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Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro


Maxillopoda

THECOSTRACA

PAULO S. YOUNG

Museu Nacional

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Class Thecostraca Gruvel, 1905

Superorder Rhizocephala Müller, 1862

Order Kentrogonida Delage, 1884

Family Peltogastridae Lilljeborg, 1860

Genus Peltogaster Rathke, 1843

Peltogaster purpureus (Müller, 1862)

Synonymy: Young, 1993a: 247.

Description and diagnosis: Müller, 1862: 5.

References: Müller, 1862: 5, figs. 5-6; 1863: 32, fig. 7; 1864: 60, figs. 56, 58, 60; 1869: 89, figs. 56, 58, 60; Boschma, 1937: 298; Young, 1993a: 247.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SC).

Comments: Parasite of an unidentified species of Paguroidea.


Peltogaster socialis Muller, 1863

Description and diagnosis: Müller, 1863: 31.

References: Müller, 1863: 31, fig. 6; 1864: 63, fig. 59; 1869: 93, fig. 59; Weltner, 1897: 232.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SC).

Comments: Parasite of an unidentified species of Paguroidea.

Family Sacculinidae Lilljeborg, 1860

Genus Loxothylacus Boschma, 1928

Loxothylacus panopaei (Gissler, 1884)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1975: 197.

Description and diagnosis: Boschma, 1928: 8; 1931: 365.

References: Weisbord, 1975: 197, pl. 26, figs. 8-15; Young, 1993a: 248, fig. 1a-b.

^ Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PA).

Comments: Parasite of the decapod crustaceans Neopanope packardi, Panopeus herbstii, P. occidentalis, Eurypanopeus depressus, Pilumnus sayi, Tetraxanthus rathbunae, Rithropanopeus harrisii, Tetraplax quadridentata, and Lophopanopeus bellus.

Genus Ptychascus Boschma, 1933

Ptychascus glaber Boschma, 1933

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1975: 201.

Description and diagnosis: Boschma, 1933: 532.

References: Boschma, 1933: 532, figs. 43-48; 1967: 321, figs. 1-2; Weisbord, 1975: 201, pl. 24, figs. 1-4; Young, 1993a: 248.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (PA).

Comments: Parasite of the decapod crustaceans Sesarma benedicti and Aratus pisonii.

Genus Sacculina Thompson, 1836

Sacculina hirsuta Boschma, 1925

Synonymy: Young, 1993a: 248.

Description and diagnosis: Boschma, 1925: 10; 1931: 339; 1937: 260.

References: Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992a: 25; Young, 1993a: 248, fig. 1c-d.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PB, PE, SP).

Comments: Parasite of the decapod crustacean Pilumnus dasypodus.

Family Lernaeodiscidae Boschma, 1928

Genus Lernaeodiscus Müller, 1862

Lernaeodiscus porcellanae Müller, 1862

Synonymy: Young, 1993a: 250.

Description and diagnosis: Müller, 1862: 2; 1869: 95; Boschma, 1969: 413.

References: Müller, 1862: 2, pl. 1, figs. 1-4; 1863: 26, figs. 1-5; 1864: 64, fig. 64; Weltner, 1897: 235; Weisbord, 1975: 204, pl. 25, figs. 1-3; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992a: 25; Young, 1993a: 250, figs. 2, 3a-b.

Geographic distribution: Northeastern Pacific and Western Atlantic. Brazil (PA, MA, PE, AL, BA, SC).

Comments: Parasite of the porcellanid crustaceans Petrolisthes galathinus, P. cabrilloi, and P. armatus.


Lernaeodiscus sp.

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1993a: 252.

References: Young, 1993a: 252, fig. 3c-d.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (AL).

Comments: Parasite of the porcellanid crustacean Petrolisthes rosariensis.

Order Akentrogonida Häfele, 1911

Family Chthamalophilidae Bocquet-Védrine, 1961

Unidentified species

References: Young, 1993a: 253.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Comments: Parasite of the thoracic crustacean Chthamalus proteus.

Subclass Cirripedia Burmeister, 1834

Superorder Thoracica Darwin, 1854

Order Pedunculata Lamarck, 1818

Suborder Heteralepadomorpha Nilsson-Cantell, 1987

Family Heteralepadidae Nilsson-Cantell, 1921

Genus Heteralepas Pilsbry, 1907

Heteralepas cornuta Darwin, 1852

Synonymy: Zevina, 1982: 116.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 165; Broch, 1927: 16.

References: Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (RS).


Heteralepas lankesteri (Gruvel, 1900)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 11; Zevina, 1982: 119.

Description and diagnosis: Weisbord, 1979: 11.

References: Nilsson-Cantell, 1927: 759, fig. 7, pl. 1, fig. 5; Weisbord, 1979: 11, pl. 1, fig. 5; Young, 1990: 650; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE).

Genus Paralepas Pilsbry, 1907

Paralepas martini Young, 1990

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1990: 650.

References: Young, 1990: 650, figs. 5d-g, 6; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP).

Suborder Lepadomorpha Pilsbry, 1916

Family Oxynaspididae Pilsbry, 1907

Genus Oxynaspis Darwin, 1852

Oxynaspis hirtae Totton, 1940

Synonymy: Totton, 1940: 474.

Description and diagnosis: Totton, 1940: 474.

References: Leta & Young, 1994: 30; Young, 1995: 230; Leta & Young, 1995[1996]: 24, figs. 1-4.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (BA).


Family Poecilasmatidae Annandale, 1909

Genus Octolasmis Gray, 1825

Octolasmis hoeki (Stebbing, 1895)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 59; Zevina, 1982: 50.

Description and diagnosis: Stebbing, 1895: 18; Stubbings, 1967: 242.

References: Young, 1990: 646, fig. 3a-d; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic. Brazil (PE, SP, RJ).


Octolasmis lowei (Darwin, 1852)

Synonymy: Zevina, 1982: 59.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 128; Stubbings, 1964: 104; Zevina, 1982: 59; Young, 1990: 646, figs. 3e-h, 4.

References: Weltner, 1897: 241 (as Dichelaspis darwinii); Lacombe, 1977: 11; Weisbord, 1979: 60, pl. 6, fig. 14; Young, 1990: 646, figs. 3e-h, 4; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from ES to RS).

Genus Poecilasma Darwin, 1852

Poecilasma inaequilaterale Pilsbry, 1907

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 40.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1907: 85.

References: Young, 1990: 650, fig. 5a-c; 1995: 230 .

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from SP to RS).


Poecilasma kaempferi Darwin, 1852

Synonymy: Zevina, 1982: 98.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 102; Pilsbry, 1907: 84.

References: Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (RJ).

Family Lepadidae Darwin, 1852

Genus Lepas Linnaeus, 1758

Lepas anatifera Linnaeus, 1758

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 13.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 73; Pilsbry, 1907: 79.

References: Weltner, 1897: 244; Luederwaldt, 1929: 52; Oliveira, 1940a: 138; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 3; Weisbord, 1979: 13, pl. 2, figs. 1-2; Young, 1990: 641, fig. 1a-c.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from PB to RS).


Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 18.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 81; Pilsbry, 1907: 80.

References: Weltner, 1897: 244 (as L. anserifera dilatata); Luederwaldt, 1929: 52; Oliveira, 1940a: 138; Weisbord, 1979: 13, pl. 2, figs. 3-4; Young, 1990: 642, fig. 1d-f.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from PB to RS).

Lepas hilli (Leach, 1818)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 23.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 77; Pilsbry, 1907: 80.

References: Weisbord, 1979: 23, pl. 2, figs. 5-6; Holthuis, 1991: 16, figs. 27, 28a; Young, 1990: 642.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil.


Lepas pectinata Spengler, 1792

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 25.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 85; Pilsbry, 1907: 81.

References: Weisbord, 1979: 25, pl. 2, figs. 7-9; Young, 1990: 644, fig. 2a-b.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (SP, RS, PP).

Genus Dosima Gray, 1825

Dosima fascicularis (Ellis & Solander, 1786)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 28; Zevina, 1982: 21.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 92; Pilsbry, 1907: 81; Daniel, 1971: 85.

References: Heller, 1865: 253; Luederwaldt, 1929: 52; Weisbord, 1979: 28, pl. 2, figs. 10-11; Young, 1990: 644, fig. 2c-d.

^ Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (RJ, SC, RS).

Genus Alepas Rang, 1829

Alepas sp.

References: Solander apud Darwin, 1852: 159, footnote.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil.

Genus Conchoderma Olfers, 1814

Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler, 1790)

Synonymy: Zevina, 1982: 27.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1852: 146.

References: Holthuis, 1991: 17, figs. 27, 28a.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil.

Suborder Scalpellomorpha Nilsson-Cantell, 1987

Family Lithotryidae Gruvel, 1905

Genus Lithotrya Sowerby, 1822

Lithotrya dorsalis (Ellis & Solander, 1786)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1977: 282; Young, 1992: 40.

Description and diagnosis: Weisbord, 1977: 282.

References: Borradaile, 1916: 131, figs. 4, 5a-b (as L. atlantica); Young, 1986: 108 (as L. atlantica); 1992: 40, fig. 1a-c; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PB, AL, BA, TI).

Family Scalpellidae Pilsbry, 1907

Subfamily Meroscalpellinae Zevina, 1978

Genus Hamatoscalpellum Zevina, 1978

Hamatoscalpellum rathbunae (Pilsbry, 1907 )

Synonymy: Zevina, 1978: 1345.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1970: 40.

References: Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SP to RS).

Genus Litoscalpellum Newman & Ross, 1971

Litoscalpellum henriquecostai (Weber, 1960)

Synonymy: Young, 1992: 42.

Description and diagnosis: Weber, 1960: 1; Young, 1992: 42.

References: Weber, 1960: 1, figs. 1-11; Zevina, 1978: 1344; 1981: 129, fig. 90; Young, 1992: 42, figs. 2-3; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (SP to RS).


Litoscalpellum regina (Pilsbry, 1907)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1977: 269; Zevina, 1981: 136.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1907: 21.

References: Calman, 1918: 112; Weisbord, 1977: 269, pl. 30, fig. 6; Zevina, 1981: 136 fig. 95; Young, 1992: 46, fig. 4; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE, RS).

Subfamily Arcoscalpellinae Zevina, 1978

Genus Verum Zevina, 1978

Verum idioplax Pilsbry, 1907: 48

Synonymy: Zevina, 1978: 1348.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1907: 48.

References: Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Genus Arcoscalpellum Hoek, 1907

Arcoscalpellum boubalocerus Young, 1992

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1992: 46.

References: Young, 1992: 46, figs. 5-7; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (RJ to RS).


Arcoscalpellum portoricanum (Pilsbry, 1907)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1977: 259.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1907: 35; Calman, 1918: 121.

References: Young, 1992: 52, fig. 8a-b; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RS).




Arcoscalpellum triangulare (Hoek, 1883)

Synonymy: Newman & Ross, 1971: 84.

Description and diagnosis: Hoek, 1883: 84.

References: Young, 1992: 54, fig. 8c-e; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Antarctic and southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (RS).

Genus Weltnerium Zevina, 1978

Weltnerium aduncum (Aurivillius, 1892)

Synonymy: Aurivillius, 1894: 64.

Description and diagnosis: Aurivillius, 1894: 64.

References: Aurivillius, 1892: 130; 1894: 64, pl. 5, figs. 5-6; Weltner, 1898: 7; Zevina, 1981: 203, fig. 142; Young; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (BA, RJ).

Comments: Localities inferred from distribution of the host (Hoek, 1881: 82), cited by Weltner (op.cit.) as localities of this species.

Order Sessilia Lamarck, 1818

Suborder Verrucomorpha Pilsbry, 1916

Family Verrucidae Darwin, 1854

Genus Verruca Schumacher, 1817

Verruca caribbea Pilsbry, 1916

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 72.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 28.

References: Young, 1993b: 256, fig. 1a-b; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RS).


Verruca calotheca flavidula Pilsbry, 1916

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 74.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 34; Nilsson-Cantell, 1927: 772.

References: Nilsson-Cantell, 1927: 772, fig. 13, pl. 1, fig. 6; Weisbord, 1979: 74, pl. 9, figs. 1-2; Young, 1993b: 257; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE).

Genus Rostratoverruca Broch, 1922

Rostratoverruca nexa (Darwin, 1854)

Synonymy: Weisbord, 1979: 79.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 522; Pilsbry, 1916: 29.

References: Young, 1993b: 257, fig. 1c-f; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (ES, RJ, SP).

Genus Altiverruca Pilsbry, 1916

Altiverruca gibbosa (Hoek, 1883)

Synonymy Newman & Ross, 1971: 135.

Description and diagnosis: Hoek, 1883: 134.

References: Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (SP) .


Altiverruca quadrangularis (Hoek, 1883)

Synonymy: Rosell, 1989: 24.

Description and diagnosis: Hoek, 1883: 140.

References: Hoek, 1883: 140, pl. 11, figs. 10-11, pl. 12, figs. 8-12; Young, 1995: 244.

Geographic distribution: Philippines and southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (RS).

Suborder Balanomorpha Pilsbry, 1916

Superfamily Chthamaloidea Darwin, 1854

Family Chthamalidae Darwin, 1854

Subfamily Euraphiinae Newman & Ross, 1976

Genus Euraphia Conrad, 1837

Euraphia rhizophorae (Oliveira, 1940)

Synonymy: Young, 1993b: 257.

Description and diagnosis: Oliveira, 1940b: 379; 1941: 26; Young, 1993b: 257.

References: Oliveira, 1940b: 379, pl. 1: 1941: 26, pl. 6, figs. 1 4; 1947: 726; Oliveira & Krau, 1953: 511; Gerlach, 1958: 670; Stubbings, 1967: 259, fig. 12; Ross, 1968: 6; Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 641, fig. 16; Southward, 1975: 32, pl. 3, fig. 8, pl. 4, fig. 14; Bacon, 1976: 38, figs. 13 16, tabs. 5 6; 1977: 40; Newman & Ross, 1976: 41; Bourget, 1977: 284; Lacombe, 1977: 4, tab. 2, map 1; Southward & Newman, 1977: 411; Achituv, 1984: 74; Laguna, 1985: 47, figs. 11a, c, 12a, c, 13a, c; 1987: 133, figs. 1a, c, 2a, c, 3a, c; Coelho & Farrapeira-Assunção, 1988: 107; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção & Silva, 1991: 132; Young, 1993b: 257, figs. 2-5; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (MA to PR).

Subfamily Chthamalinae Darwin, 1854

Genus Chthamalus Ranzani, 1817

Chthamalus bisinuatus Pilsbry, 1916

Synonymy: Young, 1993b: 262.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 306; Dando & Southward, 1980: 807.

References: Darwin, 1854: 455 (as C. stellatus); Müller, 1867: 332 (as C. stellatus); 1868: 395 (as C. stellatus); Hoek, 1883: 31 (as C. stellatus); Weltner, 1897: 272, 273 (as C. stellatus and (?) Chamaesipho columna); Pilsbry, 1916: 306, pl. 71, fig. 6-6a; Nilsson-Cantell, 1925: 25, pl. 1, fig. 2 (as C. stellatus cornutus); 1931: 107; Luederwaldt, 1929: 52; Oliveira, 1940a: 138; 1941: 24, pl. 2, fig. 3, pl. 4, fig. 6, pl. 7, figs. 1-4; Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 641, fig. 15; Newman & Ross, 1976: 43; Bourget, 1977: 284; Lacombe, 1977: 2; Dando & Southward, 1980: 807, figs. 9c-g, 15d, 16; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção & Silva, 1991: 132; Young, 1993b: 262, fig. 6; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (from PI to RS, TI).


Chthamalus proteus Dando & Southward, 1980

Synonymy, Description and diagnosis: Dando & Southward, 1980: 793 and 809.

References: Dando & Southward, 1980: 809, figs. 9g-i, 10a-e, 11, 12, 15a, 16a; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção & Silva, 1991: 132; Young, 1993b: 264, fig. 5; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from RN to PR).

Superfamily Coronuloidea Leach, 1817

Family Chelonibiinae Pilsbry, 1916

Genus Chelonibia Leach, 1817

Chelonibia caretta (Spengler, 1790)

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 267.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 394.

References: Pilsbry, 1916: 267, pl. 63, fig. 5-5a; Young, 1991: 191; Farrapeira-Assunção, 1991a: 133.

Geographic distribution: Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic. Brazil (RJ).


Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818)

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 268.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 396; Pilsbry, 1916: 268; Stubbings, 1967: 297.

References: Darwin, 1854: 396, pl. 14, figs. 3a-b, 4; Lacombe, 1977: 11; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 5; Young, 1991: 191, fig. 1a; Botter et al., 1992: 34; Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic. Brazil (from PB to SC).


Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1757)

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 264.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 392; Pilsbry, 1916: 264; Nilsson-Cantell, 1921: 369.

References: Weltner, 1897: 254; Pilsbry, 1916: 264, pl. 62, figs. 1-4; Young, 1991: 191, fig. 1b; Farrapeira-Assunção, 1991a: 133.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (CE, SE, BA, RJ, SP, SC, RS, TI).

Family Platylepadidae Newman & Ross, 1976

Genus Platylepas Gray, 1825

Platylepas decorata Darwin, 1854

Synonymy, description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 429, Monroe & Limpus, 1979: 206.

References: Young, 1991: 194, fig. 2a-e

Geographic distribution: Indian, Pacific, and southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (BA).

Platylepas hexastylos (O. Fabricius, 1798)

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 285.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 428 (as P. bissexlobata); Pilsbry, 1916: 285; Hiro, 1937: 472.

References: Silva-Brum, 1985: 55; Young, 1991: 195, fig. 2f.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (PB, RJ, RS).

Platylepas hexastylos ichthyophila Pilsbry, 1916

Synonymy: Young, 1991: 197.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 287.

References: Young, 1991: 197, fig. 2g-h.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PB).

Platylepas sp .

Synonymy: Young, 1991: 197.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 287.

References: Young, 1991: 197, fig. 21-j.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Genus Stomatolepas Pilsbry, 1910

Stomatolepas elegans (Costa, 1838)

Synonymy: Monroe & Limpus, 1979: 203 (as S. praegustator); Young, 1991: 198.

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1991: 198.

References: Young, 1991: 198, fig. 3.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (PB, BA).

Stomatolepas transversa Nilsson-Cantell, 1930

Synonymy: Monroe & Limpus, 1979: 205; Young, 1991: 201.

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1991: 201.

References: Young, 1991: 201, fig. 4.

Geographic distribution: Aroe Archipelago, Australia, and Brazil (PB).


Family Coronulidae Leach, 1817

Genus Coronula Lamarck, 1802

Coronula diadema (Linnaeus, 1767)

Synonymy, Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 417; Pilsbry, 1916: 273; Cornwall, 1924: 421; 1927: 504.

References: Young, 1991: 194, fig. 1c.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (RJ, SP) .


Coronula reginae Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Cornwall, 1927: 507; Tarasov & Zevina, 1957: 244.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 419; Cornwall, 1927: 507; Tarasov & Zevina, 1957: 244.

References: Silva-Brum, 1985: 55; Young, 1991: 194.

Geographic distribution: Pacific and Atlantic. Brazil (RN).

Genus Xenobalanus Steenstrup, 1852

Xenobalanus globicipitis Steenstrup, 1852

Synonymy: Cornwall, 1927: 510.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 440; Cornwall, 1927: 510; Stubbings, 1965: 902.

References: Young, 1991: 194, fig. 1d-e.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (SP).

Superfamily Tetraclitoidea Gruvel, 1903

Family Tetraclitidae Gruvel, 1903

Subfamily Tetraclitellinae Newman & Ross, 1976

Genus Tetraclitella Hiro, 1939

Tetraclitella divisa (Nilsson-Cantell, 1921)

Synonymy: Ross, 1968: 13.

Description and diagnosis: Nilsson-Cantell, 1921: 362; Stubbings, 1967: 291; Anderson, 1986: 108.

References: Young, 1991: 205, fig. 5a-f; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Circumtropical. Brazil (PI, CE, FN).

Genus Newmanella Ross, 1969

Newmanella radiata (Bruguière, 1789)

Synonymy: Ross, 1969: 242.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 343; Ross, 1969: 242.

References: Lacombe, 1977: 11; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 5; Young, 1991: 205, fig. 5g-k; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE, RJ, SP).

Subfamily Tetraclitinae Gruvel, 1903

Genus Tesseropora Pilsbry, 1916

Tesseropora atlantica Newman & Ross, 1977

Synonymy: Newman & Ross, 1977: 208.

Description and diagnosis: Newman & Ross, 1977: 208.

References: Edwards & Lubbock, 1983a: 60; 1983b: 68.

Geographic distribution: Atlantic oceanic islands. Brazil (PP) .

Genus Tetraclita Schumacher, 1817

Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818)

Synonymy: Ross, 1968: 8; Young, 1991: 207.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 329 (as T. porosa communis); Ross, 1968: 8.

References: Darwin, 1854: 329, pl. 10, fig. 1a (as T. porosa communis); Müller, 1864: 59, figs. 55, 61-63 (as T. porosa); 1867: 332, figs. 52-53 (as T. porosa); 1868: 395 (as T. porosa); 1869: 88, figs. 55, 61-63 (as T. porosa); Hoek, 1883: 31 (as T. porosa); Weltner, 1895: 289 (as T. porosa); 1897: 257 (as T. porosa communis); Pilsbry, 1916: 254, pl. 59, figs. 1-5b; Nilsson-Cantell, 1927: 786; Luederwaldt, 1929: 52 (as T. stalactifera floridana); Oliveira, 1940a: 138; 1941: 7, pl. 1, figs. 1-2, pl. 2, fig. 4, pl. 10, figs. 1, 3, 6; Ross, 1968: 8, fig. 2; Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 635, figs. 6-7; Lacombe, 1977: 2; Newman & Ross, 1976: 48; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978; Lacombe, 1983: 75; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Young, 1991: 207, fig. 6a-e; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from MA to RS).


Tetraclita stalactifera floridana Pilsbry, 1916

Synonymy: Young, 1991: 209.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 255.

References: Silva-Brum, 1986: 35 (as T. squamosa rubescens); Young, 1991: 209, fig. 6f-j; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ).

Superfamily Balanoidea Leach, 1817

Family Archaeobalanidae Newman & Ross, 1976

Subfamily Archaeobalaninae Newman & Ross, 1976

Genus Chirona Gray, 1835

Chirona amaryllis (Darwin, 1854)

Synonymy: Darwin, 1854: 279; Hoek, 1913: 179.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 279.

References: Young, 1989a: 212; 1987: 30; Farrapeira-Assunção, 1990: 7; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1994: 1, fig. 1; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Indo-West Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (PI, PE, BA).

Comments: Introduced species.

Genus Membranobalanus Hoek, 1813

Membranobalanus declivis (Darwin, 1854)

Synonymy: Zullo & Standing, 1983: 471.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 230.

References: Farrapeira-Assunção, 1991b: 118; Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (BA).

Genus Conopea Say, 1822

Conopea galeata (Linnaeus, 1771)

Synonymy: Young, 1988: 354.

Description and diagnosis: Darwin, 1854: 220; Pilsbry, 1916: 236; Young, 1988: 354.

References: Young, 1988: 354, figs. 1, 4a; 1994: 3; 1995: 230; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Northeastern Pacific and Western Atlantic. Brazil (from PB to SC).

Subfamily Acastinae Kolbasov, 1993

Genus Acasta Leach, 1817

Acasta cyathus Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Zullo & Standing, 1983: 471.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 244.

References: Farrapeira-Assunção, 1991b: 118; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Indo-West Pacific and Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE, BA).

Family Pyrgomatidae Gray, 1825

Tribe Pyrgomatini Ross & Newman, 1995

Subfamily Ceratoconchinae Newman & Ross, 1976

Genus Ceratoconcha Kramberger-Gorjanovic, 1889

Ceratoconcha domingensis (Moullins, 1866)

Synonymy: Young & Christoffersen, 1984: 246.

Description and diagnosis: Young & Christoffersen, 1984: 246.

References: Young & Christoffersen, 1984: 246, figs. 2d-f, 4-6; Young, 1989b: 199, 1994: 3; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from PB to BA).


Ceratoconcha floridana (Pilsbry, 1931)

Synonymy: Young & Christoffersen, 1984: 240.

Description and diagnosis: Young & Christoffersen, 1984: 240.

References: Young & Christoffersen, 1984: 240, figs. 2a-c, 3, 5-6; Young, 1988: 362; 1989b: 199; 1994: 3; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from RN to RJ, RA).

Ceratoconcha paucicostata Young, 1989

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1989b: 193.

References: Young, 1989b: 193, figs. 1-2; 1994: 3;1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (BA).

Subfamily Megatrematinae Holthuis, 1982

Genus Megatrema Sowerby, 1825

Megatrema madreporarum (Bosc, 1801)

Synonymy: Young, 1988: 360 .

Description and diagnosis: Young, 1988: 360.

References: Young, 1988: 360, figs. 3, 4c; 1994: 4; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from PB to BA).

Family Balanidae Leach, 1817

Subfamily Balaninae Leach, 1817

Genus Balanus Da Costa, 1778

Balanus amphitrite group

Balanus amphitrite Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 30.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 30.

References: Weltner, 1897: 264; Oliveira, 1941: 17, pl. 1, fig. 3, pl. 2, figs. 5-6, pl. 3, fig. 1, pl. 11, figs. 1-5 (as ^ B. amphitrite communis), 21, pl. 4, fig. 4, pl. 5, figs. 1-2, pl. 8, figs. 1-5 (as B. amphitrite fluminensis), 22, pl. 4, fig. 5, pl. 9, figs. 1-4 (as B. amphitrite aeratus); Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 636, figs. 8-9; Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 30, figs. 10-11, 13, pl. 1, pl. 5, fig. g, pl. 9, figs. b-c; Lacombe, 1983: 75; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção & Silva, 1991: 132; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Siva-Brum & Martins, 1992: 25; Silva-Brum et al., 1994: 22; Young, 1994: 4, fig. 2; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from AP to RS).


Balanus eburneus Gould, 1841

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 60.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 60.

References: Luederwaldt, 1919: 399; Oliveira, 1941: 19, pl. 3, figs. 3-6, pl. 4, figs. 2, 7 (as B. amphitrite niveus); Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 638, fig. 10; Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 60, fig. 15, pl. 4, pl. 5, fig. g; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção & Silva, 1991: 132; Silva-Brum et al., 1994: 22; Young, 1994: 6, fig. 3; 1995: 234.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (PE, RJ, SP).


Balanus improvisus Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 68 .

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 68.

References: Darwin, 1854: 250, pl. 6, fig. 1a-c; Müller, 1867: 332, pl. 7, figs. 22, 32, pl. 8, figs. 50-51 (as ^ B. improvisus assimilis); 1868: 395, pl. 20, figs. 5-6, 9, 17-18, 24 (as B. improvisus assimilis); Weltner, 1897: 266 (as B. improvisus assimilis); 1898: 5; Borradaile, 1916: 132; Henry, 1974: 976; Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 641, fig. 14; Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 68, fig. 16, pl. 5, fig. a-j; Lacombe, 1977: 4; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 5; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção & Silva, 1991: 132; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1994: 8, fig. 4; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from CE to RS, TI).


Balanus reticulatus Utinomi, 1967

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 88.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 89.

References: Farrapeira-Assunção, 1990: 7; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Circumtropical. Brazil (PE, BA).

Comments: Introduced species.


Balanus subalbidus Henry, 1974

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 53.

Description and diagnosis: Henry, 1974: 976; Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 53.

References: Young, 1994: 10, fig. 5; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PB).


Balanus venustus Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 164.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 164.

References: Müller, 1867: 345, pl. 7, figs. 29-31, 33-43, pl. 8, figs. 45, 49 (as hybrid between B. improvisus assimilis and B. armatus); 1868: 405, pl. 20, figs. 4, 8, 11-13, 20, 23 (as hybrid between B. improvisus assimilis and B. armatus); Weltner, 1897: 265 (as B. amphitrite niveus); Pilsbry, 1916: 92, pl. 19, figs. 1-2e (as B. amphitrite niveus); Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 164, fig. 30, pl. 21, figs. a-f; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1994: 13, fig. 6; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from PE to RS).

Balanus trigonus group

Balanus calidus Pilsbry, 1916

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 118.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 118; Zullo, 1966: 235.

References: Young, 1994: 15, fig. 7; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to MA).


Balanus spongicola Brown, 1844

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 115.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 115.

References: Pilsbry, 1916: 115, pl. 25, figs. 2-4c; Nilsson-Cantell, 1927: 784; Young, 1994: 15, fig. 8; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Indian and Atlantic. Brazil (from SP to RS, "Patros Isle" (?) (Pilsbry, 1916)).


Balanus trigonus Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Pilsbry, 1916: 111.

Description and diagnosis: Pilsbry, 1916: 111.

References: Müller, 1867: 330, pl. 7, figs. 1-21, 23-28, pl. 8, figs. 44, 46-48, pl. 9, fig. 56 (as ^ B. armatus); 1868: 393, pl. 20, figs. 1-3, 7, 10, 14-16, 19, 21-22 (as B. armatus); Hoek, 1883: 31 (as B. armatus); Weltner, 1895; 289 (as B. armatus); 1897: 262 (as B. armatus); Pilsbry, 1916: 111, pl. 26, figs. 1-13e; Oliveira, 1940a: 138; 1941: 15, pl. 4, fig. 3, pl. 10, figs. 2, 4-5, 7; Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 641, fig. 12; Lacombe, 1977: 4; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 3; Young, 1988: 357; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1994: 17, fig. 9; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from AP to RS).

Genus Fistulobalanus Zullo, 1984

Fistulobalanus citerosum (Henry, 1974)

Synonymy: Young, 1994: 19, fig. 10.

Description and diagnosis: Henry, 1974: 976, figs. 4-5; Young, 1994: 19, fig. 10.

References: Oliveira, 1941: 19 (as Balanus amphitrite niveus); Henry, 1974: 976, figs. 4-5; Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 638, fig. 11 (as B. pallidus); Henry & McLaughlin, 1975: 123, figs. 23d, e, g, 24, pl. 12; Southward, 1975: 42; Newman & Ross, 1976: 63; Lacombe, 1977: 4 (as B. pallidus); Zullo, 1984: 1330; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Silva-Brum et al., 1984: 22; Young, 1994: 19, fig. 10; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (from PB to RS).

Subfamily Megabalaninae Newman, 1979

Genus Megabalanus Hoek, 1913

Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854)

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 25.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 25.

References: Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 635, fig. 3; Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 3; Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 25, figs. 3h, 7a-7; Young, 1987: 30; Silva-Brum & Absalão, 1989: 143; Young, 1994: 23, fig. 11; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Eastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (from ES to RS).

Comments: Introduced species.


Megabalanus stultus (Darwin, 1854)

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 52; Young, 1988: 357.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 52; Young, 1988: 357.

References: Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 4, fig. 12; Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 52, figs. 4m, 13e-h; Young, 1988: 357, figs. 2, 4b; 1994: 26; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from PB to RJ).


Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus, 1758 )

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 17.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 17.

References: Müller, 1867: 332; 1868: 395; Weltner, 1897: 260 (as Balanus tintinnabulum communis); Pilsbry, 1916: 63, pl. 13, figs. 1-2e (as ^ B tintinnabulum antillensis); Luederwaldt, 1929: 52; Oliveira, 1940a: 35; 1941: 11, pl. 2, figs. 1-2, pl. 4, fig. 1, pl. 5, fig. 3, pl. 8, fig. 6, 14, pl. 3, fig. 2 (as B. tintinnabulum antillensis); Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 635, fig. 4; 641, fig. 13 (as B. tintinnabulum antillensis); Lacombe, 1977: 2, 23 (as M. antillensis); Lacombe & Rangel, 1978: 3, fig. 4; Lacombe, 1983: 75; Eston et al., 1986: 40 (as M. coccopoma); Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 17, figs. 1e, 2a, g-h, 3a-c, 5a-l; Young, 1987: 30 (as M. antillensis); Holthuis, 1991: 18, fig. 29; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1994: 26, fig. 12; 1995: 230.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (from PI to RS, FN).


Megabalanus vesiculosus Darwin, 1854

Synonymy: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 44.

Description and diagnosis: Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 44.

References: Lacombe & Monteiro, 1974: 635, fig. 1 (as Balanus tintinnabulum var.3 and B. t. spinosus); McLaughlin & Lacombe, 1979: 38, figs. 1-15; Henry & McLaughlin, 1986: 44, figs. 1c, 4g, 11i-l; Farrapeira-Assunção et al., 1992b: 25; Young, 1994: 28, fig. 13; 1995: 230.

^ Geographic distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Brazil (PE, RJ, SP, PR, SC).


General Comments: Species cited from Brazil but probably are misidentifications.

Chamaesipho columna (Spengler, 1790): Weltner, 1897: 273 (RJ) (? = Chthamalus bisinuatus).

^ Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854: Newman & Ross, 1976: 60 (RJ). Locality error (Newman, in litt.).

Balanus laevis Bruguiére, 1789: Weltner, 1897: 263; 1898: 5 (RS).

Balanus perforatus angustus (Gmelin, 1789): Weltner, 1897: 263 (BR).

Pyrgoma anglicum Sowerby, 1823 (=Megatrema anglicum): Lacombe, 1977: 11 (RJ).

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 YOUNG, P.S., 1998. Maxillopoda. Thecostraca. In: YOUNG, P.S. (ed.). Catalogue of Crustacea of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional. p. 263-285. (Série Livros n. 6).




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