976. ^ An Assessment of the Acute Impacts of the James River/Windmill Point Habitat Development Site of the Macrobenthic Community. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Effects Laboratory Report. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (Gloucester Point). 65 pp.

Quantitative macrofaunal sampling was conducted November 1974, July 1975, and December 1975 in the area of Windmill Point on the tidal freshwater James River, Virginia. Sediments ranged from coarse sand on shore to mud in the channel. Depths ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 m. Benthic communities were dominated by the bivalve Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1841), the oligochaetes Limnodrilus spp., Ilyodrilus templetoni, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and larvae of the insects Coelotanypus scapularis and Hexagenia mingo. The dominant organisms are generally eutrophic with respect to sediments, many had higher densities in muddy sediments, although C. manilensis preferred sand. Large numbers of small C. fluminea (< 10 mm) were taken during all sampling periods and from shell length frequency distributions of the populations it is very doubtful that more than a fraction of a percent survived from one sampling to the next. Large C. manilensis (> 10 mm) which composed less than 0.25% of the benthic fauna accounted for about 70% of the biomass, except December 1975 when their contribution was only 7%. Small C. manilensis contributed about 4% to the benthid biomass, except in December when a large number of clams in the 6 to 10 mm range increased C. manilensis' contribution to 22%. Many other aspects of C. manilensis' ecology are discussed.

Diaz, R. J. and D. F. Boesch. 1977. Habitat Development Field Investigations, Windmill Point Marsh Development Site, James River, Virginia. Appendix C. Environmental impacts of marsh development with dredged material: acute impact on the macrobenthic community. Technical Report D 77 23, U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) and Virginia Institute of Marine Science (Gloucester Point). 158 pp. [Also NTIS AD A055 319/8]

Macrobenthos was sampled in a tidal freshwater portion of the James River, Virginia, near Windmill Point, in the area of construction of a wetlands habitat from dredged material. The benthic communities in the area of the habitat development site were dominated by Corbicula manilensis; the oligochates Limnodrilus spp., Ilyodrilus templetoni, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, and larvae of the insects Coelotanypus scapularis and Hexagenia mingo. The dominant organisms are generally eurytopic with respect to sediments; many had higher densitied in muddy sediments, although C. manilensis preferred sand. Most of the important species were highly opportunistic and thus the community was able to recover quickly from perturbations. This characteristic minimized the effects of habitat development. Acute impacts were detected at he habitat site where organisms were buried by construction and at the excavation where organisms were removed along with the sand and gravel used in construction of the dike. Long term changes associated with the habitat were limited to areas of gross sediment alteration, such as at the excavation and dike perimeter. No other broad scale effects, acute or long term, could be detected that were attributable to the habitat construction. More extensive acute effects due to sedimentation may have occurred but, because of its resilience, the community was able to recover in the 6 months that lapsed before postconstruction sampling.

Diaz, R. J. and D. F. Boesch. 1977. Impact of Fluid Mud Dredged Material on Benthic Communities in the Tidal James River, Virginia. U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Technical Report D 77 45. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (Gloucester Point). 38 pp.

Dietz, T. H. 1977. Solute and water movement in freshwater bivalve mollusks (Pelecypoda; Unionidae; Corbiculidae; Margaratiferidae). IN: Water Relations in Membrane Transport in Plants and Animals, A. M. Jungreis, T. K. Hodges, A. Kleinzeller and S. G. Schultz, Eds. Academic Press (New York). pp. 111 119.

The blood composition of Corbicula manilensis is significantly different from other bivalves in having NaCl as the predominant salt and little bicarbonate. Rates of ion transport in C. manilensis was higher than that observed in other freshwater bivalves and may reflect the more recent immigration of the species from brackish to freshwater environments.

Dietz, T. H. 1979. Uptake of sodium and chloride in freshwater mussels. ^ Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:156 160.

Ion transport rates were measured in six species representing four families of freshwater bivalves in North America. Sodium and chloride transport systems function independently in all of the species. The unionid steady state influx of Na and Cl was about 1 ìequiv/g dry tissue/hr. Margaritifera hembeli Na influx was about 5 ìequiv/g dry tissue/hr and they were in a positive Na and Cl balance. Chloride influx by M. hembeli was similar to the unionids. The Sphaeriacea transport Na and Cl at significantly higher rates than Unionacea. Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 184l) Na and Cl influx was about 9 ìequiv/g dry tissue/hr. Sphaerium transversum Cl influx was similar to C. manilensis; however, Na influx was twice as high. The higher transport rates of the Sphaeriacea are similar to brackish water animals. Sodium, Ca and Cl are major ions in the blood of all species. Bicarbonate is a major anion (9 12 mM/L) in all species except C. manilensis (4 mM/L).

Dietz, T. H. 1985. Ionic regulation in freshwater mussels: a brief review. American Malacological Bulletin 3(2):233 242.

Ionic regulation is reviewed for several species of freshwater mussels and Corbicula fluminea.

Dillwyn, L. W. 1817. A Descriptive Catalogue of Recent Shells Arranged According to the Linnaean Method; with Particular Attention to the Synonomy, Vol. I. (London). 508 pp.

Dime, R. A. 1982. Environmental Fate of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 143 pp.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues are found in most biological and environmental samples. Environmental sources, including use (seed dressing), HCB contaminated pesticides, and certain industrial wastes have introduced approximately 2 x 104 metric tons to the environment. Information on environmental mobility and transformations of HCB presently are limited; water solubility, volitalization, soil absorption, photochemistry, mollusk bioconcentration are reported.

HCB solubility in distilled water is 3 ìg/L (16oC), slightly higher in filtered river water; solubility in artificial seawater is not significantly different. Amberlite XAD 4 resin is efficient at removing HCB from solution, but HCB is poorly desorbed; even solvent elution, Soxhlet extraction, and mechanical agitation of wet and dry resin provides <60% recoveries.

HCB volatilitizes from water with a half life of hours, unaffected by the presence of dodecanol film. HCB is adsorbed rapidly and strongly on soil; Freundlich adsorption coefficients of 170, 320, and 2500 were found for soils with 0.23, 1.8, and 5.0% organic carbon, respectively, providing a linear relationship. Adsorption on submerged sediments is slow, with no equilibrium in 142 hrs, and only 45% was desorbed within 145 hrs.

Corbicula manilensis rapidly accumulates HCB from water to a bioconcentration factor about 3 x 104. Rate constants for uptake and depuration and the half life for elimination were determined.

HCB undergoes slow photolysis in aqueous solution to pentachlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene isomers but not pentachlorophenol. Methanol had little effect on photolysis, but 2% acetone reduced the half life from 284 to 104 hrs. Rates of photolysis and photoproduct distribution are similar for photoreactor and outdoor experiments. Corbicula manilensis does not metabolize HCB.

Most HCB eventually is released to the atmosphere, and volitalization of HCB from inadequate waste control landfills represents a major problem. Once released, HCB is extremely mobile and distributes into the atmosphere and water environments and, eventually into the biota. HCB is stable to normal routes of environmental breakdown except for limited photolysis in aqueous solution; metabolism is very slow at best. Consequently, as the environmental release of hexachlorobenzene exceeds its rate of removal, levels will remain constant or even increase until sources are controlled or eliminated.

DiStefano, R. J. 1984. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Horse Lick Creek, Rockcastle River, Kentucky. The Nautilus 98:(3) 110 113.

A survey of the mussel fauna of Horse Lick Creek, a 26.2 km tributary of the Rockcastle River, was conducted from the fall of 1982 through the summer of 1983. Twenty two species of mussels and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) were recorded, including the endangered Pegias fabula. The stream appears to be one of the last refuges for several Cumberlandian species in Kentucky.

Djajasasmita, M. 1975. On the species of the genus Corbicula from Celebes, Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae). Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam 4:83 87.

The systematics, distribution, and ecology of Corbicula lindoensis Kruimel, 1913, and Corbicula subplanata von Martens, 1897, are discussed.

Djajasasmita, M. 1977. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae). Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam 6(1):1 9.

The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana von Martens, 1900, C. moltkiana Prime, 1978, C. sumatrana Clessin, 1879, C. tobae von Martens, 1900, and C. tumida Deshayes, 1854, from Sumatra; C. javanica Mousson, 1849, C. pulchella (Mousson, 1848), and C. rivalis (`Busch' Philippi, 1850), from Java; C. bitruncata von Martens, 1908, and C. pullata Philippi, 1850, from Borneo; C. lindoensis Bollinger, 1914, C. loehensis Kruimel, 1913, C. matannensis Sarasin and Sarasin, 1898, and C. subplanata von Martens, 1897, from Celebes; C. australis (Lamarck, 1818), from Timor and C. debilis (Gould, 1850) from New Guinea. A Philippine species, C. squalida Deshayes, 1854, is added as a new record.

Djajasasmita, M. 1977. A new species of freshwater clam from Java, Indonesia (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). The Veliger 19(4):425 426.

Corbicula lacunae sp. nov. is described (pp. 425 426) and figured (fig. 1) from Rawa Senggreng, Java, Indonesia.

Djajasasmita, M. 1985. Molluscan fauna of the two stream rivers of Riau. Berita Biologi 3(3):121 124. [In Indonesian with English summary]

A preliminary study on the composition and population density of the molluscan fauna in the streams of the rivers Tiwi (stony and sandy bottom) and Tandun Kecil (clay and mud bottom), in Riau, East Sumatra, was carried out in July 1977. The molluscs collected were Brotia costula, Clea bocki and Corbicula moltkiana in the Tiwi River and B. costula, Pseudodon vondembuschianus and Rectiden gracilis in Tandun Kecil River. B. costula dominate in both localities, 86.08% and 72.58%, respectively; the other species range from 2.42% to 25%. In general, both localities have low molluscan density, 41.2/m2 and 26.8/m2, respectively. The food condition is rather sufficiently available, the water quality may support the molluscan life, the physical conditions, however, seem to be less suitable.

Doello Jurado, M. 1927. Noticia preliminar sobre los molluscos fosiles de agua dulce mencionados en el precedente estudio de R. Wichman. Boletin de la Academia de Nacional de Ciencies Naturales de Argentina (Cordoba) 30:407 416.

Three fossils are from the "Dinosaur Beds", upper Cretaceous, in the territories of the Rio Negro, Patigonia, Argentina. The illustrations of the species are incorporated in an accompanying paper by R. Wichmann (Sobre la facies lacustre senoniana de los estratos con dionsaurios y su fauna). Corbicula dinosauriorum sp. nov. (p. 415) and Corbicula pehuenchensis sp. nov. (pp. 407 416) are described.

Doering, A. 1875. Molluscorum terrestrium et fluviatilium fauna Argentinae. Periodico Zoologico (Buenos Aires) 1:1 8.

Doherty, F. G. 1985. Seasonal patterns of tissue accumulation and resorption in the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea. American Zoologist 25(4):24A. [Abstract]

Adult and juvenile Corbicula fluminea (n=100) were collected once each month from the New River in southwestern Virginia. Data recorded for each individual included shell dimensions and visceral wet and dry weights. Results indicate high degrees of correlation among shell dimensions, between shell dimensions and cube roots of tissue weights, and between tissue weights (r>90%) within monthly samples. Comparisons between samples reveal seasonal changes in visceral weight relative to shell dimensions and percent body water content. Individuals showed an 81.5% increase in visceral weight over a two month span (February to April) with all size classes demonstrating similar percentage changes in weight. Conversely, percent body water content peaked in February at 88.7% and declined steadily throughout May to 84.4% of total body weight in adults. These trends developed at a time when water temperatures were rapidly increasing. Both changes are thought to be associated with the commencement of reproductive activities.

Doherty, F. G. 1986. A Multidisciplinary Study of the Asiatic Clam, Corbicula fluminea, from the New River, Virginia. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg). 208 pp. [see Dissertation Abstracts International, Part B – Science and Engineering 47(6) .]

Studies were conducted with the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, that examined seasonal periodicities in spawning, body condition, and percent tissue water content. In addition, responses of adults to brief (24 hr) and extended (30 d) periods of exposure to toxicants were investigated. These studies addressed the valve closure behavioral response by adults exposed to chlorine, cadmium, and zinc; the effects of these pollutants and temperature on the levels of metal binding protein in adults; and the efficacy of halogens (chlorine and bromine) in providing acceptable levels of Asiatic clam biofouling control. Spawning periodicity of C. fluminea was monitored weekly for 8 months in 1984. Observations revealed that spawning occurred on three distinct occasions with peaks in release of veligers in June, August, and October. Percent tissue water content and body condition were monitored monthly in 1985. Significant differences in these parameters were observed among certain months and among size classes. Tissue water content and body condition in the largest individuals were inversely related. Periods of activity (valves parted) and quiescence (valves closed) were determined in the absence and presence of toxicants by continuously monitoring valve movement patterns. Data indicate that the duration of activity periods and toxicant exposure concentration are inversely related. Application of these observations to efforts to control Asiatic clam fouling in industrial water lines resulted in a reduction in the total levels of molluscicide required. Exposure of clams to low levels of chlorine (0.25 mg/L total residual chlorine) induced valve closure that resulted in weakened clams after two weeks that were more susceptible to increased levels of chlorine. The levels of a metallothionein-like metal binding protein (MBP) in tissues of C. fluminea following exposure to metal and non-metal stressors were also assessed. In general, exposure to dissolved cadmium resulted in significantly greater levels of MBP than either dissolved zinc, chlorine, or temperature extremes (4 degree , 30oC). Analysis of individual organ groups demonstrated an inverse relationship between sites of MBP synthesis (gills, mantle, and adductor muscles versus visceral mass) and mode of exposure to cadmium (dissolved versus food associated).

Doherty, F. G. 1990. Asiatic clam, Corbicula spp., as a biological monitor in freshwater environments. ^ Environmental Monitoring and Assessment EMASDH 15(2):143-181.

Asiatic clams, Corbicula sp., are filter-feeding freshwater bivalves that are widely distributed, abundant, and fast growing with a lifespan of 1-3 years. A review of the existing literature demonstrates that Asiatic clams can concentrate organic pollutants from both water and sediment and heavy metals from water. In conjunction with these traits, they exhibit a high tolerance for the effects resulting from exposure to toxic substances. While an organism must possess these traits to serve as an effective biological monitor, they have also permitted the Asiatic clam to rapidly colonize natural and industrial environments resulting in purported ecological disturbances and severe economic repercussions, respectively. Its invasive biofouling attributes therefore restrict the use of this clam for biomonitoring purposes from Corbicula-free drainage systems.

Doherty, F. G., D. S. Cherry and J. Cairns, Jr. 1985. Minimization strategies in the use of halogen biocides for the control of the Asiatic Clam, Corbicula fluminea. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Sixth Annual Meeting, St. Louis, MO (USA), 10-13 November.

Doherty, F. G., D. S. Cherry, and J. Cairns, Jr. 1985. Spawning periodicity of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, in the New River, Virginia. American Malacological Bulletin 4(1):116. [Abstract]

Three approaches were used weekly to assess the spawning periodicity of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, in a flow regulated reach of the New River, Virginia, for the duration of the 1984 reproductive season. Data were collected on the number of newly recruited larvae in the New River sediment, number and life stage of larvae naturally released from adults held in laboratory invertebrate culture device, and the degree to which adult brood chambers were charged with developing larvae for which indices were calculated. Periodicity and relative intensity of spawning effort as determined by each approach were generally compatible. These comparisons reveal three major peaks in spawning activity occurring in June to early July, late August, and early October, each from 2 to 6 weeks duration.

Larval sediment concentrations (number/m2) peaked seasonally at 16,000, 18000, 14,000, and 18,000 for the collection days of June 12, July 17, September 4, and October 2, respectively. Larval releases from laboratory held adults peaked seasonally with 1,900 and 1,800 larvae counted per adult for the weeks of August 21, and 1,275 for the week of October 2. Seasonal peaks in brooding indices occurred for the weeks of July 10 and October 2 with values of 3.5 and 2.7 (a maximal value of 4.0), respectively. Midsummer index values never exceeded 1.8 (August 7 and 21, September 4). Spring and fall spawns coincided with rapidly rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. Midsummer spawn occurred during a period when temperatures were relatively stable and never exceeded 26.1oC. These observations do not coincide with previously reported patterns of reproductive efforts by Corbicula fluminea, suggesting that reproductive activity and spawning may be highly site specific.

Doherty, F. G., D. S. Cherry and J. Cairns, Jr. 1987. Spawning periodicity of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea in the New River, Virginia. American Midland Naturalist 117(1):71-82.

Spawning periodicity of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea in the New River, Virginia, is reported. Numbers of newly recruited larvae in the New River sediment, number and life stage of larvae naturally released and collected from adults held in the laboratory, and presence of developing veligers within the brood chambers of sacrificed adults were collected weekly from May to December 1984. Abiotic data collected consist of mean weekly water temperatures, daily total daylight hours for the western Virginia vicinity and mean daily discharge rates. Density of larvae in sediment, total numbers of larvae collected from the laboratory-held adults, and brood chamber condition are all highly similar in timing, duration and intensity of spawning effort. There were three major peaks in larval abundance - late spring, midsummer and early autumn. These observations do not coincide with previously reported patterns of spring and autumn reproductive peaks by Corbicula fluminea.

Doherty, F. G., D. S. Cherry, and J. Cairns, Jr. 1987. Valve closure responses of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea exposed to cadmium and zinc. Hydrobiologia 153(2):159 167.

The valve movement patters of immobilized Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were monitored during exposure to constant concentrations of cadmium (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/L) or zinc (0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9 mg/L) for 24 hrs following a 24 hr acclimation period. Data indicate that the duration of response was concentration dependent and toxicity related. Durations of periods with valves parted declined as the concentration of heavy metal increased. Behavior was consistent for both mean time to first closure following the initial exposure and mean time per valve parting episode over a 24 hr exposure period. Mean time per valve parting episode during the 24 hr exposure period ranged from approximately 600 minutes for control trials to 30 and 69 minutes for the highest concentrations of cadmium and zinc tested, respectively.

Doherty, F. G., D. S. Cherry and J. Cairns, Jr. 1990. Multiseasonal tissue growth trends in ^ Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) from the New River, Virginia. The Nautilus. 104(1):10-15.

Juvenile and adult Corbicula fluminea were collected monthly in 1985 from the New River in Narrows, Virginia. Shell length, shell height, shell inflation, and soft tissue dry weight were recorded for each individual. Regression analyses among all pairs of data sets were calculated monthly. All comparisons among shell dimensions and between shell dimensions and dry tissue weight generated coefficients of determination (R2) greater than or equal to 0.801. In all instances, comparisons between shell dimensions and the cube root of dry tissue weight generated higher R2 values than comparisons between shell dimensions and dry weight. A comparison of monthly regression lines generated between shell secretion and the cube root of dry weight suggests that shell accretion and tissue growth are not equivalent for all individuals in a population and are dependent on initial size of an individual and on season.

Doherty, F. G., M. L. Failla, and D. S. Cherry. 1987. Identification of a metallothionein like heavy metal binding protein in the freshwater bivalve, Corbicula fluminea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, C, Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology 87(1):113 120.

Corbicula fluminea possesses a heat stable, heavy metal binding protein (HMBP) with an apparent molecular weight similar to that of rat liver metallothionein (MT). Significant increases (1.2   1.6 fold) in the concentrations of HMBP were observed following 30 day exposures to either temperature extremes (4o or 30oC), chlorine (0.29 mg/L total residual Cl), or dissolved zinc (0.50 mg/L). Exposure to dissoled cadmium (0.10 mg/L) for 30 days in two separate studies resulted in 1.8  and 2.8 fold increases in HMBP levels. Exposure to dissolved cadmium (< 0.01, 0.10, 0.59, and 0.99 mg/L) for 42 days resulted in the greatest increases in HMBP occurring at 0.10 mg/L. Together, these results revealed that relative concentrations of MT like HMBP in tissues were differently influenced by the type, concentration, and duration of exposure to a stressor.

Doherty, F. G., M. L. Failla and D. S. Cherry. 1988. Metallothionein-like heavy metal binding protein levels in Asiatic clams are dependent on the duration and mode of exposure to cadmium. Water Research 22(7):927-932.

Tissue concentrations of cadmium and metallothionein-like heavy-metal binding protein (MT-like HMBP) were highly correlated (correlation coefficient = 0.97) during a continuous 30-day exposure of Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) to dissolved Cd (0.10 mg/l). Continuous exposure of Asiatic clams to dissolved Cd (0.10 mg/l) for 30 days in a second study revealed that gills, mantle, and adductor muscles (collectively referred to as GMA) had higher concentrations of Cd and MT-like HMBP than visceral mass of the same organism. Ingestion of Cd-contaminated algae by C. fluminea (4 h/day for 15 days) resulted in higher concentrations of Cd and MT-like HMBP in visceral mass than GMA. These data indicate that the levels of Cd and MT-like HMBP in soft tissues of the Asiatic clam are dependent on the duration and mode of exposure to Cd. (Author 's abstract)

Doherty, F. G., J. L. Farris, D. S. Cherry, and J. Cairns, Jr. 1986. Control of the freshwater fouling bivalve ^ Corbicula fluminea by halogenation. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 15(5):535 542.

Mortality levels for adult and juvenile Asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea, were determined after exposure to halogens (chlorine, bromine) in 28 to 32 day laboratory and field (industrial water supply) tests. Low levels of mortality (<53%) were generated in laboratory studies on exposure to constant doses of total residual chlorine (TRC) when mean test temperatures were <16oC. Mortality levels were elevated (>53%) when test specimens were exposed to comparable TRC levels (0.2 to 1.0 mg/L) at temperatures in excess of 18oC. Mortalities generated among adults by an initial 14 day low dose (0.25 mg/L TRC) followed by an 18 day high dose (0.50 to 1.0 mg/L; 60 to 95% mortality). Adults and juveniles were comparably sensitive to halogen concentrations adequate for control. There is no substantial difference in the effectiveness of either chlorine or bromine in controlling adult and juvenile stages of C. fluminea. Field studies conducted in the spring and fall produced markedly dissimilar results. Mortality levels during the spring field study exceeded 90% after 28 days of exposure to 0.25 mg/L TRC, while ambient temperatures rose from 20o to 25oC. Mortality levels not exceeding 23% were observed among test organisms after 28 days of exposure to elevated TRC levels (<0.50 mg/L), while ambient temperatures were declining from 20 to 12oC during October and November 1985.

Dohrn, H. 1865. List of the land and freshwater shells of the Zambesi and Lake Nyassa, eastern tropical Africa, collected by John Kirk. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865:231 234.

Cyrena astartina is listed.

Dollfus, G. 1884. Le terrain quaternaire d'Ostende et le Corbicula fluminalis. Mémoires Société Malacologique Belgique 19:1 29.

Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) is reported from Quaternary sediments of the Oise Valley.

Doornbos, G., A. M. Groenedijk, and Y. W. Jo. 1986. Nakdong Estuary Barrage and Reclamation Project: Preliminary results of the botanical, macrozoobenthic and ornithological studies. Biological Conservation 38(2):115 142.

During the course of the Nakdong Estuary Barrage and Reclamation project, vegetation, macrozoobenthos, and birds were studied in the Nakdong River Delta, Republic of Korea. This paper reports preliminary results obtained during October  November 1983. The total biomass of Scirpus triqueter, the estuaries most important foodplant for water fowl (mainly swans) was assessed at approximately 38.3 tons dry wt. Of this amount, only the roots and rhizomes (9.6 tons dry wt) are expected to be consumed by birds. Aquatic weeds in the nearby fresh Jukrim branch provided another food source (5.8 tons dry wt). The wintering waterfowl also used other feeding areas such as farmland and freshwater impoundments   almost all herbivorous birds participated in nightly feeding migrations. At 12 stations, spread over 20.4 km2 of intertidal flats of the estuary, a total of 40 macrozoobenthic species were found. Crustaceans dominated with 19 species, while molluscs and polychaetes were represented by 11 and 10 species, respectively. For all stations together, an average biomass of 14.6 g ash free dry wt (ADW)/m2 (range 3.1   51.9 g) was calculated, dominated by molluscs with 9.5 g, while the share of crustaceans and polychaetes was only 2.9 g and 2.2 g, respectively. In terms of weight, the bivalve Corbicula japonica was dominant with an average of 4.4 d ADW/m2. During the censuses, 10,000 waders and 25,000 to 30,000 waterfowl were counted. Among them were two species not recorded before in Korea; the ruff and the canvasback. Of all nonpasserines, the widgeon (with a peak of 6,800) and the dunlin (with a peak of 9,100) were most numerous, while the ducks proved to be the most dominant (64%) group of birds. In the beginning of October the wader density in the estuary was 5.2 birds/ha2 intertidal area exposed at low tide.

Dorband, W. R. 1980. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Lower Snake River Reservoir System. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Idaho. 172 pp.

An extensive postimpoundment limnological investigation was completed for Lower Granite Reservoir on the lower Snake River in 1975 1977. As a part of the investigation, a two year survey of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the lower Snake reservoir system was completed. Both hard and soft substrata communities were sampled from March 1976 through August 1977. Community structures, population dynamics of dominant taxa, species associations, and causal environmental factors were studied on three lower Snake River reservoirs; Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Ice Harbor.

Sediment compositions and bottom morphometries were related to discharge patterns of the reservoirs, and sediment deposition or erosion processes. Silt clay sediments dominated the soft bottom habitats, with larger percentages of sand present in upriver sections of Lower Granite and Little Goose, and throughout Ice Harbor Reservoir. A possible heavy silt bedload (particle size 0.020   0.062 mm) hypothesis is offered to explain sedimentation in the reservoirs. Hard substrata (talus slopes, rip rap, and old river channel rubble) comprised about 50% of the bottom area. Steep sided banks minimized littoral areas.

Hard substratum benthos colonizations showed few obvious seasonal trends. Trichoptera, ephemeroptera, and diptera (Chironomidae) dominated the hard substratum communities. Spatially, the two river arm stations had the highest abundances of macroinvertebrates, while stations in Little Goose reservoir displayed very depauperate communities. The hard substratum communities in the system were in a state of flux, as remnant riverine forms were being replaced by lentic taxa.

Soft sediment benthic communities were of similar composition throughout the system, but dominant taxa declined from upstream through downstream stations. Tubificid oligochaetes were the most abundant taxa comprising more than 60% of the mean numbers present. Two chironomids, Procladius bellus and Chironomus plumosus, were the next most abundant taxa, comprising more than 80% of the non oligochaete density. Corbicula manilensis was abundant in Little Goose Reservoir and was surprisingly rare in the other two reservoirs. A total of 71 other taxa was collected at the reservoir sampling sites throughout the study, but were of low relative importance.

A possibly important relationship between Procladius bellus, Chironomus plumosus, and other members of the benthic communities was hypothesized. This relationship involved ^ P. bellus's possible position as a "keystone predator", using C. plumosus as a preferred prey. Association comparisons indicated that community structure (density) was positively influenced by abundances of oligochaetes.

Procladius bellus was trivoltine throughout most of the reservoir system, having spring, summer, and late fall emergencies with P/B ratios of about 4.0. ^ Corbicula manilensis had two annual spatfalls in Little Goose Reservoir with a three year life cycle.

Depth was the only environmental factor obviously related to species distributions in the reservoirs. Sediment habitat characteristics seemed to fall within tolerable ranges for species in the communities and therefore did not correlate linearly with species abundance. Successional changes in the reservoirs and community interactions were more important in molding benthic compositions than were macrohabitat characteristics.

Doherty, Francis G. 1986. ^ A multidisciplinary study of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, from the New River, Virginia. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg). xiii+193 pp.

Doyen, P., P. Vasseur and F. Rodius. 2005. cDNA cloning and expression pattern of pi-class glutathione S-transferase in the freshwater bivalves Unio tumidus and Corbicula fluminea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology and Pharmacology 140(3-4):300-308.

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes involved in major detoxification reactions of xenobiotics in many organisms. The aim of this work was the identification of GST transcripts in the freshwater bivalves ^ Unio tumidus and Corbicula fluminea. We used degenerated primers designed in the highly conserved regions of GST to amplify the corresponding mRNA. Full-length coding sequences were obtained by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. In the two species, the GST cDNAs identified encoded a protein of 205 amino acids. The comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with GSTs from other species showed that the enzymes belong to the pi-class and the amino acids defining the binding sites of glutathione (G-site) and for xenobiotic substrates (H-site) are highly conserved. Specific amplifications of the GST mRNA from U. tumidus and C. fluminea were performed on the digestive gland, the excretory system and the gills. For each mussel, the results revealed that the pi-class GSTs are expressed at the same level in the three tissues.

Dreher Mansur, M. C., C. Schulz, M da Graca Oliveira da Silva and N. M. R. de Campos-Velho. 1991. 1991. Moluscos bivalves limnicos da Estacao Ecologica do Taim e areas adjacentes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil [Limnic bivalve molluscs from Taim Ecological Station and adjacent areas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. Iheringia, Serie Zoologia 71:43-58. [Portuguese]

A survey of mussel fauna within the Taim Ecological Station and surrounding area located at the plain coast between the Atlantic Ocean and Mirim Lagoon, extreme South Brazil, was conducted from October 1985 to January 1987. Thirteen native species and the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea were recorded; nine reported for the first time for the Station and five for the Mirim Lagoon basin. The habitat preference of each species is commented, as well as the variability concerning Unionoida shell forms of a same clam species inhibiting adjacent lagoons and also between the population of the Taim and those of other neighboring basins in the Uruguay and those in the Guaiba and Patos Lagoon, in South Brazil.

Dreier, H. and J. A. Tranquilli. 1981. Reproduction, growth, distribution, and abundance of Corbicula in an Illinois cooling lake. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 34(4):378 393.

The spawning season, growth rate, and population density of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) were examined in the intake, discharge, and control arms of Lake Sangchris, a cooling lake for a 1,232 MW coal fired electrical generating station. Clams in areas adjacent to the power plant were observed to obtain data that might aid in controlling this organism, which had the potential of becoming a serious fouling agent at the station. Major spawning seasons were observed in all three arms of the lake during the spring and fall.

The average annual growth of clams caged in the discharge arm was significantly greater (P<0.05) than the growth of clams in the intake and control arms, and was attributed to the extended growth period made possible by the heated water. The annual growth of marked individuals was inversely proportional to original length, small clams growing faster than large clams. Estimates of annual growth based on the growth of caged clams indicated that lengths of 21, 31, 36, and 40 mm were reached by clams in the discharge arm after 1, 2, 3, and 4 years of life, respectively.

The C. fluminea population density varied inversely with depth; higher concentrations were found in substrates composed of 2 10 cm of loose sand, silt, or clay over hard clay than were found in areas where a thick layer of loose silt was present. In littoral areas, the mean clam density was higher in all sections of the cooling loop (25 67 clams per square meter) except the discharge canal that it was in the control arm (8 clams per square meter), suggesting that the population in the cooling loop benefited from power plant operations.

A clam die off apparently occurred in the vicinity of the discharge canal as a result of highly elevated water temperatures (up to 40oC) during the summer of l975, but by February 1976 the canal had been repopulated. A low survival rate for young of the year individuals (<5 mm in length) was indicated in Lake Sangchris, because larger clams comprised only 12% of the total clam population. Predation by fishes in the lake was presumed to be a major cause of mortality for smaller clams.

Dresler, P. V. and R. L. Cory. 1980. The Asiatic clam, ^ Corbicula fluminea (Müller), in the tidal Potomac River, Maryland. Estuaries 3(2):150 151.

Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) has extended its range to include the tidal freshwater portion of the Potomac River, Maryland. Though patchily distributed, the clams have attained densities of 665 per square meter. Size class distributions indicate that the clams first appeared in 1975. About 90% of the population belong to year class I and were less than 12 mm in length. Fouling of the Potomac Electric Power Company Plant at Alexandria, Virginia, is described.

Dreves, D. P., T. J. Timmons and J. Henson. 1996. Age, growth, and food of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens (Sciaenidae), in Kentucky Lake, Kentucky/Tennessee. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 57(1):22-26.

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have recently been discovered in the lower Tennessee River. Information on age and growth rates of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in Kentucky Lake, Kentucky/Tennessee, before colonization of zebra mussels is important, especially if freshwater drum were to be managed to control expansion of this rapidly spreading exotic. Age and growth of freshwater drum in Kentucky Lake were determined from fish supplied by local commercial fishermen in 1985 and 1986. Growth in the reservoir was generally slower than in other bodies of water. The diet of freshwater drum was also examined to determine feeding habits. The fish were feeding on the exotic mussel Corbicula fluminea. Zebra mussels in the diet of freshwater drum have already been documented for Lake Erie. These facts suggest that once zebra mussels colonize Kentucky Lake, freshwater drum will be a substantial predator on them.

Duarte, M. M. and C. O. Diefenbach. 1994. Microdistribution and abundance of freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Unionacea and Corbiculacea) in Suzana Lake, southern Brazil. ^ Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 29(4):233-250.

Freshwater mussels from a small lake in southern (subtropical) Brazil are analized in their distribution and abundance. The mussels were sampled through transects using quadrats of 1 m-2. The individuals were manually collected with SCUBA and free diving. Data on substrate type, percentual of plant cover and depth were also recorded. A total of 443 m-2 were sampled in the lake. Four species of Unionacea (Diplodon charruanus, Anodontites trapesialis, Anodontites (cf.) patagonicus, Monocondylaea minuana) and two of Corbiculacea (Neocorbicula limosa and Corbicula fluminea) are registered. D. charruanus was the most abundant species, occurring in the overall substrates with the greatest mean density (ind. m-2) in the muddy sand subset of the lake. The lowest mean density of this species is on the pure mud subset. M. minuana was restricted to a band of 1.0-1.5 m of depth, sandy substrate. There are indicatives of a crash in the population of A. trapesialis. Only five individuals of A. (cf.) patagonicus were registered. N. limosa and C. fluminea apparently are restricted to a sand shore near and into the outlet channel, though population of the exotic C. fluminea seem is on the rise.

Duarte, M. M., C. L. Schirmer, A. E. De C. Freitas and C. O. Diefenbach. 1996. Habitat selection in freshwater mussels (Mollusca; Bivalvia) in Suzana Lake, southern Brazil. Biociencias 4(2):17-30.

In the present paper we discuss some aspects of the active migration of the freshwater mussels Diplodon charruanus (Hyriidae), Monocondylaea minuana (Mycetopodidae) and Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae) in Suzana Lake, southern Brazil. We relate the behavioral responses of these bivalves to shore receding and to substrate type. D. charruanus and M. minuana actively respond to shore receding moving lakewards. Experiments with adult D. charruanus in different substrates and with juveniles in the lake outlet showed that they have a great mobility (active and passive). C. fluminea showed only vertical migration when subjected to exposure. We also established the relationships between these responses and the distribution of the bivalves in the microhabitats of the lake.

Dubinovs'kyi, V. L., P. D. Bukatchuk, M. I. Voloshyna and H. M. Bilinkis. 1974. Data on the upper Poratin deposits in the region of the Village Buchumyany, the Middle Prut area. ^ Dopovidi Akademii Nauk Ukrayins'koi RSR, Seriya B, Heolohiya Heofizyka Khimiya Biolohiya 36:965 967. [Ukranian with an English and Russian summary]

Geological surveys revealed the Upper Poratian deposits range as far as Branishtya. A mollusc fauna was found near Buchumyany, with ^ Unio procumbens Fuchs., the leading form of the Upper Poratian. Upper Poratian deposits are compared with the 9th terraces of the Dniester and Prut. Union cf. pseudosarius, Limnoscapha sp., Anodonta sp. and Corbicula sp. were also found.

Dudgeon, D. 1977. A comparative study of the Corbiculidae of southern China. IN: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Malacofauna of Hong Kong and Southern China. pp. 37 60.

A study of shell, aging and growth patterns, anatomy, ciliary tracts, respiratory physiology, and filtration rates in three species of corbiculids (Corbicula fluminea [Müller, 1774]. Corbicula fluminalis [Müller, 1774], and Cyrenobatissa subsulcata [Clessin, 1879]) was conducted. The three species were closely similar on the basis of gross anatomy and arrangement of ciliary tracts. The basic plan of the shell was the same in all three species, which could be separated on the basis of size and general appearance though it is emphasized that in Corbicula spp. these characters may not be consistent in populations of the same species from different parts of the geographical range. A Walford plot of C. subsulcata indicated that in South China the animal reached its theoretical maximum size of 77 mm at 5.5 or 11 years of age.

The filtration rates and oxygen consumption of both Corbicula species were investigated. Both of these processes were inversely related to size, decreasing per unit dry weight with increasing size of the bivalve. This relationship applied to both within and between species comparisons. In response to varying particle size regimes, C. fluminalis showed minimal oxygen consumption in substrata of 250 500 ìm particle size. The observed difference was related to the ecology of the species. As in Corbicula spp., the respiration rate of Cyrenobatissa subsulcata was inversely proportional to increasing size; the effect of increasing salinity on this species (up to 10 ppt) was not significant.

These findings were discussed in the light of the successful invasion of the United States by Corbicula in an attempt to provide some information on the possible sources and identities of the invaders. Although the literature suggests that perhaps two Corbicula species have established themselves in North America, the presence of only one, C. fluminea has been confirmed and it is hoped that this study will help to provide some data for use in the determination of the specific identities of these animals. In addition, the study provides information on some aspects of the biology and Ecology of the Corbiculidae of South China thus forming a foundation for further studies of the group.

Dudgeon, D. 1982. Aspects of the desiccation tolerance of four species of benthic Mollusca from Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong. ^ The Veliger 24(3):267 271.

A study of the ability of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774), Thiara scabra (Müller, 1774), Sinotaia quadrata (Benson, 1842), and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [the latter three being prosobranchs] from Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong, to withstand desiccation was undertaken. Large individuals of C. fluminea withstood aerial desiccation much better than smaller ones and allowing the animals to bury themselves in mud prior to desiccation increased survival time in this species. Of the three gastropods and C. fluminea, C. fluminea had the greatest ability to withstand desiccation. The results were discussed with reference to what is known of the biology of these species in Hong Kong and available information concerning molluscs in other regions. It is concluded that aestivating individuals of the test species would not be significant colonizers of the marginal zone of Plover Cove Reservoir when it was flooded in the summer of 1978 following a 2.5 month period of aerial exposure and desiccation.

Dudgeon, D. 1983. The effects of water level fluctuations on a gently shelving marginal zone of Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplementband 65(2 3):163 196.

The effects of water level fluctuations on a gently sloping marginal zone of Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong, were studied in 1978 during a drought followed by a period of monsoonal rains. Hydrological measurements and quantitative collections of the benthic fauna were made, and samples of the sediments, aquatic macrophytes and the terrestrial plants growing on the exposed mud flats were taken. Molluscs dominated the reservoir benthos; those most frequently encountered were the gastropods Thiara scabra, Melanoides tuberculata, Sinotaia quadrata, and Radix plicatulus and the bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774). The growth of M. tuberculata and C. fluminea was studied. Samples of the latter species exhibited an increase in mean shell size with increasing water depth which could be correlated with changes in sediment characteristics. As water levels fell, many individuals of all macrobenthic taxa were stranded. Large numbers of molluscs followed the retreating water margin as it moved down the shore with the result that molluscan abundance was highest in areas of the reservoir bed near to the waters edge. As time progressed animals tended to move away from crowded localities to deeper parts of the reservoir. A large biomass of terrestrial plants was built up during the 2.5 month period of aerial exposure of the marginal zone and these were inundated, along with the dung of cattle which had been feeding on them, when water levels rose in May. The flooded terrestrial plants disappeared quickly due to grazing by reservoir fishes, and the sedimentary detritus pool concomitantly increased. Increases in nutrients (N and P) during flooding may have stimulated the rapid growth of Vallisneria spiralis plants observed in the inundated regions. Other hydrological changes occurring at this time included rises in the Biological Oxygen Demand, suspended solids, pH and conductivity. A reduction in mean particle size and increase in the amounts of organic matter in the marginal zone sediments were noted after reservoir levels rose. Colonization of the newly flooded habitat by M. tuberculata and S. quadrata was very rapid; M. tuberculata was particularly important in this respect and may have been a significant agent in modifying the particle size of the surface muds. Although the recolonization of the inundated marginal zone was not followed through to an equilibrium stage, all of the common benthic species were well represented within 2 months of the onset of flooding. At this time M. tuberculata was still numerically dominant.

Dudgeon, D. and M. W. Yipp. 1983. A report on the gastropod fauna of aquarium fish farms in Hong Kong, with special reference to an introduced human schistosome host species, ^ Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae). Malacological Review l6(1 2):93 94.

The spread of Biomphalaria straminea from fish ponds in Hong Kong is described with a warning that this species could be exported and hence disperse as did Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) in the United States.

Duncan, M., B. Fried, J. Sherma, and G. P. Hoskin. 1987. Lipids and sterols in Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B, Comparative Biochemistry 87(4):881 884.

Gravimetric, histochemical, thin layer, and gas liquid chromatographic studies were done on lipids and sterols in fresh and starved Corbicula fluminea. Gravimetric analysis showed no significant difference in the mean percent lipid of fresh clam bodies (2.2%) versus starved (2.9%). Qualitative thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the main neutral lipid fractions in both fresh and starved clam bodies were free sterols and triacylglycerols along with lesser amount of sterol esters and free fatty acids. Qualitative differences were not seen in fresh versus starved clams. Quantitative densitometric TLC showed no significant difference in the mean percent of free sterols in fresh clam bodies (0.09%) versus starved ().11%). Gas liquid chromatographic analysis showed cholesterol as the main sterol (61.2%) with lesser amounts of campesterol, beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and other minor sterols. Oil Red O histochemistry showed the presence of neutral lipids in the visceral mass and gills of both fresh and straved clams.

Dundee, D. S. 1974. Catalog of introduced molluscs of eastern North America (north of Mexico). Sterkiana 55:1 37.

Zoogeographic records for Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1841) are presented for the following states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia.

Dundee, D. S. and H. A. Dundee. 1958. Extension of known ranges of four mollusks. The Nautilus 72(2):51 53.

Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1841) is reported from Papago Park, Phoenix.

Dundee, D. S. and W. J. Harman. 1963. Corbicula fluminea (Müller) in Louisiana. The Nautilus 77(1):30.

Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) is reported from the Calcasieu River, Bayou Magasille, and Bayou Sorrel from 1961 1962.

Dupont, B. and C. Levéque. 1968. Biomasse en mollusques et nature des fondes dans la zone Est du lac Tchad. Cahiers Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre Mer (Hydrobiologie) 2(2):113 126. [French]

The biomass and density of Corbicula africana (Krauss) is reported for populations in Lake Chad.

Dutta, S. P. S. and Y. R. Malhotra. 1986. Seasonal variations in the macrobenthic fauna of Gadigarh stream (Miran Sahib), Jammu. Indian Journal of Ecology 13(1):138 145.

Studies were made to investigate the seasonal variations of the macrobenthic fauna of Gadigarh stream (Miran Sahib), Jammu, India. Qualitatively, twelve species of molluscs (Viviparous bengalensis [Lamarck], Melanoides (Melanoides) tuberculatus [Müller], Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminata gracilior Martens, Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminata cf. rufescens Gray, Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminata cf. typica Lamarck, Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) luteola cf. australis Annandale and Rao, Indoplanorbis exustus Deshayes, Gyraulus convexiusculus [Hutton], Lamellidens marginalis [Lamarck], Lamellidens corrianus [Lea], Indonaia sp., Corbicula striatella Deshayes), chironomid larvae and oligochaetes were identified in collections made from seven experimental stations. A higher count of oligochaetes and molluscs was recorded from April to May and May to June, respectively, while the count was minimum during the monsoon months. Quantitate production of benthos was maximum on the station situated near the cremation ground, whereas the count was minimum from the station with low density of detritus and gravel bottom.





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