Romis imperatoris adrianes (117-138) mmarTvelobis periodis Seswavla da gaanalizeba romis imperiis erT-erT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs warmoadgens adrianes geopolitik icon

Romis imperatoris adrianes (117-138) mmarTvelobis periodis Seswavla da gaanalizeba romis imperiis erT-erT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs warmoadgens adrianes geopolitik


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$2. adrianes politika dunaispireTSi


teritoria, romelic gadaWimuli iyo karpatebis mTebsa da md. dunais Soris, II-III ss. romis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda `dakiis provinciis~ saxelwodebiT.

I s. bolosaTvis sawarmoo Zalebis ganviTarebam da am teritoriaze mosaxle geto-dakiuri tomebis socialurma diferenciaciam, warmoqmna wanamZRvrebi dunaispireTSi saxelmwifos warmoSobisaTvis. amitomac sxva provinciebis socialur-ekonomikur da politikur mdgomareobas swored am provinciasTan mimarTebaSi ganvixilavT. dakiuri tomebis energiulma beladma decebalma, romelic araCveulebrivi samxedro da organizatoruli niWiT gamoirCeoda, Seqmna Zlieri politikuri gaerTianeba. [ Cass. Dio. LXVII, 6,1]. Tumca, calkeuli, dakiuri tomebis aristokratiuli nawili, mainc proromaulad iyo ganwyobili.

romis imperiis sazRvarTan umsxvilesi gaerTianebis formireba, romelic antiromaulad ganwyobil fenebs TavSesafars aZlevda, imperias mudmiv safrTxes uqmnida. aqedan gamomdinare, romis saxelmwifo iZulebuli gaxda iaraRiT moegvarebina dunaispireTis sakiTxi. am nabijiT igi ormag gamarjvebas moipovebda: axal miwebsac daipyrobda da dunaispireTSi arsebuli safrTxisganac ganTavisufldeboda. dunaispireTSi eqspansiiT dainteresebulni iyvnen romaeli monaTmflobelebi. gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi, isini monaTa axal nakads miiRebdnen. garda amisa, romaelebs yovelTvis izidavda valaxeTis nayofieri vake da Zvirfasi liTonebiT mdidari transilvaniis mTebi. dunaispireTis provinciebi ZvelTaganve cnobili iyo simdidriT. iq mravlad iyo vercxlis da liTonis sabadoebi. swored am bunebrivma simdidrem ganapiroba romis daintereseba. [116:189-191;94:86-91;80:581].

pirveli samxedro Setakeba romaelebsa da dakielebs Soris moxda jer kidev ax. w. I s. pirvel naxevarSi. makedoniis prokonsulma gaius skribonius kurionma, romelic Trakielebs sdevnida `miaRwia dakiamde, magram SeuSinda mTian xeobebs~. [ flor., Epit., I, 39, 6]. dakiaSi eqspediciis mowyoba iulius cezarsac surda, magram ver moaswro. avgustusis dros dakebisa da bastaranebis winaaRmdeg makedoniaSi gaigzavna markus krasusi. [ Cass, Dio, LI, 23, 2]. amis Semdeg dakiaSi samxedro eqspediciebi moawyo panoniis legatma gneus kornelius luntulusma.

dakielebi xSirad arRvevdnen dunais sasazRvro zols. awyobdnen Tavdasxmebs iqaur mosaxleobaze, awuxebdnen romis batonobaSi moqceul qveynebs. yovelive aman aiZula romis xelisufleba mieRo saswrafo zomebi da svetoniusis Tanaxmad, avgustusma samxedro ZaliT moaxdina am Tavdasxmebis likvidireba. [ Suet. Aug., 2].

mdidari dunaispira qveynebis dapyrobis survilma romaul geopolitikaSi aSkarad iCina Tavi I s. bolos, domicianes (81-96) mmarTvelobisas. dakiis mefe decebali TandaTanobiT axdenda romauli agresiiT ukmayofilo Zalebis konsolidacias. aSkara iyo, rom decebalis politika erT mizans emsaxureboda: Seeqmna Zlieri saxelmwifo, romelic win aRudgeboda nebismier agresias, gansakuTrebiT ki romis imperias. mis garSemo Tavi moiyares iazigebisa da svevebis tomebma. decebalma kavSiri Sekra parTiasTan, bastaranebTan, roqsolanebTan da sarmatebTan. dakielebma didi winaaRmdegoba gauwies dampyroblebs, magram uZlurni aRmoCndnen romis armiasTan brZolaSi. Tumca, gamarjvebis miuxedavad romma momavali garTulebebis Tavidan asacileblad dakias yovelwliurad garkveuli raodenobis subsidia SesTavaza. domiciane am daTmobaze imitom wavida, rom imperiis sazRvrebTan moTareSe barbarosuli tomebis _ sarmatebis, roqsolanebisa da sxvaTa winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad Zalebi gamoenTavisuflebina. [108:435;72:71-73].

romaelTa agresiam dunaispireTSi kulminacias domicianes Semdgom, imperator traianes (98-117) mmarTvelobis dros miaRwia. traianem uari Tqva avgustiseul `TavdacviT doqtrinaze~ da Zvel, romaul eqspansionistur, politikur kurss daadga. man upirveles amocanad mRelvare dunaispireTis damorCileba ganizraxa, saidanac imperias uzarmazari Semosavali unda mieRo: Zvirfasi liTonebisa da Tavisufali muSaxelis saxiT. amasTan, traianem kargad gaiTvaliswina isic, rom dakiisa da parTiis samefos Soris arsebuli megobruli urTierToba safrTxes uqmnida romis aRmosavluri provinciebis usafrTxoebas.

191 w. traianem dunaispireTis erT-erT provinciaSi zemo meziaSi, kerZod viminakSi armiis koncentrireba daiwyo. [Cass, Dio LXVIII, 6,1; 94:64;80:607]. decebali, romelic kargad acnobierebda, rom gadamwyveti brZolisaTvis Zala ar hyofnida, cdilobda partizanuli omebiT romaelebi qveynis siRrmeSi Seetyuebina. is erTxans kompromiszec wavida, magram traianes mxridan molaparakebis Taobaze uari miiRo.

102 w. saomari moqmedeba amjerad ukve decebalis iniciativiT kvlav ganaxlda. decebali Seecada daertya romaelTa operatiuli bazisaTvis, magram damxmare jarebis mosvliT da piradi simamacis wyalobiT traianem moaxerxa situaciidan gamosvla. (sainteresoa am mxriv dion kasiosTan Semonaxuli erTi cnoba: roca romaelebs daWrilTaTvis Sesaxvevi saSualeba ar eyoT, traianem am problemis mogvareba sakuTari tansacmliT SeZlo). [Cass.Dio, LXVIII, 8,2]. dedaqalaqis, sarmicegetuzas dakargvis SiSiT Sepyrobilma decebalma nebismieri pirobiT zavi iTxova. [Cass. Dio, LXVIII, 9,1]. romaelebi didi danakargis fasad SturmiT iReben decebalis erT-erT dasayrdens. dion kasiosTan daculia cnoba romsa da dakiis samefos Soris am dros dadebuli zavis pirobebis Sesaxeb. [Cass. Dio, LXVIII, 9,5-6]. am gamarjvebasTan dakavSirebiT traiane romSi didebuli triumfiT dabrunda da miiRo `dakielis~ tituli. [Cass. Dio, LXVIII, 9,5-7]. es iyo pirveli dakiuri omi (101-102).

decebali ver Seurigda beds. man daarRvia zavis pirobebi, moaxdina jarebis rekrutireba da reorganizacia. [Cass. Dio, LXVIII, 10,3]. meore omi ufro mZafri gamodga. dion kasiosis Tanaxmad, decebalma mkvlelebic ki miugzavna traianes, magram uSedegod. [Cass. Dio, LXVIII, 12]. sastiki winaaRmdegobis miuxedavad dakielebi damarcxdnen. imedgacruebulma decebalma sicocxle TviTmkvlelobiT daasrula. [Cass, Dio,LXVIII, 14,3; Евтропии; VIII.6; 99:228]. meore dakiuri omic 106 w. romis gamarjvebiT damTavrda.

dakiis provinciad gamocxadebis Semdeg, traiane mis kolonizacias Seudga. adgilobrivi mosaxleobis srul morCilebaSi yolisa da mosalodneli ajanyebebis droulad likvidirebis mizniT, aq mudmivad idga romauli samxedro SenaerTebi. [Eutrop. VIII,6; 99:228]. axali provinciis ZiriTad mosaxleobas yofili samxedro mosamsaxureni Seadgendnen. am ukanasknelTa gavlena sakmaod didi iyo, ramdenadac isini ZiriTadad samxedro da samoqalaqo mmarTvelobis organoebis marTvaSi monawileobdnen. [90:84-85;162:171]. mosaxleobis mniSvnelovan nawils warmoadgendnen imperiis sxvadasxva kuTxidan Camosuli kolonizatorebi, romlebic informirebulni iyvnen dakiaSi arsebuli simdidris Sesaxeb. [Eutrop. VIII, 6]. maT Tan mohqondaT sakuTari kultebi, rac xels uwyobda religiaTa sinkretizmis niadagze, dakiis romanizacias. kolonistebi ZiriTadad qalaqebSi saxldebodnen. dakiisaTvis amavdroulad damaxasiaTebeli iyo romaelebis mier farTod gamoyenebadi urbanizaciis politika.

dunaispireTis sazRvrebze mcxovrebi barbarosuli tomebi romisadmi klientalur mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen, magram isini arRvevdnen dadebul pirobebs da imperiis periferiebze Tavdasxmebs awyobdnen. xSirad maTi ajanyebebi romaelebis mier iyo inspirirebuli, rac antiromaulad ganwyobili fenebis warmoqmnas uwyobda xels. mezobeli, Tavisufali geto-dakiuri tomebis moqmedebas meziis moxele akontrolebda. romaelebs araerTxel mouwiaT am agresiuli tomebis winaaRmdeg galaSqreba [SHA. M. Anton., XXII, 1; Annt. Pii V, 4; Commodi XII, 5; Caracalli, X, 6] da xSirad imperia iZulebuli iyo garkveuli subsidiis saxiT maTgan mSvidoba eyida. axalgamocxadebul provinciaSi daaweses romauli administraciuli mmarTvelobis sistema. dakias marTavda imperatoris moxele konsulis rangSi. masve emorCileboda dakiaSi dislocirebuli legioni XIII Gemina da damxmare razmebi (auxilia).

msgavsi administraciuli reorganizacia moxda dunaispireTis meore aranakleb mniSvnelovan provinciaSic. traianem panonia qvemo da zemo panoniad dayo. iseve, rogorc dakia, panonia agresiuli mezoblebis garemocvaSi imyofeboda. zemo panoniis limess safrTxe emuqreboda mezobeli markomanebis mxridan. sainteresoa rom dakiur omebSi, traianes mxares iazigebic ibrZodnen, romelTac imperatori dakielebis mier warTmeuli teritoriebis dabrunebas dapirda. [Cass. Dio, LXVIII, 10,3]. omis damTavrebis Semdeg traianem piroba ar Seasrula da 107 wlisaTvis iazigebi ajanydnen, romlis Casaqrobad momavali imperatori _ adriane gagzavnes, romelic im dros (106-108) qvemo panoniis pirveli moxele iyo. [El. Spart. III, 9]. adriane kargad icnobda am provincias, jer kide 95 w. igi am provinciis tribuni gaxldaT. sxvaTa Soris, am provinciis sazRvrebTan moparpaSe sarmatebTan warmatebuli brZolis gamo man konsulis titulic daimsaxura. adrianem taxtze asvlisTanave uari Tqva eqspansionistur politikaze, kargad gaacnobiera, rom samxedro kampaniebiT moaxloebuli krizisis SeCereba SeuZlebeli iyo. amitomac arsebuli situaciidan gamomdinare `TavdacviTi koncefcia~ airCia, romelic Semdgom moTxovnebs iTvaliswinebda: provinciaTa socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri mdgomareobis stimulirebas, rasac provinciebSi piradi vizitebiT akontrolebda; traianes eqspansionisturi omebiT demoralizebuli armiis brZolisunarianobisa da TavdacviTunarianobis amaRlebas; arsebuli sazRvrebis delimitizacias da imperiis sazRvrebis gaswvriv TavdacviT simagreTa sistemis - romauli limesebis modernizacias. [93:421-426;74:222;108:445-446;34:150]. adrianem traianes mier dapyrobili teritoriebidan imperiis ganmgeblobaSi mxolod dakia datova, rac SemTxveviTi ar unda yofiliyo. traianesTan erTad dakiur omebSi namyofma imperatorma [El. Spart, III. 2]. kargad uwyoda am provinciis strategiuli da ekonomikuri mniSvneloba qveynisaTvis. man isic kargad gaiTvaliswina, rom aq situacia isev kritikuli rCeboda. CrdiloeT dunaispireTis tomebisTvis, romlebic gvarovnuli wyobilebis formaciidan jer kidev ar gamosuliyvnen, omi ZiriTad saarsebo wyaros warmoadgenda. [144:20]. amitomac, saWiro iyo aq sakmaod kompetenturi Zalis gadmoyvana da dislocireba. es samxedro Zala mudam mzadyofnaSi unda yofiliyo. maT sisustes SeeZlo romis teritoriaze am tomebis Semosevebi gamoewvia. amitomac adriane cdilobda mSvidobiani gziT dunaispireTis damorCilebas da Semdgom mis srul kolonizacias.

`mSvidobismoyvare~ imperatoris periodSi dakia Tavdacvis mizniT, administraciuli TvalsazrisiT zemo (superior) da qvemo (inferior) dakiad daiyo. [94:110]. zemo dakiis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda semigore sarmicegetuzasTan erTad, qvemo dakia ki mcire valaxias moicavda. TiToeulis saTaveSi gansakuTrebuli funqciebiT aRWurvili prokuratori idga. unda aRiniSnos, rom dakiis dayofas administraciuli safuZvlis garda, samxedro-politikuri sarCulic edo, radganac aq dislocirebuli armia, swored am or prokurators unda damorCileboda. ase ufro gaadvildeboda maTi marTva. am provinciaSi romis moxelisa da mtkice samxedro bazis arsebobis pirobebSi qveynis usafrTxoeba garantirebuli iqneboda. marTalia, adrianes dros am mxriv seriozul precedentebs adgili ar hqonia, magram SemdgomSi es gardauvali gaxda da swored am bazis saSualebiT moxerxda situaciis stabilizacia. [ SHA. vita Antonini 5,4].

SesaZloa, es dayofa sxva faqtorebsac gamoewvia. kerZod, rodesac adrianem turboni mavrebis mRelvarebebis Caqrobis Semdeg dakiisa da panoniis moxeled miavlina, dunaispireTSi imperiis sazRvrebs sarmatebisa da roqsolanebis tomebma Semouties. [ El. Spart. V, 7]. savaraudoa, rom turbonis gauWirda am Semosevebis winaaRmdeg aqtiuri moqmedeba da sakmaod didi teritoriis dacva. savsebiT mosalodnelia, rom momxdaris gaTvaliswinebiT imperators es uzarmazari teritoria calkeul nawilebad daeyo. yvelaze mTavari ki is iyo, rom es provinciebi ZiriTadad sasazRvro provinciebs warmoadgendnen, rac xazs usvams maT strategiul mniSvnelobas.

dunaispireTis sazRvrebis dacvas imperiisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda, ramdenadac saWiro iyo barbarosTa infiltraciis procesis SeCereba. dunaispira qalaqebi metad mniSvnelovani iyo imperiisaTvis, rogorc ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, aseve armiis axali kontingentiT SevsebisaTvis. [96:162-163]. imperatori adriane, romelic kargad xedavda limesTa sistemis aucileblobas am regionSi, xels uwyobda am procesis srulyofas.

dakiis provinciad gamocxadebis Semdeg, ZiriTad problemas misi sazRvrebis ganmtkiceba warmoadgenda, ramdenadac `barbarosul~ garemocvaSi moqceul dakias dunaispireTis mudam mSfoTvare tomebis mtkice Semkaveblis roli ekisreboda. Cveulebriv, sazRvari romaul samflobeloebsa da Tavisufal tomebs Soris, bunebrivi barierebi iyo. mag., rogoric iyo dunai da reini, romelTa sanapiroebze romaelebi legionerebisaTvis specialur banakebs aSenebdnen. iq, sadac mdinaris zRude sakmao Tavdacvis saSualebas ar iZleoda, saWiro xdeboda xelovnuri barieris e.w. limesebis ageba. dakiaSi limesTa sistemas safuZveli traianem daudo. miwayrilebis, Txrilebis da simagre-kastelumebis strategiuli sistema erTmaneTTan akavSirebda dunaisa da reinis sasazRvro xazebs. am limesebis mowyobiloba yvelgan sxvadasxvanairi iyo, magram limesi yovelTvis warmoadgenda erTdroulad gamagrebul sazRvars da gzaTa sasazRvro sistemas. aq dislocirebuli samxedro ZalebisaTvis romaelebma banakebis mTeli jaWvi Seqmnes, sadac koncentrirebuli iyo sazRvris garkveuli perimetris dacvisaTvis gamiznuli ZiriTadi samxedro Zalebi. legionis banakidan xdeboda garnizonis ganawileba sasazRvro cixe-simagreebSi, kastelumebSi da sxva TavdacviT postebze. kastelumebi formiT warmoadgenda oTxkuTxa cixesimagres, romelSic daaxl. erTi kohorta (500-600 meomari) iyo ganlagebuli. kastelumebi kargad maragdeboda wyliT da SeeZlo xangrZlivi alyis gaZleba. limesis sasazRvro xazis gaswvriv yovel 1,5 km-ze ganlagebuli iyo qvisagan nagebi sasignalo koSkebi (burgi), saidanac safrTxis SemTxvevaSi xdeboda signalis gadacema kastelumebsa da saguSago TavdacviT postebze (stationes) mdgom meomrebze. yovelive es xelsayrel pirobas qmnida safrTxis SemTxvevaSi swrafi reagirebisaTvis. [94:131;133:74-75;207:145-146;168:345]. kastelumebi, saguSago da sameTvalyureo koSkebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli iyvnen Rrma, farTo TxriliT da miwis zvinuliT, romlis winac agebdnen xis maRal mesers an qvis kedels. [El. Spart XII, 6; 169:30-45]. kastelumebi izidavda vaWrebs da xelosnebs, romlebic am sadgomebis axlos saxldebodnen, ris gamoc es dasaxlebebi qalaqis saxes iRebda. warwerebSi isini `Canabe legionis~ saxelwodebiT ixsenieba. es kanabebi Semdgom municipiis, xolo ufro mogvianebiT koloniis statussac iRebdnen. [96:187-188]. sucidavas arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad miRebuli materialuri masala adasturebs maT arsebobas. [96:116-118]. dakiis TavdacviTi sistema, gansxvavebiT sxvebisgan, TandaTanobiT yalibdeboda. dakiaSi limesi mxolod mis aRmosavleT sazRvarze arsebobda [161:55-56]. Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT dakiis provincias icavda mTaTa sistema. dakiis dasavleT sazRvarze limesis sistema ar Seqmnila. aq romauli jarebi SedarebiT did qalaqebSi iyvnen ganlagebulni. samxreTiT md. dunai dakias meziisagan yofda. [161:57]. samwuxarod, arqeologiurma gaTxrebma yvelgan ar mogvca mdidari materialuri masala, ris gamoc Zalze Znelia dakiis limesis saboloo saxiT mecnieruli rekonstruqcia.

Tavisi gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT gamoirCeoda dunaispireTis kidev erTi provincia mezia, romelic jer kidev domicianes mmarTvelobis periodSi warmoebuli dakiuri omebis dros gaiyo konsulis rangis or provinciad: zemo da qvemo meziad. maT Soris sazRvari md. cibra iyo, rasac adasturebs spartianec. [ El. Spart. II. 3]. dakiuri omebis Semdeg, romaelebi mis kolonizacias Seudgnen. ZiriTad birTvs veteranebi da veqsilaciaTa legionebi warmoadgendnen; warwerebSi maT Soris raime uflebriv sxvaobaze ar aris miTiTebuli, es SeiZleba aixsnas im garemoebiT, rom adrianes droidan armia ZiriTadad adgilobrivi macxovreblebiT ivseboda. [164:260;178:194]. adrianes dros meziaSi idga sami legioni, aseve damxmare jari da floti. adrianes droindel meziis socialur-ekonomikur da politikur statusze metyveleben im drois monetebi, romlebzec mezia warmodgenilia amorZalis saxiT - xmliTa da isriT. amiT xazi gaesva mis samxedro mniSvnelobas. rogorc cnobilia, mezieli moisreebi did rols asrulebdnen romis armiis veqsilaciebSi. maT iyenebdnen sarmatebisa da roqsolanebis winaaRmdeg, romlebTanac saomari Sejaxebebs adgili hqonda jer kidev adrianes mmarTvelobis pirvel wels, roca imperatorma win jer jari gagzavna da TviTon meziaSi dabanakda. [ El. Spart. VI. 6].

dunaispireTi sakmaod agresiuli tomebis garemocvaSi imyofeboda. am tomebTan konfliqtma Tavi iCina adrianes mmarTvelobis pirvelsave wels (117 w.). jer kidev romSi Camosvlamde antioqiaSi myofi imperatori pirdapir meziisa da dakiisaken miemarTeba (kerZod, qvemo dunai), mezobel tomebs Soris gamowveuli areulobis Casaqrobad. [El. Spart. VI.8]. am dros dunaispireTis legionTa umravlesoba traianes mier aRmosavleTSi iyo koncentrirebuli. xelsayreli situaciidan gamomdinare iazigebi da roqsolanebi, panoniis, meziis da dakiis provinciebis dalaSqvriT imuqrebodnen, Tuki imperatori maT `mSvidobis~ safasurad garkveul yovelwliur subsidias ar gadauxdida. aqedan Cans, rom roqsolanebi romisadmi klientalur mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen. `omze metad mSvidobismoyvare~. [El. Spart. X. 2]. imperatorma, romelic yovelTvis yidulobda mSvidobas da xSirad ikvexnida kidec amas, [Cekst. Аврел. Виктор. Ell. Aдр. XIV, 10]. amjeradac Cveul tradicias ar uRalata da piradi molaparakebiT da garkveuli safasuris gaRebiT SeZlo situaciis stabilizacia. [El. Spart. VI. 8]. tisis dablobze mcxovrebi ajanyebuli sarmatebis winaaRmdeg man mavritaniis yofili prefeqti marcius turboni gagzavna, [El. Spart. V. 1]. romelsac imavdroulad dakiisa da orive panoniis prefeqtoba daekisra. swored sarmatebis winaaRmdeg turbonis orwliani, sakmaod warmatebuli eqspediciis Semdeg (119 w.) dakia or provinciad zemo da qvemo dakiad daiyo. zemo dakia moicavda Crdilo-aRmosavleT, xolo qvemo - samxreT-dasavleT nawils. [193:420;90:215;202:116;203:14-15]. am eqspediciis dros sagrZnoblad dazianda qvemo panoniis limesi, sadac xanZarma gaanadgura ramdenime samxedro banaki: interciza, vetessalina, kampona da SesaZloa nawilobriv akvinikic. [161:57;90:215]. sarmatebTan konfrontacia, imdenad seriozuli iyo, rom imperatori dakiidan jarebis gamoyvanasa da dakiis provinciaze saerTod uaris Tqmasac apirebda, magram axlobelTa CareviT xeli aiRo am ganzraxvaze. evtropiusis cnobiT eseni iyvnen - traianes politikis Tanamoazreni, [Eutr. VII, 6]. e.i. adrianes politikiT ukmayofilo dajgufebebi, romlebic imperatorze Tavdasxmas da mis winaaRmdeg SeTqmulebas awyoben. Tumca, adrianem 118 w., mainc uari Tqva ramdenime sazRvrispira banakze, romelic traianem aaSena. imave dros misi brZanebiT daangries traianes xidis zemo nawili, raTa is ar gamoeyenebinaT barbarosebs, romaul samflobeloebSi SemoWrisaTvis. [161:57]. am drosve zemo panoniis limesze SemoiWrnen qvadebi (wyaroebSi svebebad ixseniebian). am periodis movlenebs asaxavs erT-erTi metrikuli warwera panoniidan, romelic meomar batavs Seudgenia. es ukanaskneli qvemo panoniaSi msaxurobda. [CIL, III, 3676]. am batavelma adrianes TandaswrebiT md. dunai gadascura, ramac barbarosebze sakmao STabeWdileba moaxdina, isini SeSindnen da ukan daixies. [Cass, Dio, LXIX, 9,6]. am dros adrianesTan gamocxadda iazigebis samSvidobo delegacia. [Cass, Dio, LXIX, 15,2]. Tu ramdenad didi mniSvneloba hqonda romis TavdacviT sistemaSi panonias, amas adasturebs orive panoniis moxeled 136-137 w. adrianes TanammarTvelis, lucius elius cezariusis, daniSvna. [El. Spart. XXIII, 11-13; Vita Ael., 3,2].

mezias, dakias da panonias imperatori meored, 124 w. stumrobs. adrianes panoniaSi stumrobas adasturebs aq misi qandakebis arseboba. viRac publius elius firmam, ruskonis Zem municipaluri edilis Tanamdebobis miRebisTvis Seqmna adrianes qandakebisTvis baza (intercisa, 1,294). amave dros soflis sazogadoebis aTma gaerTianebam saerTo fuliT aago iupiteris imperatoris keTildReobisTvis saxelobis sakurTxeveli. [CIL, III, 3431]. adrianem gaauqma aseve baiebis tomobrivi sazogadoebani, romlis miwis didi nawili mis mier daarsebul municipias karnunts gadaeca. [90:63]. imperatorma zemo da qvemo panoniis limesebis modernizaciis Semdeg, aqac Sesabamisad veteranTa organizebuli dasaxlebebi warmoSva. [89:96-115;90:75-96].

.adrianem panoniaSi uamravi qalaqi daarsa, rogorc limesis axlos, aseve panoniis calkeul olqebSi. man romis moqalaqeobis ufleba misca ara marto mis mier daarsebul axali qalaqis mosaxleobas, aramed Zveli qalaqebisac, rac xels uwyobda am provinciis romanizacias.

dakiaSi vizitisas, man moaxdina dakiis administraciuli reorganizacia. provinciis CrdiloeTiT Seiqmna porolisis samxedro-administraciuli olqi, romlis amocanas warmoadgenda provinciaTa dacva `Tavisufal dakTa~ da sxva, Crdiloeli tomebis Semosevebisagan. `Tavisufal dakebad~ dion kasiosi ixseniebs im nawils, romlebic traianes mier dakiis okupirebis Semdeg mTebSi gaixiznen. [Cass. Dio. LXXII, 3,3; LXXVIII, 27, 5]. provincias, dasavleTiT iazigebisagan icavda meore olqi - sarmicegetuza. mesame olqi, q. romula dakias roqsolanebisagan da aRmosavleTiT mosazRvre sxva tomebisagan icavda. [161:57;34:153].

globaluri sagareo eqspansiis, sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis dapyrobisa da maTi erTian politikur-geografiul sivrceSi inkorporirebis Sedegad romis imperiis administraciul-politikuri struqtura TiToeul maTganTan mimarTebaSi Zalze rTuli iyo. romaelebi dapyrobil qveynebSi angariSs uwevdnen adgilobriv tradiciebs, adaT-wesebs, kanonebsa da mmarTvelobis organizaciebs. [125:71]. isini sakmaod frTxil politikas atarebdnen adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mimarT, Tumca ukanasknelni samxedro nawilebis mudmivi kontrolis qveS imyofebodnen da emorCilebodnen saokupacio samxedro SenaerTebis meTaurebs - prefeqtebs, romlebic iyvnen ara marto samxedro, aramed administraciuli Tanamdebobis pirebi. [72:46]. adrianes mier dunaispireTSi warmoebuli administraciuli reorganizaciis erT-erT Taviseburebas iq dislocirebuli armiis rekrutirebisa da veteranTa dasaxlebis problemis gadaWra warmoadgenda. dunaispireTSi mdgomi legionebi samsaxuris sanacvlod miwis garkveul nakveTs iRebdnen. adrianes dros, roca omi iSviaTad iyo, veteranebi iRebdnen im miwis nakveTs, sadac msaxurobdnen. am process mohyva adgilobrivi mosaxleobis kolosaluri eqspropriacia, rac Seexeba armiis rekrutirebis process, mas Semdeg, rac adriane legionTa Sevsebis sruliad gansxvavebul sistemaze gadavida da ZiriTadi aqcenti adgilobriv resursebze gadaitana, daiwyo legionTa socialuri da eTnikuri Semadgenlobis cvlileba da sagrZnoblad gaizarda dunaispireTis legionTa mniSvneloba. [96:115-117;53:654;80:579]. aseve unda aRiniSnos, rom dakiaSi dislocirebuli samxedro nawilebi did rols asrulebdnen mdidari oqros maRaroebis damuSavebaSi.

adrianes dros, legionebi adgilobrivi resursebiT, gansakuTrebiT ki e.w. `banakis bavSvebiT~ ivseboda, romlebic veterani da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis ukanono qorwinebis Sedegad Cndebodnen. yovelive es zrdida legionerTa damokidebulebas im provinciis mimarT, romlebSic idgnen. es procesi amavdroulad dakavSirebuli iyo armiis funqciis SecvlasTan, romelic gamowveuli iyo Semtevidan - TavdacviT taqtikaze gadasvliT. [34:581-587].

amrigad, dunaispireTi, Tavisi provinciebiT iyo tipiuri romauli `samxedro banaki~. aRsaniSnavia, rom provincia dakia iyo, romis mier dapyrobili erT-erTi ukanaskneli da imavdroulad pirveli provincia, sadac barbarosTa talRis Semosevebis Sedegad daemxo romaelTa batonoba. romis politikur sistemaSi dakia im periodSi moeqca, rodesac imperiis kolonizatoruli politika sruliad gansxvavebul fazaSi Sevida da misma damokidebulebam dapyrobil qveynebTan mimarTebaSi radikaluri transformacia ganicada. yvelaferi es aisaxa dakiis politikur cxovrebaze da aq romaulma provinciuli mmarTvelobis sistemam da kolonizaciam gansakuTrebuli, specifikuri saxe miiRo.

amrigad, dakiasTan mimarTebaSi, dunaispireTis sxva provinciebis intensiuri kolonizacia da urbanizacia nakarnaxevi iyo im mniSvnelobiT, romelic mas hqonda imperiis dacvis TvalsazrisiT da imperatoris mier miRebuli `TavdacviTi koncefciis~ srulyofisaTvis.


$3. CrdiloeT afrikis provinciebi


yofili karTagenis mxare da iulius cezaris mier masTan SeerTebuli yofili numidiis samefos teritoriis nawili, anu, rogorc maT uwodeben: Zveli da axali afrika, romis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi `afrikis provincia~ saxelwodebiT Sedioda. [116:552-579].

administraciuli TvalsazrisiT afrikis provincia iyofoda qalaqebad da samosaxloebad, romlebic kvazimunicipaluri uflebebiT sargeblobdnen. tomobriv gaerTianebebs ki, romanizebuli princepsebi mmarTavdnen. II s. imperatorebi, romlebic qalaqebis gazrdaze da samoqalaqo cxovrebis intensificirebaze zrunavdnen, ZiriTadad dekurionebs eyrdnobodnen. monacemebi sxva samoqalaqo dasaxlebebis dajgufebaTa Sesaxeb umniSvneloa da SesaZlebelia maTze warmodgena viqonioT mxolod irib mosazrebebze dayrdnobiT. amasTan mimarTebaSi unda ganvixiloT mwiri masala afrikis qalaqebis Sesaxeb da aq arsebuli xelosanTa kolegiebis rolze. [53:652]. gansakuTrebiT xazi unda gaesvas soflis meurneobis rols qalaqis cxovrebaSi, romlebzec faqtobrivad iyvnen kidec damokidebulni. qalaqebi afrikis provinciebSi dominirebul rols asrulebdnen, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom afrika imavdroulad msxvili miwaTmflobelobis klasikur qveyanas warmoadgenda. nakveTebis mobilizacia, sakmaod rTuli procesi iyo, romelsac Tan mZafri klasobrivi brZolebi axlda. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, afrikaSi arsebobdnen tomobrivi gaerTianebebi, romlebsac romaeli moxeleebi ganagebdnen. afrikuli tomebis mudmivi mRelvarebani romis xelisuflebas aZlevda sababs, SeWriliyo mis teritoriebSi da gaefarTovebina dapyrobili teritoriebi. rogorc viciT, dapyrobili miwebi ager publicum-ad gadaiqceoda an xSirad iyideboda, an veteranebs gadaecemoda. es veteranebi qalaqis cxovrebaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen. [Plin., HN, V, 20]. rogorc amas warwerebi mowmoben, zogierTi tomis miwa sxvadasxva romaul qalaqebs Soris iyo mimofantuli. sakuTriv tomTa mflobelobaSi SesaZloa, mxolod mcire teritoriuli nawili rCeboda, sadac wvrili miwaTmflobeloba unda ewarmoebinaT. amrigad, afrikuli tomebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo wvrili da saSualo miwaTmflobelobis arseboba. gansakuTrebiT es damaxasiaTebeli iyo im raionebisTvis, romlebic zRvasTan axlos mdebareobdnen. intervent romaelebsa da afrikul tomebs Soris konfrontaciis faqti xels uwyobda msxvili miwaTmflobelobis ganviTarebas, romelTa monopolia, ZiriTadad samoqalaqo dekurionebis xelSi iyo. maT miwaze mimagrebuli iyo uamravi koloni.

am tomobriv gaerTianebebs Soris mudam iyo Sexla-Semoxla teritoriebis mitacebis gamo. qalaqsa da dasaxlebas Soris arsebuli urTierTobis WrilSi SesaZlebeli xdeba imis gaanalizeba, rom miuxedavad samoqalaqo cxovrebis intensiuri ganviTarebisa, romanizaciis procesi afrikaSi nela mimdinareobda da warmatebuli arc yofila, amitomac, CrdiloeT afrikis qalaqebSi romanizaciis aranairi kvali ar Cans.

yvela es sakiTxi CvenTvis mniSvnelovania ara marto afrikis provinciebis istoriisaTvis, aramed mTlianobaSi imperiis istoriis gagebis TvalsazrisiT. Tuki romelime damaxasiaTebeli iyo, tipiurad mxolod afrikisaTvis, meore damaxasiaTebeli iyo romis provinciebisaTvis.

II s. dasawyisidan afrikis qalaqebSi ZiriTadad ganviTarebulia soflis meurneoba. afrikis CrdiloeT mxareSi mohyavdaT marcvleuli kultura, samxreTSi ki mravlad iyo zeTisxilis plantaciebi, romlebic ZiriTadad msxvili magnatebis sakuTrebas warmoadgenda. [109:71]. aseve yuradReba unda gamaxvildes aq arsebul oqros sabadoebze, am kuTxiT sainteresoa erTi cnoba: rom jer kidev imperatorma domicianem ax. w. 80 w. moawyo eqspedicia iulius meternis xelmZRvanelobiT, romlebic sudanSi oqros sabadoebis saZieblad midiodnen. [64:173].

II s. I naxevris afrikis provinciis istoriis Sesaswavlad sakmaod mwiri cnobebi mogvepoveba, amitomac, miuxedavad imisa, rom romanizaciis aranairi kvali ar arsebobs, mainc am mxaris romanizaciis procesis gaanalizebiT SemovifarglebiT.

romis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi myofi sxva provinciebis msgavsad, adrianes principatis xanaSi afrikaSi romaelTa garnizonebi idga. dislokaciis adgilidan isini TandaTanobiT qveynis Suagulisaken miiwevdnen. romis garnizonis Stabi jer kidev traianes dros tevestidan dasavleTiT gadmoitanes. traianes mier daarsebuli tamugadi da lambezi (numidia), romlebic adrianes droidan afrikuli armiis mTavar sadislokacio bazas warmoadgendnen, qalaquri tipis dasaxlebas qmnida, romelic SeiZleba SevadaroT reinze da dunaispireTSi arsebul samxedro banakebs - kastelumebs. aq Casaxlebulni iyvnen brZolebSi gamowrTobili veteranebi, romlebsac SesaZloa sazRvrebis dasacavad iynebdnen. [151:161]. yovelive amasTan erTad, es dasaxlebebi warmoadgendnen romanizaciis Zlier keras. [67:120-121]. unda aRiniSnos, rom es samosaxloebi ZiriTadad CrdiloeT afrikis sazRvrebTan arsebobda [71:120-121]. da ver aRwevdnen qveynis siRrmeSi, ramac ganapiroba romanizaciis sisuste am regionSi. zemoT CamoTvlili dasaxleba, romelic auress - CrdiloeTis umsxviles qalaqebTan cirtas (konstantines) sanapiroebTan, aseve kalamosTan (gelma) da mihpon regiasTan (boni) akavSirebda am qalaqebis usafrTxoebas uzrunvelyofda, ramdenadac q. lambezSi idga avgustusis me-II legioni. [53:652].

adrianes drois CrdiloeT afrikis qalaqebidan gamovyofT mavritanias, romelmac romaelebs ar daaxvedra iseTi kulturuli memkvidreoba, rogoric afrikam da numidiam. mis socialur-ekonomikur struqturaze Zalze mwiri cnobebi mogvepoveba. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom msxvili qalaquri tipis samosaxloebis arseboba aq ar fiqsirdeba. SesaZloa calkeuli tomobrivi gaerTianebebi vigulisxmoT. mavritaniaSi idga `mavritanuli~ armia, romelic `afriko-numidiur~ armias ar Camouvardeboda. [Tacit. Hist., 2, 58]. mavritanuli armia did rols asrulebda II s. 20-iani wlebis romis armiis damxmare kontingentis saxiT. am armiis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen is adgilobrivi macxovreblebi, romlebic vaWrobiTa da xelosnobiT saarsebo purs ver Soulobda da iZulebuli iyo daqiravebuli meomari gamxdariyo. [34:151;53:653]. am armiis saTaveSi romaeli moxele idga. mavritaniaSi samxedro nawilebis arseboba aucileblobiT iyo ganpirobebuli, ramdenadac adgilobrivi tomebis, mavrebis Tavdasxmebs araerTxel hqonia adgili, rogorc qveynis SigniT, aseve afrikis sxva provinciebzec da sazRvrispira zolze. romis imperia maTTan Ria konfliqts gaurboda da mxolod TavdacviT Semoifargleboda, radgan isini romisaTvis seriozul safrTxes ar warmoadgendnen. Tumca adrianes mmarTvelobis pirvel xanebSi, rodesac mavrebi sporadul gamosvlebs awyoben, imperatorma, romelic sazRvrebis usafrTxoebaze yvelaze metad zrunavda, maT winaaRmdeg marcius turboni gagzavna. adrianes brZanebiT Tanamdebobidan gadaayenes mavritaniis moxele lucius kvietusi, romelsac am ajanyebis organizebaSi edeboda brali. [El. Spart. V, 8]. turbonma SeZlo mavrebis mRelvarebis Caqroba. amis aRsaniSnavad, mogvianebiT, 135 w. imperatorma specialuri monetac ki moaWrevina da turbons am RvawlisTvis SemdgomSi sxvadasxva privilegiuri Tanamdeboba uboZa, TviTon imperatorma ki senatisagan samadlobeli paraklisebi daimsaxura. [El. Spart. 12,7]. yovelive es xazs usvams am tomis agresiul damokidebulebas romis imperiisadmi, marcius turbonis gagzavna ki - am mRelvarebis seriozulobas.

sainteresoa Bordj-Medjana-s dasavleTiT 5 km-iT el-guriaSi (El-Guerria) napovni sasazRvro niSani, romelic SesaZloa dadges imperatoris surviliT da warmoadgenda numidiuri tomisTvis SezRuduli samflobeloebis adsignirebis mowmobas. aqve ipoves arabuli vilis nangrevebi, romelic romaul naSTebze iyo aSenebuli, aseve sxvadasxva arqiteqturuli fragmentebi, rac miuTiTebs, rom odesRac aq arsebobda patara sagvareulo dasaxleba. [57:138]. SesaZloa, es vila tomTa gaerTianebis beladis an sulac romaeli moxelis rezidencia yofiliyo.

unda aRiniSnos, rom eTnografiuli TvalsazrisiT provincia afrika eTnopolitikuri dajgufebebis didi ojaxi iyo. mis adgilobriv mosaxleobas berberebi Seadgendnen, romlebsac mSobliur enasTan erTad damwerlobac hqondaT. [53:653]. Tumca, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, oficialuri urTierTobisas, am eniT ar sargeblobdnen, yovel SemTxvevaSi igi monetebze ar fiqsirdeba. berberuli warwerebis, saflavTa epiTapiebis, umravlesoba imperiis periods ekuTvnis. Tumca maTi simwire miuTiTebs, rom is farTod gamoyenebadi ar yofila, e.i. miuxedavad imisa, rom laTinuri ena dominirebda, man ver SeZlo punikuri da berZnuli enebis gamodevna, ramdenadac am enebze mosaxleobis umravlesoba laparakobda.

CrdiloeT afrikaSi romauli civilizaciis paralelurad finikiuri ena prevalirebda, rasac mowmoben, rogorc monetebi, aseve warwerebic. Tumca finikiur enas ar hqonda iseTi mniSvneloba, rogorc berZnuls, ramdendac romis xelisufleba afrikaSi finikiuri enis gavrcelebas uSlida xels. romis xelisufleba kargad acnobierebda, rom amas ar SeeZlo romanizaciis procesisaTvis xelis SeSla. laTinur enaze laparakobdnen umTavresad samxedro wodebis warmomadgenlebi da italieli vaWrebi, ramac ganapiroba afrikis provinciebis elinizacia, vinem laTinizacia.

rogorc viciT, afrikuli qalaqebis umravlesoba finikiuri samoqalaqo uflebiT sargeblobda. finikiuri uflebis mqone afrikis qalaqebis `gardasaxvas~ safuZveli jer kidev iulius severusis dros Caeyara. pirvelad romauli samoqalaqo ufleba Zvelma finikiurma qalaqma utikam miiRo. SemdegSi ki, sxva afrikul qalaqebsac mieniWa, Tumca romauli uflebis mqone qalaqebis raodenoba traianesa da adrianemde SezRuduli iyo. Tuki II s. dasawyisisaTvis afrikis dovlaTianobisadmi miZRvnili Zeglebis raodenoba didia, rac adre iSviaTobas warmoadgenda, es imis Sedegi iyo, rom afrikis qalaqebis umravlesobam SeiZina romauli ufleba (anu Sevida romauli uflebis mqone imperiis qalaqTa kavSirSi). [116:576].

afrikis qalaqebs imperiis socialur-ekonomikuri winsvlisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda. afrika imperiisaTvis `puris beRels~ warmoadgenda. mas Semdeg rac italia puris importis mudmivi saWiroebis winaSe dadga, am moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad pirvel rigSi teritoriulad axlos mdebare afrikas daeyrdno. T. momzenis Tanaxmad: afrikuli puri warmoadgenda ara rogorc importis sagans, aramed pirvel rigSi xarks, romlis gadaxdac am provincias evaleboda. unda aRiniSnos, rom arc erTi provincia ar iZleoda zeTisxils imdeni raodenobiT, rogorc CrdiloeT afrika. afrikuli zeTi, romelic jer kidev I s. yvelaze dabali xarisxiT gamoirCeoda, IIs. konkurencias uwevda saukeTeso espanur zeTs. [53:652]. mejogeobiT da mecxeneobiT numidia da mavritania gamoirCeodnen. afrikuli provinciebidan romSi SemoyavdaT spiloebi, lomebi. aseve Zvirad fasobda afrikidan Semotanili spilos Zvali. [93:422].

amave xanebSi CrdiloeT sanapiroebze dawinaurdnen savaWro qalaqebi: utika, hadrumetumi, hiponregiumi da kesarea. es qalaqebi ZiriTad magistralze mdebareobdnen, kerZod zRvis sanapiroebTan, amitomac romTan import-eqsportis ZiriTad bazas warmoadgendnen.

afrikis provinciebis keTilmowyobaze miuTiTebdnen afrikis qalaqebis nangrevebi, romlebsac teritoriuli farTis uqonlobis miuxedavad hqondaT: Teatrebi, abanoebi, triumfaluri TaRebi, mdidrulad morTuli sarkofagebi.

adrianes dros, roca imperiis ZiriTad satranzito gzebze intensiuri samuSaoebi mimdinareobda, afrikuli qalaqebi gansakuTrebuli mzrunvelobiT ekidebian gzebis mSeneblobas. SesaZloa es ganpirobebuli iyo romis imperiasTan saeqsporto urTierTobis gaumjobesebiT an am RonisZiebiT afrikis provinciebi imperatorisadmi erTgvar pativiscemas gamoxatavdnen.

amrigad, imperiis finansuri da ekonomikuri moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad CrdiloeTi afrika iyo Zvirfasi samflobelo. am teritoriaze romaelTa batonobis SenarCunebas Zalian didi mniSvneloba hqonda imperiaSi dawyebuli monaTmflobeluri krizisis SesaCereblad. ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, centraluri afrikidan romaelebi monaTa did nakads iRebdnen. [163:4;53:653].

rogorc viciT, adrianes samSvidobo politikis aqtiuri mowinaaRmdegeni iyvnen monaTmflobelebic. eqspansionistur politikaze uaris Tqmam, ra Tqma unda SezRuda monaTa kontingentis Semosvla imperiaSi, rac ar awyobdaT maT. imperatorma afrikidan mSvidobiani gziT monebis garkveuli raodenobiT SemoyvaniT SesaniSnavad moagvara es problema.

amrigad, imperatorma didi Zalisxmevis miuxedavad ver SesZlo am regionSi romanizaciis procesis warmarTva, magram imperator adrianes mier SemuSaveuli `TavdacviTi koncefciis~ pirobebSi, rodesac imperia uars ambobs eqspansionistur politikaze da totalur Tavdacvaze gadadis, sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, marto imperiis finansuri da ekonomikuri moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad afrikas didi mniSvneloba hqonda.


^ Tavi III. adrianes aRmosavluri politika


imperator adrianes sagareo politikis kardinalur mimarTulebas warmoadgenda e.w. `aRmosavleTis sakiTxi~. saerTod, am problemas romaul diplomatiaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili eWira mTeli Zv.w. I ax. w. I ss. manZilze. Tumca, adrianes mmarTvelobisas misi aqtualuroba kidev ufro gaizarda, ramdenadac traianes (98-117) parTia - somxeTSi warumatebeli laSqrobis Semdeg, romis poziciebi mniSvnelovnad Seirya ara mxolod sasazRvro regionebSi, aramed uSualod romaul provinciebSi da romis `megobar da mokavSire~ im qveynebSic, romlebic Cveulebriv romauli politikis aqtiuri mxardamWerebi iyvnen ax. w. I saukuneSi.

adrianes mmarTvelobis periodSi romis aRmosavluri politika ramdenime ZiriTadi mimarTulebisagan Sedgeboda. es iyo urTierToba parTia - somxeTTan, iudeasTan da iberiis samefosTan. am urTierTobebze did gavlenas axdenda rogorc romis imperiis saSinao-politikuri mdgomareoba, aseve aRmosavleTSi Seqmnili saerTo politikuri situacia. Tumca, sanam gadavidodeT adrianes dros am qveynebTan urTierTobis sakiTxebis ganxilvaze, mokled gvinda SevexoT im istoriul realiebs, romelsac adgili hqonda wina aziaSi Zv.w. I - ax.w. I ss.


$1. romis aRmosavluri politikis istoriisaTvis

Zv.w. I - ax. w. I ss.


Zv. w. I s. dasawyisidan romis sagareo politikaSi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda e.w. `aRmosavluri sakiTxi~. romis gviandeli respublikis periodSi, lukulusisa da pompeusis aRmosavluri laSqrobis Sedegad, wina aziis politikuri ruka radikalurad Seicvala. TiTqmis mTeli mcire azia romis politikuri gavlenis qveS moeqca. miTridatuli pontos Zlieri SaviszRvispira monarqia daemxo da misi teritoria romis provinciad gamocxadda. kapadokiisa da komagenis samefoebma damoukidebloba mxolod nominalurad SeinarCunes da mTlianad romis politikur prioritets daeqvemdebarnen. [App., Mith., 114]. `didi armeniis~ vrceli samefo daiSala. igi misi mezobeli albaneTisa da iberiis samefoebis msgavsad romis `megobar da mokavSire~, e.i. vasalur saxelmwifoebad gamocxadda. [App., Mith., Plut., Domp., 34; Dio Cass., XXXVII, 5]. xolo yofili miTridatuli pontos samefos SemadgenlobaSi Semavali aRmosvleT SavizRvispireTi, istoriuli kolxeTi, pompeusma calke administraciul erTeulad gamoyo da uSualod dauqvemdebara roms. [App., Mith., 114]. garda amisa, Zv. w. 64 w. pompeusma oficialurad gaauqma selevkidebis samefo da misi teritoria romis provinciul mmarTvelobas daumorCila. [18:25-31;20:27-33;105:99-117].

amdenad, Zv. w. I s. 60-ian ww. TiTqmis mTeli wina azia romis politikur sistemaSi iqna CarTuli. am droidan romi maxlobeli aRmosavleTis sivrceSi axali saerTaSoriso politikuri wesrigis - samxedro ZaliT ganmtkicebuli `romauli reJimis~ - damfuZneblad gvevlineba, xolo misi orientaluri politika saukuneebis manZilze regionSi kulturul-istoriuli procesebis erT-erT mamoZravebel faqtorad iqca. am politikis kardinalur mimarTulebas ki warmoadgenda parTiis Zlier saxelmwifosTan urTierToba.

romis politikuri interesebi parTiis mimarT warmoiSva lukulusisa da pompeusis kampaniebis dros. am periodSi romsa da iberia-armenias Soris mimdinare mwvave konfrontaciis fonze, geopolitikuri TvalsazrisiT, metad mniSvnelovani iyo Tu ra pozicias daikavebda parTia - miemxroboda igi koalicias Tu neitralitets SeinarCunebda. dRes ukve Znelia imaze saubari, Tu rogor ganviTardeboda movlenebi maxlobel aRmosavleTSi pompeusis laSqrobis dros, da saerTod rogori iqneboda am regionis Semdgomi kulturul-istoriuli bedi, Tu parTiis samefo miemxroboda aziur koalicias da isini erTiani ZaliT Seutevdnen roms, magram faqtia, rom romaulma diplomatiam moaxerxa didi gamarjvebebis mopoveba - parTiis samefo aRmosavleTSi romauli eqspansiis TiTqmis mTel periodSi neitralitets icavda. aziaSi mebrZoli romaeli mxedarTmTavrebi - sula, lukulusi da Tavdapirvelad pompeusic yovelnairad cdilobdnen ar daeSvaT aRmosavleTis saxelmwifoTa koaliciisTvis parTiis mimxroba da isini Tavs parTielTa megobrad asaRebdnen. mTeli am drois ganmavlobaSi romauli diplomatia aqtiurad moqmedebda parTiis mmarTvel arSakidebis samefo karze, awarmoebda maTTan megobrul molaparakebas da pirdeboda mTel mesopotamias evfratamde. [20:30-32;21:67].

Tumca, Zv. w. I s. miwuruls, roca pompeusis aRmosavluri kampania ukve dasasruls uaxlovdeboda, viTareba mkveTrad Seicvala. miTridate VI-is ganadgurebis, tigran II-is (Zv. w. 95-96) `didi armeniis~ vasalad gamocxadebisa da selevkidTa samefos okupirebis Semdeg, romi uSualod miadga parTiis saxelmwifo sazRvrebs da maT Soris urTierTobam mwvave xasiaTi miiRo. pompeusis mier parTiasTan dadebuli xelSekrulebiT sazRvari romsa da parTias Soris md. evfratze gadioda, e.i. mesopotamia parTielTa Zalauflebis qveS iyo moqceuli. romaelebs kargad esmodaT, rom evfratsa miRma teritoriebi parTielebs kanonierad ekuTvnoda, magram romis gviandeli respublikisaTvis, romelic ar cnobda araviTar sazRvrebs, garda bunebrivisa, miuRebeli iyo TiTqmis Tanabari Zalis saxelmwifosTan Tanaarseboba. miT umetes, rom am droisTvis, romis agresia aRmosavleTSi faqtobrivad kulminacias aRwevs. romis mmarTvel wreebs kargad esmodaT, rom parTiasTan maTi interesebi maleve gadaikveTeboda da maT Soris konfliqti gardauvali iyo. pirvelma uTanxmoebam jer kidev Zv. w. 64 wels iCina Tavi. parTiis mefe fraat III-m (Zv. w. 70/69-58) scada somxeTis saqmeebSi Careva. man pompeuss mosTxova gaenTavisuflebina tyveobaSi myofi somexTa ufliswuli tigran umcrosi. es ukanaskneli fraatis siZe gaxldaT da parTiis mefes perspeqtivaSi misi armeniaSi gamefebis imedi hqonda. Tumca, pompeusma mas uari ganucxada. maSin parTielma elCebma romaelebs usayvedures maT mier sasazRvro zolis darRvevis gamo da aukrZales maT evfratze gadasvla,razec pompeusma amayad ganacxada, rom romaelTa Zalaufleba usazRvroa da yvelgan vrceldeba. [Cass. Dio., XXXVII, 6, 7; Plut., Pomp., 38]. dion kasiosis cnobiT, aRmosavluri kampaniis dasrulebis Semdeg pompeusi fraatis mimarT aSkarad gamomwvevad iqceoda da mtrul moqmedebebsac ar erideboda. [Cass. Dio., XXXVII, 7]. Tumca, am dros, saqme saomar moqmedebebamde ar misula. [46:40-41].

romma parTiasTan arsebuli winaaRmdegobebis gadaWra samxedro gziT pirveli triumviratis mmarTvelobis periodSi scada, Tumca, markus krasusis aRmosavluri laSqroba marcxiT dasrulda da Zv. w. 53 w. karasTan brZolaSi parTielebma TiTqmis mTlianad gaanadgures romauli armia, TviTon krasusi daiRupa. [116:325;81;177:78-92]. am laSqrobam 20 aTasi romaeli legioneris sicocxle Seiwira, 10 aTasi ki tyved Cavarda. garda amisa, parTielebma xelT igdes romauli samxedro droSebi da legionTa simbolo-niSnebi, [Plin., NH, VI, 17]. rac didi dartyma iyo romauli iaraRis prestiJisTvis. miTi romauli armiis uZlevelobaze Seirya, wina aziis elinisturi qveynebis mmarTvelebi ki iwyeben sargeblobas Seqmnili axali politikuri koniuqturiT da parTia - romis winaaRmdegobebis sakuTari interesebisTvis gamoyenebas. [Cicero, Epist. ad Attic., 18,20; 46:59].

krasusis laSqrobis Semdeg iwyeba axali etapi romis aRmosavlur politikaSi. dapirispirebam romsa da parTias Soris permanentuli xasiaTi miiRo, ramdenime saukunis manZilze gagrZelda da am dapirispirebis Sedegad aRmosavleTSi Seiqmna e.w. `politikuri dualizmis~ sistema, romelmac mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa maxlobeli aRmosavleTis Semdgom istoriul ganviTarebze. [21:67-69].

dapirispireba parTia-roms Soris ar Semoifargleboda mxolod saomari kampaniebiT. mebrZoli mxareebi cdilobdnen erTmaneTis saSinao saqmeebSi Carevas da mowinaaRmdege qveyanaSi nebismieri saSinao-politikuri garTulebis Tavis sasargeblod gamoyenebas. romisa da parTiis garSemo iwyeba aRmosavleTis sxvadasxva socialuri da politikuri jgufebis gaerTianeba. dapirispirebam iseTi farTo masStabebi miiRo, rom Seqmnili `politikuri dualizmi~ aiZulebda aziis sxva politikur erTeulebs Careuliyvnen am konfrontaciaSi, konkretul istoriul situaciaSi gamoexataT TavianTi damokidebuleba mebrZoli mxareebis mimarT da mxari daeWiraT romelime maTganisaTvis. [21:68;46:60-70].

romaelebi parTelebTan SedarebiT ufro axlos idgnen berZen monaTmflobel wreebTan da berZnul-elinistur civilizaciasTan. amitom, aRmosavleTSi gamoCenisTanave, romaelebi Tavs elinisturi xanis mefeebis tradiciebis gamgrZeleblad acxadebdnen. miTridatuli pontos ganadgurebis Semdeg ki, erTaderT realur politikur Zalad, romlis garSemoc SeiZleboda darazmuliyo mcire aziis berZnuli mosaxleoba.

berZnul-elinisturi qalaqebi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobdnen maxlobeli aRmosavleTis politikur cxovrebaSi. maT romis sagareo politikaSi izidavdaT `berZnuli~ mosaxleobisa da kulturis `barbarosTagan dacvis~ lozungi da garkveuli momentidan aqtiurad uWeren mxars romaelTa winsvlas aRmosavleTSi. Tavis mxriv, romaelebic, romlebic pretenzias acxadebdnen mTel aRmosavleTze, ra Tqma unda, eweodnen odesRac aleqsandre makedonelis mier aRmosavleTSi dapyrobili teritoriebis dacvis farTo propagandas da parTiasTan uSualo konfrontaciis zonebSi - mcire aziasa da siriaSi, yovelmxriv xels uwyobdnen berZnul-elinisturi polisebis gaZlierebas. [114:155;45:249-250;62:25;191:78]. yovelive amasTan erTad garkveul kulturul-istoriuli mizezebis gamo, romanizaciis procesma aRmosavleTSi elinizaciis saxe miiRo, xolo berZnuli ena Tavisi mniSvnelobiT faqtobrivad gauTanabrda laTinurs. [74:235;67:124]. ase rom, aRmosavleTSi antikur-romaul socialur-ekonomikuri normebisa da kulturuli tradiciebis gavrceleba xdeba elinizaciis gziT, rac, ra Tqma unda, did mxardaWeras iwvevda aziis elinistur mosaxleobaSi.

amdenad, romis faqtori rogorc politikuri, aseve socialuri TvalsazrisiTac misaRebi iyo aRmosavleTis berZnuli qalaqebis monaTmflobeluri wreebisTvis. isini romaul-parTiuli dapirispirebis mravalsaukunovani istoriis TiTqmis mTel manZilze aqtiurad gamodian `barbarosi~ parTielebis winaaRmdeg da warmoadgendnen romis Zlier sayrdens aRmosavleTSi. [115;107:254-285;183:211;199:767]. sainteresoa, rom romis mxareze gadavidnen ara mxolod bosfori da mcire aziis berZnuli qalaqebi, aramed mesopotamiasa da siriis teritoriaze arsebuli is polisebic, romlebic uSualod parTiis samefos SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen. mag. plutarqes cnobiT, selevkiisa da babiloniis mcxovrebni `parTielTa dauZinebeli mtrebi iyvnen~. [Plut., Crass, 17].

rac Seexeba parTiis samefos, man piriqiT, Tavis garSemo daiwyo yvela antiberZnuli da antielinisturi elementebis Semokreba. arSakidebi Tavs aqemenidTa memkvidreebad Tvlidnen da TavianT kuTvnil teritoriad miaCndaT romis gamgeblobaSi moqceuli wina aziis qveynebi. marTalia, arSakidebma ver SeZles erTiani, centralizebuli saxelmwifos Seqmna, parTia warmoadgenda sxvadasxva istoriuli warsulis, gansxvavebuli socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis mqone calkeuli raionebis konglomerats, magram mas aRmoaCnda sakmao potenciali imisTvis, rom SeeCerebina romis winsvla aRmosavleTSi.

romisa da parTiis dapirispirebis mTavari mizezi gaxda armenia. am ukanasknels umniSvnelovanesi adgili eWira rogorc romis, aseve parTiis sagareo politikaSi da warmoadgenda maT Soris gamarTuli saomari moqmedebebis ZiriTad asparezs. mowinaaRmdege mxareebi dainteresebuli iyvnen somxeTze gamavali dasavleTis aRmosavleTTan damakavSirebeli ZiriTadi savaWro magistralis xelSi CagdebiT da aseve misi strategiuli mniSvnelobiT. [73:50]. romis imperia, somxeTSi Zalauflebis ganmtkicebiT cdilobda Tavisi proteqtoratisaTvis daeqvemdebarebina ara marto somxeTis da kavkasiaze gamavali gzebi, aramed mTavari satranzito gzac - siriidan - mesopotamiasa da iranSi. parTiis samefos surda kontrolqveS yoloda somxeTis mTianeTi da mis mier kontrolirebadi yofiliyo mesopotamia da kapadokia. unda aRiniSnos somxeTis samxedro kontigentis mniSvnelobac, romlis gadmobirebas orive mxare cdilobda. somxeTSi xSiri iyo Sinagani winaaRmdegobanic. adgili hqonda iranofilur da romanofilur dajgufebaTa Soris dapirispirebas, rac gamowveuli iyo mebrZoli mxareebis interesebiT: parTias romTan SedarebiT somxeTis mimarT naklebi pretenziebi amoZravebda. romisagan gansxvavebiT mis interesebSi Sedioda somxeTis inkorporireba e.i. safrTxe ar emuqreboda am ukanasknelis damoukideblobas. amitomac ori uzarmazari qveynebis garemocvaSi moqceul patara qveyanas ar SeeZlo damoukidebeli politikis warmoeba.

krasusis laSqrobisa da `aRmosavleTSi dualizmis~ sistemis Seqmnis Semdeg armeniis istoriaSi iwyeba yvelaze mZime periodi. igi gaxda `buferuli~ samefo, romsa da parTias Soris ganuwyveteli omebis asparezi. armeniis mefeebi konkretuli politikuri koniuqturidan gamomdinare xSirad lavirebdnen parTiasa da roms Soris, Tumca maTi es politika xSirad kraxiT mTavrdeboda. faqtobrivad, mTeli Zv.w. I ax. w. II ss. manZilze romis sagareo politikaSi parTiasa da somxeTTan urTierToba cal-calke ar ganixileboda da igi erT mTlian problemas warmoadgenda. am urTierTobaze ki Tavis mxriv, did gavlenas axdenda calkeuli romaeli sardlebisa Tu imperatorebis piradi Sexedulebebi. mag., antoniusis dros, romaelebma kvlav moawyves grandiozuli laSqroba parTiaSi, rac maTTvis marcxiT dasrulda. antoniusma Tavisi warumatebloba ki somxeTis mefe artavazds daabrala, SeiWra somxeTSi, sastikad daarbia igi, artavazdi ki sikvdiliT dasaja. [Plut., Anton., 52; Tacit., Ann., II, 3; Cass Dio, XLIX, 39-40; Strabo, XI, 14, 15; Oros., V, 19].

avgustusis (Zv. w. 27 ax. w. 14) mmarTvelobisas, romSi epoqaluri mniSvnelobis cvlilebebis periodidan ki romis aRmosavluri politika Seicvala. romi strategiul Tavdacvaze gadavida. axalgazrda imperiis dapyrobiTi potenciali faqtobrivad amowuruli iyo, amitom avgustusi parTia-somxeTTan urTierTobis mogvarebas diplomatiuri gziT cdilobs. [105:136]. aseTive mdgomareoba grZeldeba tiberiusis drosac (14-37), Tumca tiberiusi ufro aqtiurad moqmedebs da ax. w. 18 w. armeniis taxtze ahyavs misTvis sasurveli kandidati. [Tac.. Ann., II, 56]. tiberiusis mmarTvelobis droidan romis aRmosavlur politikaSi mniSvnelovan adgils iWers iberiis samefoc, romelic aqtiurad ebmeba somxeTisaTvis brZolaSi.

`somxeTis problemis~ simwvavem kulminacias miaRwia neronis (54-68) mmarTvelobis periodSi. korbulonisa da petusis laSqrobebis Semdeg, ax. w. 63 w. dadebul iqna kompromisuli zavi, romlis Tanaxmadac armeniis taxtze unda asuliyo arSakidTa samefo karis warmomadgeneli, magram mas mefed romis imperatori daamtkicebda. [Tac.. Ann., XII, 50; 97:64-65]. es SeTanxmeba ZalaSi darCa sakmaod xangrZlivi drois manZilze, traianes mmarTvelobamde.

II s. dasawyisSi romis aRmosavlurma politikam radikaluri transformacia ganicada. traianes mier TiTqmis yvela sazRvarze dawyebuli farTo eqspansionisturi politika kulminacias 114-117 ww. parTia-somxeTSi mowyobili laSqrobebis dros aRwevs, rodesac romaelebma daipyres somxeTi, adiabena, babiloni, selevkia aiRes parTiis samefos dedaqalaqi qtezifoni. dapyrobil teritoriaze sami axali provincia: siria, mesopotamia da armenia Seiqmna. [Cass, Dio. LXVIII. 26, 26; Eutr., VIII, 3]. Tumca, romaelebma ver SeZles mopovebulis SenarCuneba. romauli armiis zurgSi ifeTqa mZlavrma ajanyebam, romelic swrafad gavrcelda ara marto axaldapyrobil SuamdinareTSi, aramed kirenaSi, kviprossa da egvipteSi, [46:236-248;105:184]. ris Sedegadac traiane iZulebuli gaxda daecala mTeli SuamdinareTi, xolo TviTon ki romisaken mimavali, gzaSi gardaicvala. [Cass Dio., LXVIII, 33. LXIX, 1].


$2. romis aRmosavluri politika adrianes xanaSi


I. adrianes aRmosavluri politika da



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