QarTuli saiuveliro xelovnebis istoriis icon

QarTuli saiuveliro xelovnebis istoriis


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qarTuli saiuveliro xelovnebis istoriis

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saiuveliro saqme kacobriobis erTgvari istoriaa. keTil­Sobil liTonTa mxatvruli damuSavebis ZvelTaZveli tradiciebi, saukuneTa manZilze qarTvel xelosanTa mier Seqmnili Zeglebi is mdidari memkvidreobaa, romelic saqarTveloSi mis sinamdvileSi mravalsaukonovani warsulidan modis. swored am bazaze Seiqmna, aRorZinda da axlac viTardeba Tanamedrove qarTuli oqromWed­loba.

saiuveliro nawarmis warmoeba uZvelesi civilizaciis Seqm­nidan­­ve momdinareobs. Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi Zvel egviptesa da SumerSi Seiqmna saiuveliro xelovnebis Sedevrebi.

saiuveliro xelovneba mxatvruli Semoqmedebis uZvelesi dargia. saiuveliro saqme keTilSobili liTonebis, Zvirfasi qvebis da zogierTi sxva masalis damuSavebis xelovnebis erT-erTi saxea. aq mTavaria saiuveliro ostatobaSi ornamentaciis saocari dax­vewiloba da wvrilmani detalebis kazmuli Semkoba: liTonisa da qvis dekoratiuli da mxatvruli damuSavebis xelovneba.

saqarTvelo saiuveliro xelovnebis erT-erTi uZvelesi da umdidresi keraa. igi samarTlianad iTvleba liTonis damuSavebis erT-erT uZveles samSoblod msoflioSi. saqarTvelos miwis wiaRi mdidaria madneuli resursebiT, xolo arqeologiuri masalebi mowmoben, rom aq adamianebi spilenZs pirvelad jer kidev Zv.w. III aTaswleul­Si amuSavebdnen da saqarTvelos teritoriaze mosaxle tomebma ukve icodnen brinjaos damzadeba. im droidanve euflebian isini sxva liTonebsac: tyvias da stibiums (anTimoniumi), vercxlsa da oqros.

qarTul saiuveliro xelovnebas fesvebi Soreul warsulSi aqvs. brinjaos xanidan qarTuli saiuveliro xelovneba maRal doneze idga. qarTuli oqromWedloba saTaves iRebs Soreul war­sulSi da did warmatebas aRwevs. oqromWedlobis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc xelovnebis sxva dargebisa, ar iyo da ar SeiZleboda yofiliyo sworxazovani, erTi aRmavali xaziT mimarTuli. Zveli saqarTvelo mudam iyo civilizebuli samyaros organuli nawili, amitom qarTuli oqromWedloba ganviTarebis yvela safexurze kanonzomierad atarebda Tavisi epoqis niSnebs, amave dros, mas hqonda erovnuli Taviseburebebic, romlebic erTi mxriv ganasxvavebda qarTvelTa naxelavs maTi Tanadrouli uc­xouri nawarmisagan, meore mxriv ki akavSirebda saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva dros Seqmnil Zeglebs, rogorc ganviTarebis kibis sxvadasxva safexurebs. am erovnuli Taviseburebebis danaxva da rac mTavaria, Cveneba ar aris ioli saqme, da saerTod, gansakuT­rebiT gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis iseT dargSi, rogoricaa samkaulTa warmoeba, romelic didad aris damokidebuli modaze. moda ki, iS­viaTad izRudavs Tavs eTnikuri da saxelmwifoebrivi sazRvrebiT.

qarTveli qalis mSveneba ZvelTaganvea cnobili, qali da sam­kauli ganuyofelia. qarTveli qalis samkaulic misi silamazis Sesaferisi iyo mudam.

veravin ityvis, rodis Seimko pirvelad Tavi adamianma, magram ueWvelia, rom pirveli samkauli is iyo, rasac buneba mzam­zareu­lad aZlevda mas.

mxatvrul-esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT samkaulis erTaderTi daniSnuleba adamianis galamazebaa. amdenad, samkaulis forma da xasiaTi sakmaod swrafad icvleboda qalis silamazis epoqaluri idealisa da Wirveuli modis cvalebadobis kvaldakval.

oqro-vercxlisa da Zvirfasi Tvlebis nakeTobas, garda mxatvrul-esTetikuri daniSnulebisa, uZvelesi droidanve hqonda maTi mflobelis eTnikuri vinaobis, socialuri da ekonomikuri statusis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebisa (insignia) da avgarozis funq­cia. Zvel dros farTod iyo gavrcelebuli saiuveliro da sanaxe­lavo qvebisgan damzadebuli beWdebi. agreTve Zvirfas qvebs magiuri idumali Zala mieniWa. maT iyenebdnen avgarozad, Tilismad, romelic adamians daicavda mtruli Zalebisagan da moutanda bed­nierebas. qvebi icavda adamians boroti Zalebisagan, icavda mis janmrTelobas.

adamianma azrovnebis dabal safexurze, qvis xanaSi pirvelad gaxvrita da yelze samkaulad Camoikida cxovelTa kbilebi, xmele­Tis Tu wylis moluskebis niJarebi. uZvelesi drois samar­xeb­Si (indoeTi, birma) aRmoCenili, damuSavebuli saiuveliro qvebis formebi miuTiTebs maT gamoyenebas samkaulebad, iaraRis da sayo­fac­xovrebo sagnebis mosarTavad. Cinelebi samkaulebis dasam­zadeb­lad liTonTan erTad farTod iyenebdnen marjans, nefritsa da qarvas. ramdenime aTasi wlis win damzadebul zogierT amgvar nakeTobas dRemde ar daukargavs esTetikuri mimzidveloba. amas adasturebs sagvarjileSi napovni steatitis (talkis) yelsakidebi. paleoliTuri xelovnebis nimuSia neoliTuri drois kistrikis (gudauTa) dasaxlebaSi wvrili kenWebis saxiT napovni muqi wiTeli feris eSma, giSeri, sardioni. ar aris gamoricxuli am qvebis gamoyeneba samkaulebad.

egeosuri samyaros (troa, Zveli saberZneTi) saiuveliro xelovnebaSi mTavaria cvarva da filigranuli teqnika, romlis stili erTgvarad emsgavseba mcire aziur saiuveliro xelovnebas.

saqarTveloSi oqromWedlobis aRmavlobis ramdenime perio­dia cnobili. pirveli didi aRmavloba saqarTvelos teritoriaze ganicada Zv.w. II aTaswleulis pirvel naxevarSi. am xanis samkaul­Ta ubrwyinvalesi nimuSebis didi raodenoba aRmoCenilia saqarT­velos teritoriaze gaTxrili adreuli xanis sxvadasxva simdid­ris yorRanebSi.

spilenZ-brinjaos xanidan (Zv.w. IV-II aTaswleuli), roca adamiani liTons daeufla, samkaulis warmoSobaSic upirvelesi adgili daimkvidra liTonma, gansakuTrebiT ki keTilSobilma li­Tonma (oqrom da vercxlma). amis ZiriTadi mizezi gaxda oqros da vercxlis mimzidveli feri da bzinva, maTi qimiuri mdgradoba da praqtikulad ucvleloba. garda amisa orive liToni, gansakuT­rebiT ki oqro araCveulebrivad plastikuria, ris gamoc isini Seucvleli masalebia samkaulis warmoebaSi.

saqarTvelo samarTlianad iTvleba keTilSobili loTonebis mopovebis da damuSavebis erT-erT uZveles kerad msoflioSi, risi dasturia dRemde SemorCenili ucxoeli istorikosebis da mkvleva­rebis werilobiTi wyaroebi, romlebSic pirdapiri Tu arapirdapi­ri miniSnebebiTaa oqros arseboba. aseve, mocemulia konkretuli cnobebi oqros mopovebis xerxebsa da qarTveli xelosnebis mier xalasi oqros nedleulisagan saiuveliro nakeeTobebis damzadebis teqnologia. Zvelad oqros mopoveba xdeboda, rogorc mdinareuli naleqebidan umciresi nawilakebis saxiT (oqros qviSa), aseve samTo gamonamuSevrebidan.

saqarTvelos teritoriaze gaTxril adrebrinjaos xanis yorRanebSi aRmoCenili feradi da Savi metalurgiis warmoebis mZlavr kerebTan erTad napovnia keTilSobili liTonebis sadnobi da sawarmoo kerebic, sadac SemorCenilia garkveuli daniSnulebis sxmuli da sxvadasxva Semcvelobis zodebi, rac dasturia imisa, rom aqauri oqromWedlebi oqros nedleuls amuSavebdnen _ ro­gorc Zireuli sabadoebidan mopovebul oqros, aseve qviSrobi sabadoebidan mopovebul xalas masas.

oqromWedloba, rogorc xelovnebis dargi, Casaxvidanve mniSvnelovanwilad swored samkaulTa warmoebas emsaxureboda. amrigad, oqromWedlobis ganviTarebis istoria arsebiTad emTxveva samkaulis istorias.

brinjaos xanaSi Zvirfas qvebze moTxovnilebaTa mkveTrma zrdam gamoiwvia maTi masobrivi gamoyeneba. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia minerali sardioni. sakmarisia iTqvas, rom marto sam­Tavros samarovanze aRmoCenilia sardionis ramdenime aTasi faqizad damuSavebuli mZivi. garda sardionisa kvarcis jgufis mineralebi­dan brinjaos xanaSi gamoyenebulia mTis broli, aqati, oniqsi da sxv. arqeologiuri masalebidan Cans, rom brinjaos xanaSi giSridan mZivebis damzadebas ukve masobrivi xasiaTi hqonia. adgilobriv mo­povebul Zvirfas da sanaxelavo qvebTan erTad brinjaos xanis ar­qeologiur Zeglebs Soris aris Semotanili qvebi _ marjani, qarva.

saqarTvelos teritoriaze gaTxril adrebrinjaos xanis yorRanebSi aRmoCenili oqros uZvelesi samkaulis ganxilva gviC­venebs, rom Zv.w. III aTaswleulis meore naxevris aqauri oqrom­Wedlebi ukve flobdnen liTonis damuSavebis umTavres xerxebs – Wedvas, Camosxmas da rCilvas. kaxeTSi alaznis velze erT-erT gorasamarxSi aRmoCenilia mcire zomis oqros lomis qandakeba, romelic TrialeTis kulturis winare xanas miekuTvneba da gark­veul mniSvnelobas iZens am kulturis genezisisTvis.



sur. 1. lomis figura. XXIII s. Zv.w. wnori, kaxeTi. Camosxmuli oqro, Semkuli reliefuri ornamentiT, gavarsisa da grexilis imitaciiT

am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia Suabrinjaos xanis TrialeTis didi yorRanebis kultura, rodesac Seiqmna po­liqromuli stilis msoflio mniSvnelobis Sedevrebi _ TrialeT­Si napovni sardionebiT Semkuli oqros Tasi. istoriulad am dros, tomTa didi gaerTianebebis warmoqmnis periodia saqarT­veloSi da TrialeTis yorRanebSic swored am gaerTianebaTa bela­debi dakrZalulia mefuri pativiT. TrialeTis oqros nivTebze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aq Cven saqme gvaqvs sakmaod ganviTarebul oq­romWedlobasTan, romelic ukve xelovnebis donemdea. TrialeTeli xelosnebisTvis ukve cnobili iyo TiTqmis yvela teqnikuri xerxi. isini iyenebdnen oqros nivTebis mxatvruli damuSavebis xerxebs, rogoricaa gavarsi anu granulacia, e.i. nivTis Semkoba zed dar­Ciluli oqros wvrili burTule­biT; grexili anu filigrani _ nivTis Semkoba oqros mavTulebiT; amzadeben dafanjrul da fuye nivTebs. TrialeTis kulturis arqeologiur masalaSi gverdigverd arsebobs martivi da rTuli teqnologiuri sqemiT damzadebuli nivTebi. igive iTqmis maT mxatvrul mxarezec _ erTi da imave sa­marxebSi gvxvdeba stilisturad mkveTrad gansxvavebuli nawarmi: erTi mxriv sada oqros Txelkedliani sakidebi da meore mxriv poliqromuli stilis yelsabami. am droisaTvis Cven gvaqvs maRal­mxatvruli, rTuli da faqizad daxvewili gemovnebiT Sesrulebu­li oqromWedluri nakeTobani. Cans, rom oqromWedelni _ iuveli­rebi dauflebulni yofilan maRal ostatobas. oqros nivTebi gamoirCeva oqromWedluri _ saiuveliro mxatvruli teqnikis maRa­li doniT.



sur. 2. oqros Tasi. XIX-XVIII ss. Zv.w. TrialeTi, walka.

oqros erTi furclisagan damzadebul Tass ormagi kedeli da Rru fexi aqvs. oqros budeebSi Casmulia sardioni, laJvardi, wiTeli iaspi, giSeri, minisebri pasta

`oqromWedelTa gansacvifrebel daxelovnebas cxads xdis faqizi gamoWedva an kverva, tvifrva, mWalva, rCilva, wvna, gawel­va, mocvarva, mominanqreba, mosevadeba, Tvaledi an mominan­q­rebuli poliqromia, oqrocurvis elementebi~ (saqarTvelos istoriis nar­kvevebi, t. I, 1970w., gv. 750).

oqromWedlobis TrialeTur nawarmSi ukve SeimCneva zogier­Ti iseTi niSani, romelic mihyveba qarTul oqromWedlobas mTeli misi ganviTarebis manZilze da, amdenad, mis erovnul-ganmasxvave­bel Taviseburebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. esaa ferebis TavSekavebuli gamoyeneba da maTi SerCeva-Sexameba. qarTveli xelovani mudam gaur­boda civ, kaSkaSa tonebs da erT nivTSi iSviaTad xmarobda orze met fers. qarTuli oqromWedlobis nimuSebi arasodes yofila Wreli.

TrialeTis kulturis (Zv.w. XV saukunidan axali welTaR­ric­xvis II_III saukuneebi) Zeglebis Seswavlisas mkvlevarebi im daskvnamde mividnen, rom `im droisaTvis Cven winaprebs scodniaT liTonis furclebis gawneviT damuSaveba da hqoniaT am procesebis SesrulebisaTvis saWiro Carxi da saxelosno iaraRebi~. (f. TavaZe, S. mesxia, v. barqaia, furclovani liTonebis Carxze damuSaveba Zvel saqarTveloSi, 1954).




sur. 3. yelsabami. XIX-X ss. Zv.w. walka, TrialeTi. oqroSi Casmulia Txelfirfitovani aqati da sardionebi

Cven mxolod ramdenime magaliTs movitanT TrialeTis yorRanuli kulturidan. pirvel rigSi davasaxelebT saiuveliro xelovnebis nimuSs _ oqros fialas, romelic saerTo moyvanilo­biT, SemkulobiT da damzadebis rTuli teqnikiT SeiZleba gverdSi amoudges msoflio arqeologiis unikumebsac. (saqarTvelos ar­qeologia, 1959, gv.23).

teqnikuri damuSavebis sirTuliTa da mxatvruli saSuale­bebis gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos erT-erT yorRanSi aRmoCenili oqros sasmisi, romelic feradi qvebiT aris inkrustrirebuli, damzadebuli saxarato Carxze oqros mTliani furclisagan. sasmiss ormagi kedeli aqvs, romelic Tanda­TanobiT viwrovdeba Zirisken da dabal quslSi gadadis. gareTa kedeli Semkulia wvrili, grexili mavTulebisagan gakeTebuli spiralebiT, romelSic Casmulia sardionis, laJvardisa da kerami­kuli masis mrgvali Tvlebi. aseTive Tvlebis erTi rigi dauyveba sasmisis pirs, ori ki qusls. oqros fonze feradi qvebiT inkrus­trirebuli sasmisi Zalze mdidrul STabeWdilebas tovebs.

aseTive rTuli teqnikaa gamoyenebuli sakinZeebis, oqros Tavebisa da msxvili birTvisebri mZivebis dasamzadeblad, romelic agreTve inkrustrirebulia feradi TvlebiT. aseTia mag., erT-erT yorRanSi aRmoCenili oqros firfitis budeSi Casmuli SesaniSnavi aqatis gulsakidi, romelic Semkulia gavarsiTa da serdolikis TvlebiT.

bedenisa da alaznis velis gorasamarxebSi (Zv.w. 2300-2000ww.) aRmoCenili oqros nakeTobani damzadebulia urTulesi teqnikuri xerxebis gamoyenebiT. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia Zv.w. IV aTaswleulis pirveli naxevris oqros nivTebi. am mxriv mniSvnelo­vania poliqromuli yelsabami. am drois qarTvel oqromWedelTaT­vis niSandoblivia ferebis gansakuTrebuli SerCeva _ Sexameba. Zv.w. VI-IV ss. qarTuli saiuveliro xelovnebis stils gansazRvravs granulacia, gvian antikur xanaSi ki poliqromia.

qarTuli saoqromWedlo xelovnebis saukeTeso qmnilebebi, nosiris (senakis raioni) ganZis (Zv.w. VIII-VII ss.) oqros nivTebia: Wviruli mZivebi, gavarsiani sayureebi, gvelis Tavis gamosaxulebiT daboloebuli wnuli samajuri da sxv. swored aqedan iwyeba anti­kuri xanis qarTuli oqromWedlobis aRmavloba, romelmac ganviTa­rebis umaRles dones Zv.w. V-IV saukuneebSi miaRwia.

gansakuTrebiT didi raodenobis saoqromWedlo nawarmi aR­moCnda vanis naqalaqarSi. qalis samkaulis ramdenime sruli komp­leqti, romlebic Seicavs Weduri ornamentiT Semkul Tavisebur diademebs, sxvadasxva formis sayureebsa da sasafeTqle sakidebs, yelsabamebsa da samajurebs.

vanis naqalaqaris samarxebi yvela safuZvels gvaZlevs imi­saTvis, rom (Zv.w. V-IV saukuneebi) qveynis axlo mezobeli cent­rebis (aqimeniduri, egvipte, irani, kviprosi) gverdiT kolxeTic davasaxeloT. kolxeTSi oqros mopovebasa da damuSavebaze berZeni mwerlebic mogviTxroben da mas `oqromaval~ qveyanas uwodeben. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom Zvel vanSi arsebobda profesional xe­losanTa mZlavri skola, romelic urTulesi teqnikuri xerxebis (kverva, rCilva, Wedva, gavarsi, tvifrva) gamoyenebiT saukuneebis manZilze qmnida mxatvruli oqromWedlobis brwyinvale nimuSebs.

warCinebuli kolxi qalis oqros diadema _ wers prof. o. lorTqifaniZe (o. lorTqifaniZe, ra saidumlos inaxavs vani, 1984, gv. 73) uTuod gamoCenili ostatis naxelavia. amas mowmobs mar­jved agebuli jgufuri kompozicia, cxovelTa damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis realisturad gadmocema da masTan erTad metad Tavisebu­ri stilizmi da naxati. aRsaniSnavia, rom vanis diademis gamosaxu­lebebs ver mouZebnes zusti da pirdapiri paralelebi.

amrigad, warCinebuli kolxi qalis oqros diadema Tavisi formiT wminda kolxuria. vanis samarxSi napovni warCinebuli kolxi qalis Tavsaburavi _ oqros diadema Zv.w. V saukuneSia Seq­mnili, samwuxarod, CvenTvis ucnobi ostatis mier da uZvelesi qarTuli saiuveliro xelovnebis erT-erTi SesaniSnavi nimuSia. iqve aRniSnulia, rom sxivana sayureebi `rTuli wesiTaa dam­zadebu­li da kolx iuvelirTa filigranuli teqnikis dasturia~. imave samarxSi napovnia agreTve e.w. Wviruli burTuliani oqros Sesa­niSnavi sayureebi. `saerTod, vanSi wlebis manZilze aRmoCenili oqros samkaulebi metad mravalnairi da metad mravalferovania. swored kolxur warmomavlobaze miuTiTebs mxatvruli formis originaluroba, romelic metwilad mxolod kolxeTisTvisaa dama­xasiaTebeli~ (o. lorTqifaniZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 75).



sur. 4. wyvili sasafeTqle sakidi. Zv.w. IV s, vani

amave periodSi sakmaod popularuli gaxda adgilobrivi, naxevrad daumuSavebeli sardionis kenWebisagan damzadebuli yelsa­bamebi. Cndeba minisa da minisebri pastis mZivebic. Cvens xelTaa am periodis ramdenime arqeologiuri kompleqsi saqarTvelos sxvada­sxva kuTxidan, romlebic gavarsiT mdidrulad Semkul oqros niv­Tebs Seicavs. wina aziasTan kulturul-ekonomikuri kavSirebis ma­niSnebelia kargad gaprialebuli muqi mowiTalo-yavisferi sardio­nis sferuli mZivebisagan damzadebuli yelsabamis farTo gavrce­leba Zv.w. VII saukunis saqarTveloSi.

vanis namarxebSi aRmoCenili nivTebidan gamoirCeva cxovelTa TavebiT Semkuli zurgSedrekili samajurebis stilisturad gansx­vavebuli erTi jgufi. samajuris boloebze gamosaxulia Tavebi. aseve aRmoCenilia oqrosa da vercxlis farakiani sabeWdavi beWde­bi, romlebzec gamosaxavdnen RvTaebebsa da maT atributebs. aseTi beWdebi marto samkauli ar iyo, sabeWdadac ixmareboda.



sur. 5. samajuri. V-IV ss. Zv.w. vani. oqros mTliani sxmuli jixvis Tavebis gamosaxu­le­biT. damatebiT damu­Sa­ve­bu­lia gravirebiT

sainteresoa da yvelaze sayuradReboa vanSi aRmoCenili oq­ros gavarsiani nivTebi, romelic agreTve adgilobrivi naxelavia. 0,1-0,2mm diametris mqone oqros burTulebi didi sizustiT aris Camosxmuli da darCiluli nivTebis zedapirze. Suq-Crdilis una­tifesi TamaSi iseT nivTebze, rogoricaa, mag.: kus gamosaxulebiT Semkuli yelsabami namdvili feradovnebis efeqts iZleva. mxatv­ruli TvalsazrisiT gavarsi poliqromiis Semcvlelia da oqrom­Wed­lobaSi imave rols asrulebs, rasac feradi inkrustacia _ acocxlebs da asxivosnebs oqros zedapirs.

vanis samarxSi napovni oqromWedlobis brwyinvale nimuSebi _ skulpturuli saxeebiT dagvirgvinebuli samajurebi, nair­saxova­ni yelsabamebi, gavarsiT morTuli sasafeTqleebi, Weduri gamosa­xulebiani diademebi mowmoben, rom Zv.w. VI da gansakuTrebiT V _ IV saukuneebSi vani iyo saiuveliro xelovnebis erT-erTi mniSvne­lovani centri. kidev ramdenime magaliTi vanidan: 1969 wels aq kolxi meomris samarxSi aRmoCnda oqros figurebi cxenisa da frinvelis erTimeoreze mirCiluli gamosaxulebebiT. vanis adre antikuri xanisaa oqros mefuri diadema, romlis rombisebr firfi­tebze amotvifrulia scena: xvadi lomebis Tavdasxma xarze.

arqeolog j. nadiraZes aRniSnuli aqvs, rom saCxereSi gemian beWdebs Soris gvxvdeba beWdis Tvlebi, romlebic dasamuSaveblad gaumzadebiaT da bolomde ar aris dasrulebuli. es faqti imaze mig­­­­­vi­­TiTebs, rom Tvlebze amokveTili zogierTi berZnul-romauli siu­Jeti adgilobrivi ostatebis mier unda iyos Sesrulebuli. isini Casmulia mxrebdakuTxuli beWdis maRal TvalbudeSi. aseTi formis samkauli damaxasiaTebelia gvianantikuri xanis qarTuli oqromWed­lobisaTvis.



sur. 6. yelsabami. V s. Zv.w. vani. centraluri didi kus garda yvela danarCeni gamosaxuleba mirCilulia oqros mZivebze da aqvs cisferi pastiT inkrustrirebuli Tvalebi

miuxedavad zemoaRniSnulisa, qarTuli saiuveliro xelov­ne­bis centri ZiriTadad mainc mcxeTa unda yofiliyo. aq aRmoCnda antikuri xanis qarTuli oqromWedlobis uamravi da iSviaTi nimu­Sebi. Cven mxolod ramdenimes davasaxelebT. mcire xelovnebis Se­devrs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT armazisxevis erisTavTa samarxebSi aR­mo­Cenili ori gulsakidi da wnuli samajuri, taxis mcire zomis qandakeba, asparugis sartylis balTebi, diadema da sxv. aq samTav­ros velze erT-erT samarxSi aRmoCnda dakrZaluli oqromWedeli saiuveliro xelsawyoebiT, saswor-sawonebiT da gaTlili TvlebiT (saiuveliro qvebiT). samTavros nekropolSi napovni qvis sam­kaulebi migviTiTebs qvis Wris maRal teqnikasa da Zveli mcxeTis savaWro kavSirebze sxva qveynebTan. am dros mcxeTis qvis saWrel saxelosnoebs saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvneloba hqonda da uzrunvel­yofili iyo saiuveliro qvebis dasamuSavebeli faqizi xelsawyoeb­iT. antikuri drois saqarTveloSi gemasa da sxva samkaulebisaTvis gamoyenebuli ZiriTadi mineralebia: pirop-almandini, ameTvisto, aqati, iaspisi, laJvardi, malaqiti, margaliti, marjani, mTis bro­li, nefriti, oniqsi, ofsidiani, plazma, sardioni, sardi, sardo­niqsi, steatiti, qarva, qalcedoni, firuzi da sxv.

ara marto vani da mcxeTa, aramed antikuri xanis saiuveli­ro xelovnebis centrebSi bevrganaa napovni oqromWedelTa naosta­tari: antikuri xanis (Zv.w. pirveli aTaswleulis Sua xanebi) axalgoris ganZSi adgilobriv damzadebul oqros nivTebs Soris aRmoCnda saiuveliro xelovnebis maRali donis maCvenebeli samkau­lebi: gombeSos gamosaxulebiani oqros yelsabami, rkalgaxsnili beWdebi, maT farakebze fantastikuri cxovelebis gamosaxulebebiT da sxv. axalgorSi napovn oqros nivTebs amkobs rTuli reliefuri saxeebi. gonios ganZSic napovnia oqros nivTebi, romelnic kompozi­ciiT, Sesrulebis teqnikiTa da xerxebiT axlo dgas mcxeTis ZeglebTan. aqve unda movixsenioT agreTve Tagilonis (galis raio­ni) oqros irmis Tavi, xaiSis oqros `saxli~, kldeeTis oqros ge­miani agrafi da sxv.



sur. 7. wyvili sayure. IV s. Zv.w. saZeguri. axalgoris ganZi.

oqro, Stampi, gavarsi

oqros feri da elvareba sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda mSvenierebis maZiebeli didostatebisTvis. jer kidev armazisxevSi aRmoCenili antikuri xanis oqros sayureebze, sartylebsa da samajurebze aris gamoyenebuli feradi mina-tixruli minanqari. aragvis xeobaSi ara­nisTan aRmoCenili oqros yelsabami wnuli ZewkviTa da medalioniT sagangebo yuradRebas imiT ipyrobs, rom misi Suaguli tixruli minanqariTaa Sesrulebuli. aragvispiris tixruli minanqari ax.w. III-IV s-is uZvelesi nimuSia armazisxevis nimuSebTan erTad.



sur. 8. wyvili sayure. oqro, margaliti, mina. sigrZe 70mm; saerTo wona 13,85g. IV s. armazisxevis #19 samarxi (mcxeTis raioni)

adreantikur xanaSi samkaulis warmoebisas qarTveli oqrom­Wed­lebi iSviaTad iyenebdnen feradi qvebis inkrustacias. feradi qvebiT Semkuli sul ramdenime nivTia cnobili. aRsaniSnavia vanSi aRmoCenili poliqromuli gulsakidi firfita, romelzec feradi frinvelebi da faskunjebia gamosaxuli.

oqros poliqromuli samkauli: diademebi, sayureebi, yel­sabamebi, samajurebi da beWdebi didi raodenobiT aRmoCnda saqarT­velos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gaTxril mdidrul samarxebSi _ mcxeTa­Si, urbnisSi, zRuderSi, borSi, kldeeTaSi, cixisZirSi, urekSi, axmetaSi, sionSi, JinvalSi da sxvagan. oqromWedlobis WeSmariti Sedevria II s-is meore naxevris unikaluri Wviruli yelsabami ar­mazisxevis pitiaxSTa VI samarxidan. yelsabami wvrili almadinebiT Semkuli eqvsi erTnairi elementisa da aseTive Wviruli kolofisa­gan Sedgeba. ukana piri oqros Txeli firfitaa, yelsabami Zalian msubuqia, haerovani, wvrili oqros mavTulis rgolebisaganaa damzadebuli.



sur. 9. wyvili sayure. oqro, almandini, minisebri pasta. IV s. armazisxevis #19 samarxi (mcxeTa)

gvianantikuri xanis saqarTveloSi vrceldeba berZnul-roma­uli warmoSobis saiuveliro qvebi _ intalioebi da kameebi. zogi­erT samkaulze qarTveli didebulebis portretebic aris gamosa­xuli, rac miuTiTebs saqarTveloSi qvis mWrelTa saxelosnoebis arsebobas. namdvili Sedevri zRudris yelsabamis kameaa delfinze amxedrebuli nereidas gamosaxulebiT.

III s-is bolosa da IV s-Si poliqromuli stilis gan­viTare­ba qarTul oqromWedlobaSi Tavis logikur dasasruls aRwevs. am periodis samkaulSi oqrom sabolood daTmo poziciebi brtylad gaTlili feradi TvlebisTvis. gaxSirda qvis nacvlad feradi pas­tis inkrustaciis xmareba. pirvelad am xanaSi vrceldeba marga­litic.

X-XIII ss. erTiani feodaluri saqarTvelos oqros xanad iTvleba. am periodSi arnaxul gafurCqvnas miaRwia mecnierebam, literaturam da xelovnebam. am drois qarTuli eklesiebis ked­lebze Semonaxuli freskuli mxatvroba adasturebs samkaulis warmoebis aRmavlobas, magram nivTierad samkauli gasaocrad mcire raodenobiT SemogvrCa. Tamar mefis sada upretenzio gulsakidi jva­ri da ramdenime sxva nivTi. mefis oqros jvari Semkulia xuTi brtyeli laliT, oTxi dawaxnagebuli zurmuxtiT da eqvsi margalitiT.



sur. 10. yelsabami sanelsacxebliT. II s. armazisxevis #19 samarxi (mcxeTa). oqro, ameTvisto, almandini, minisebri pasta

jvris ukana pirze sevadiT gamoyvanili asomTavruli war­weraa, romelic gvamcnobs, rom misi mflobeli mefeT-mefe Tamari iyo. sicocxleSi Tamar mefe am jvars ar iSorebda. Tamaris gar­dacvalebis Semdeg jvars daumzades tixruli minanqriT Semkuli specialuri yuTi – stavroTeka, da rogorc qarTveli xalxis erT-erTi uwmindesi salocavi, dasacavad gadasces gelaTis monas­ters. igi 1921 wlamde inaxeboda, sanam sxva samuzeumo faseulo­basTan erTad ar gaitanes safrangeTSi, xolo 1945 wels ganZi daubrunda qarTul kulturas.

Sua saukuneebSi grZeldeboda oqromWedlobis ufro adre Camoyalibebuli tradiciebi. amis maCvenebelia qarTvel oqrom­Wedel­Ta Tu oqromqandakebelTa _ asaT moqmedis, beqa da beSqen opizrebis, mamne oqromWedlisa Tu sxvaTa Semoqmedeba (sur.12).

Sua saukuneebis tixruli minanqris Zeglebi, romelic saqarTvelos xelovnebis saxelmwifo muzeumSia Tavmoyrili, gamo­irCeva simdidriT, mravalferovnebiTa da maRali mxatvruli Rire­bulebebiT. es koleqcia Rirseul metoqeobas uwevs veneciis minan­qris umdidres saganZurs. saiuveliro warmoebis tixruli minan­qris uamravi miniaturuli xati da medalioni Zveli qarTuli oqromWedlobis ukanaskneli da udidesi aRmavlobis mauwyebelia.



sur. 11. gulsakidi jvari, oqro, 5 brtyeli lali, 4 dawaxnagebuli zurmuxti, 6 margaliti, sevada. XII s.

qarTuli minanqruli xelovnebis ganviTarebis sawyisi perio­dis, VIII-IX ss. qarTuli Zeglebi dakavSirebulia saqarT­velos­Tan ara marto teritoriulad, aramed organuladac. qarTuli minanq­ruli xelovnebis gansakuTrebuli SemoqmedebiTi aRmavlobis perio­di X da XII-XIII saukuneebia. qarTuli minanqari gamoirCeva iko­nog­rafiuli TvalsazrisiTac: xaxulis (VIIIs.) da Semoq­medis (Xs.) kvadrifoliumebi, firfita `mirqmis~ kom­poziciiT (XII-XIII ss.).



sur. 12. macxovris xati anCisxatis taZridan

X s-is ucnobma qarTvelma xelosanma gamoavlina filigranis virtuozuli flobis unari. igi qmnida anCisxatisTvis Sewirul oqros Wvirul medalionebs. XI s-is unatifesi tixruli minanqriT Semku­li erTaderTi samajuri da imave garnituris gulsakidi fir­fita gvaZlevs saSualebas, warmovidginoT Sua saukuneebis war­Ci­nebu­li qarTveli qalis samkaulis silamaze. aseve erTgvar war­mod­genas gviqmnis dmanisis naqalaqarze aRmoCenili patara ganZi, romelic Seicavs samkaulis mTel garniturs _ sayureebs, yel­sabams, samaju­rebs.



sur. 13. kvadrifoliumi jvarcmis gamosaxulebiT Semoqmedidan. X s.

saqarTveloSi me-16 saukunis CaTvliT Semonaxulia tixruli minanqris warmoeba. sxva qveynebSi (bizantia, ruseTi) ufro adre gaqra da gaZnelda tixruli minanqris aRdgena. 1974 wels qarT­velma ostatma vaJa CxeiZem SeZlo `Rvinisferi~ minanqris miReba.

XIV-XVIII s-is qarTuli xelovneba, maT Soris oqrom­Wed­loba moeqca erTi mxriv, sefianTa iranisa da meore mxriv evropu­li kulturis ormagi gavlenis qveS. amis kvalia iranuli firuzis moWarbeba da minanqris moxatulobis gaCena qalis samkaulSi, romelTa warmoeba kvlav gamococxlda, rogorc ki suli moiTqva dausrulebeli omebisagan. Sua saukuneebSi da ufro gvian, XIX saukuneSi, Zvirfasi samkaulebis Sesaxeb cnobebs gvawvdis mziTvis wignebi. saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis periodis tipur nawarmad SeiZleba CaiTvalos samegrelos mTavris meuRlis _ aleqsandre WavWavaZis asul ekaterines piradi samkaulebi: diademe­bi, samajurebi, gulsakidi da sayureebi, romelTac insigniis mniSvnelobac hqondaT. isini damzadebulia adgilobrivi xelosnebis mier XIX s-is pirvel naxevarSi. firuzis siWarbe iranuli tradi­ciebis gavlenaze metyvelebs, moxatuli minanqari (finifti) maSin SedarebiT axali movlena iyo da qarTul oqromWedlobaSi ruseTi­dan gavrcelda.

f. TavaZis da i. andriaSvilis cnobiT (f. TavaZe, i. andriaS­vili, qarTuli Weduri xelovnebis teqnologiuri procesi, 1967, gv. 80) XVIII_XIX saukuneebis Weduri xelovnebis ostatebs Soris aRsaniSnavia masxaraSvilis, kostas, niko gurjis, rostomis, meunargias, Wedias, vaxtang, kosta da filu ZaZamiZeebis, simon arjevaniZis, giorgi iluriZis, arCil asaTianis, mixeil da daviT mamulaSvilebis da sxvaTa mier Seqmnili Teguri xelovnebis nimu­Sebi (xatebi, azarfeSebi, yaryarebi da sxv.). Teguri xelovnebis namdvili tradiciebis ukanaskneli warmomadgenlebi arian mama-Svili mixeil da daviT mamulaSvilebi da maTi tradiciebis gamgr­Zelebeli, Cveni drois Teguri xelovnebis gamorCeuli ostati giorgi xandamaSvili. ai, ras wers mamulaSvilebis Semoqmedebaze qar­Tuli xalxuri xelovnebis gulSematkivari artem gabunia: `iseT­­ma saxalxo ostatebma rogorebic mama da Svili mamulaSvilebia da romlebic muSaobdnen `mTegavebad~ gasuli saukunis Sua wlebSi maRal doneze aiyvanes WeSmaritad xalxuri xelovneba. mixeil da daviT mamulaSvilebis nawarmoebebSi TiTqmis yovelTvis Cans Zveli qarTuli CuqurTmebi, romelTa fonze war­modgenilia sxvadasxva Janris suraTebi, xSirad gaCuqurTmebulia agreTve adamianis gamosaxulebebi, romelnic erwymian mcenareul da geometriul CuqurTmebs~. (f. TavaZe, i. andriaSvili, qarTuli We­duri xelovnebis teqnologiuri procesi, 1967, gv. 10-11).

Zveli qarTuli oqromWedlobis Sinagani ZarRvi, romelic ar gawyvetila aTeuli saukuneebis manZilze, ufro ukeT gamosWvivis XIX s-is yelsabam jvrebSi, romlebic laliTa da zurmuxtiTaa Semkuli. margalitis sakideebic uneblied adreul Sua saukuneebs gvagonebs.

XIX s-is Tbilisi rCeboda xelosnobisa da maT Soris, liTonis mxatvruli damuSavebis ara marto saqarTvelos, aramed mTeli kavkasiis udides centrad. oqromWedlebisa da `vercxlis~ quCaze Camwkrivebul saxelosno-darbazebSi qarTveli xelosnebis gverdiT leki da somexi oqromWedlebi isxdnen. maTi erToblivi SromiT iqmneboda is ganumeorebeli koloritis mqone nawarmi, romelsac Tbilisuri ewodeboda. oqromWedlobis meore msxvili centri saqarTveloSi, kerZod axalcixeSi cnobili iyo Tavisi sworupovari filigranuli nawarmiT. axalcixuri vercxlis sartylebi da oqro-vercxlis Wviruli samkauli dResac aRtacebas iwvevs.

samkaulis warmoebis uZvelesi tradiciebi ar Camkvdara soflad, mTasa Tu barSi, samegrelosa da imereTSi, xevsureTsa da svaneTSi, sadac bolo dromde mzaddeboda tradiciuli, sada, magram epikuri sidiadiT aRsavse samkauli.

vercxlis samkauls qarTveli oqromWedlebi tradiciulad sevadiT amkobdnen. sevadi Savi masaa, romliTac ivseboda vercxlis nivTebze amokveTili ornamenti. sevadi keTilSobili liTonis Sem­kobis namdvilad adgilobrivi qarTuli da kavkasiuri xerxia, romlis istoriac saqarTveloSi sul cota oriaTas wels iTvlis. saqarTveloSi uZvelesi sevadiani nivTebi – Jinvalsa da cxinvalSi aRmoCenili vercxlis Tasebi I-III saukuneebiT TariRdeba. Sua saukuneebSi Weduri xatebi xSirad sevadiT iyo Semkuli. saqarTve­lo erTaderTi qveyanaa sadac sevads oqros nivTebis Sesam­kobadac iyenebdnen. cnobilia oqros ramdenime xati romleb­zec ornamenti sevadiTaa gamoyvanili.

c. zviadaZis (ix. c. zviadaZe, quTaiseli oqromWedlebi, quTaisis muzeumis masalebi, 1970) cnobiT me-20 saukuneSi quTaisSi saiuveliro xelovnebis tradiciebs agrZeleben: SamSe wuleiskiri, valerian axvlediani, varlam jRamaZe, mixa qvariani, nestor fanculaia, trifon da vasil axvledianebi, iakob zaqaraia, vladimer Cxetia, sino ZnelaZe, saba qobulaZe, garsevan kenWaZe, ioseb gvetaZe, kako lomiZe, kowia cagareiSvili, zugdideli oq­romWedlebi filu ZaZamiZe, Zmebi Toma da ambrosi jiqiebi da sxv. oqromWedlebi agreTve sxva qalaqebSi iyvnen. vercxlis samkaulebis damzadebis damoukidebeli kera arsebobda svaneTSi.

unda aRiniSnos giSris samkaulTa warmoebis uZvelesi cent­ri imereTsa da okribaSi. qarTuli giSeri da giSris nawarmi saeqsporto sagani iyo da saqarTvelodan Sors gadioda ukve antikur xanaSi. giSeri gamorCeulad uyvarda mudam qarTvel xalxs da saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi es siyvaruli ar dakargula. giSris keTilSobiluri elvareba mSvenivrad esadageboda qarTveli qalis daxvewil gemovnebas, mis sada, upretenzio Cacmulobasa da samkauls.

me-19 saukuneSi CvenSi oqromWedels _ iuvelirs, ratomRac mebriliantes (`briliantCiks~) uwodebdnen. Tbilissa da quTaisSi arsebobda profesiuli amqari, romelSic gaerTianebulni iyvnen ostatebi, qarglebi da Segirdebi ustabaSis xelmZRvanelobiT, hqondaT amqarTa droSebi.

mogexsenebaT, rom qarTuli kultura da xelovneba did gavlenas axdenda im erTa SemoqmedebiT cxovrebaze, romelTanac mas istoriuli epoqebis manZilze hqonda kavSiri. geografiuli mdebareoba, qarTvelTa yofa, adaT-wesebi, xasiaTi, inteleq­tualu­ri, SemoqmedebiTi tradiciebi, mas yovelTvis kulturuli samya­ros yuradRebis sagnad xdida. Sua saukuneebis Semdeg saqarTvelo ZiriTadad evropuli qveynebis orbitaSi eqceva. saqarTveloSi saiuveliro saqmis istoria jerjerobiT ar dawerila. aris cal­keuli naSromebi romlebic exeba formaTa evolucias, stilis Secvlas, dekoris ganviTarebas. Cveulebriv gasuli ori saukunis, ori mezobeli qveynis qarTul-rusuli saiuveliro saqme gverdi­gverd ganixileba da misi Seswavla ZiriTadad mainc istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiTaa SesaZlebeli. am saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi arsebuli saiuveliro xelovnebis nimuSebis Seswavla SesaZlebels xdis sistematizaciaSi iqnes moyvanili saiuveliro saqmis sxvadas­xva mimarTulebebi. aRniSnul nakeTobebSi cocxldeba Zveli oqrom­Wedeli xelosnebis niWiereba, maTi individualizmi da rac yvelaze saamayoa qarTuli TviTmyofadoba. yovelive amis Seswavlas aiolebs XVII saukunis bolos da XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi ruseTSi dam­Ris institutis Camoyalibeba.

XX saukuneSi ioldeba saiuveliro warmoeba, rasac ganapi­robebda meqanizebuli procesebi da qimiuri nivTierebebis gamoye­neba. yovelive es saSualebas iZleoda masiuri warmoebisaTvis.

saqarTvelos erovnuli zarafxana, yofili Tbilisis saiuve­liro qarxana Camoyalibda 1939 wels, rogorc saaTebisa da saiu­veliro nawarmis fabrika. 1970 wels gaerTianda suvenirebis fab­rikasTan. 1973 wels ki saiuveliro fabrikas Cautarda rekonst­ruqcia da gadakeTda qarxanad.

1974 wels italiaSi, q. bergamoSi Sedga qarTuli xelov­nebisadmi miZRvnili pirveli saerTaSoriso simpoziumi. 1977 wels TbilisSi Catarda meore simpoziumi.

1982 wels akad. s. janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos saxelm­wifo muzeumma da saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumma parizSi moawyo oqromWedlobisa da torevtikis gamofena, wardgenili iyo kaxeTSi aRmoCenili oqros lomis qandakeba, vanis oqros diadema, axalgoris sasafeTqle da sxva samkaulebi. gamofena gaixsna `gran-paleSi~ da gagrZelda sami Tve. qarTveli oqromWedlebi, Teguri xelovnebis ostatebi _ ra bevrni yofilan da ra cotas saxels mouRwevia Cven dromde: aseT moqmeds, beqa da beSqen opizrebs, gabriel safarels, gvazavaisZeT, ivane wiqriZes, Tavdidis Zes, ivane diakons Tu yizias. sabolood dakargulia TrialeTeli, vaneli, mcxeTeli, kldeeTeli da saqarTvelos brinjaosa Tu antikuri xanis kulturis centrebis oqromWedelTa, iuvelirTa saxelebi, maTi saxeli, vinc mTeli sicocxle Cahkirkitebda yviTel, vercx­lisfer elvare liTons, raTa gamoeWeda oqrosa Tu vercxlis Tasebi Tu fialebi, samajurebi Tu diademebi da STamomavlobisa­T­vis daetovebia saiuveliro xelovnebis Sedevrebi, romliTac qar­T­veli eri msoflio kulturis saganZurSi Tavis wvlils Seitanda.



sur. 14. Sps `orbSi~ Sesru­le­bu­li yelsabami zurmuxtebiTa da briliantebiT

Tanamedrove qarTuli saiuveliro xelovneba kvlavac agrZe­lebs saukunovan tradiciebs. Tbilisis zarafxana, mravali saoq­romWedlo saxelosnos iuvelirebi da kerZo mewarmeebi qmnian maRalmxatvruli gemovnebiT Sesrulebul, teqnikurad srulyofil, mravalferovan saiuveliro nawarms, risi dasturicaa xSiri da mravalferovani gamofenebi (sur.14).


^ Tavi I

saiuveliro nawarmis dasamzadeblad gamoyenebuli masala

liTonuri masalebi


liTonebis swori da xarisxiani damuSavebisaTvis, os­tatu­roba rom mieces, saWiroa moyvaniloba da lamazi garegnuli saxe, yvela iuvelirma kargad unda icodes im masalebis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebi, rasTanac mas uwevs muSaoba.

sworad rom airCioT Camosxmis, Wedvis (kvervis), glinvis, rCilvis da liTonebis sxva saxis cxeli damuSavebis Termuli reJimi, saWiroa gaiTvaliswinoT liTonebisa da Senadnobebis fizi­kuri Tvisebebi: feri, simagre, simkvrive, dnobis temperatura, Tbo­gamtaroba da arekvlis unari.

saiuveliro saqmeSi didi mniSvneloba aqvs masalebis meqa­nikur Tvisebebsac, rogorebicaa: mdgradoba, drekadoba, simagre, plastikuroba. aranakleb rols TamaSobs rogorc liTonebis, aseve maTi Senadnobebis qimiuri Tvisebebi: mdgradoba garemo pirobebis zemoqmedebaze _ mJavebis, tuteebis, airebis, mtknari da zRvis wylis, rac axdens met-nakleb agresiul moqmedebas saiuveliro nakeTobebis liTonebze.

liTonebis teqnologiuri Tvisebebis codna exmareba iuve­lirs saiuveliro nakeTobebis damuSavebis meTodisa da reJimis ar­CevaSi. maT miekuTvneba: mdnaris denadoba, likvacia da liTonis dasxma Camosxmis dros, Wedadoba, SeduReba da WriT damuSaveba. yovelive amis codna exmareba bevri defeqtis acilebaSi, rac war­moiSoba liTonebis damuSavebisas misi struqturisa da Tvisebebis arcodnis gamo.


^ Zvirfasi liTonebi


Zvirfas anu keTilSobil liTonebs miekuTvneba: oqro vercxli platina osmiumi iridiumi paladiumi rodiumi ruTeniumi .

saiuveliro nakeTobebis dasamzadeblad ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba oqro, vercxli, platina, paladiumi da maTi Senadnobebi. oqrosa da vercxls jer kidev antikur periodSi iyenebdnen mxatvruli damuSavebisaTvis. verc erTi liToni maT ver Seedreba keTil­SobilebaSi, medegobasa da silamazeSi.


oqro

oqro lamazi, kaSkaSa, yviTeli feris mkveTrad gamokveTili elvarebiT, erTaderTi liTonia, romelic gamoirCeva lamazi bunebrivi feriT. aqvs kargi arekvlis unari (85%), Zalian kargad prialdeba. gaprialebis Semdeg am liTonis bunebrivi feri mniSv­nelovnad Zlierdeba. Zvirfas liTonTa Soris gamoirCeva qimiuri medegobiT, maRali plastikurobiT, sirbiliT da WedadobiT.

1 grami oqros gaWimviT 2,5 km sigrZis mavTuli miiReba, 1 mm kveTis oqros mavTuli wydeba 27 kilogramis datvirTvis Sedegad, maRali plastikurobis gamo is SeiZleba gabrtyeldes 0,0001 mm sisqis furclad, romelic gaatarebs mzis sinaTles. msgavs fir­fitebs oqros varays uwodeben da gamoiyeneba dekoratiuli safa­rebis dasamzadeblad.

oqro mZime liTonia (simkvrive 19,39g/sm3), misi dnobis tem­peratura 1063-ia, simagre moosis skalis mixedviT – 2,5 (iWre­­ba daniT), absoluturi simagre 20kg/mm2. flobs karg Tbo - da eleqtrogamtarobas.

oqro gamoirCeva araCveulebrivi qimiuri mdgradobiT. haerze misi feri ar icvleba, igi ar iJangeba, ar reagirebs tuteebTan, mJaveebTan, marilebTan. misi gaxsna SeiZleba `samefo wyalSi~ (Tezafi), rac erTi wili azotmJavasa da sami wili ma­rilmJavas narevia. oqro aseve Sedis reaqciaSi vercx­lisw­yalTan, tute reaqciis cianur xsnarebSi, qloriT da bromiT gajerebul marilmJavaSi.

bunebaSi oqro ZiriTadad gvxvdeba TviTnabadi saxiT, mcire raodenobiT spilenZsa da sxva liTonebTan naerTebis saxiT, agreT­ve vercxlTan da telurTan erTad mineralis saxiT (sur. 15).

TviTnabadi oqro bunebaSi gvxvdeba sxvadasxva formis: kristalebis, firfitis, marcvlis, naWris, qerclis, dawyebuli ramdenime miligramidan ramdenime kilogramamde. udidesi wonis oqros natexi napovni iyo avstraliaSi. misi wona Seadgens 119,9 kg-s. ruseTSi cnobilia TviTnabadi oqro `didi samkuTxedi~ woniT 36,22 kg, `aqlemi~ woniT 9,28 kg da sxv. saqarTveloSi nanaxi TviTnabadi oqro woniT ramdenime grams aRwevs. garda TviTnabadi saxisa oqro gvxvdeba sxvadasxva tipis madnebSi. maT Soris mTavaria sulfiduri, kvarcituli, qviSrobuli da sxv. oqro qviSrobebSi, rogorc wesi ufro sufTaa, vidre Zireul sabadoebSi.



sur. 15. TviTnabadi oqro

dReisaTvis cnobilia madnidan oqros amoRebis ramdenime me­Todi, rogoricaa cianirebis, amalgamirebis, flotaciis da agreTve pirometalurgiuli damuSavebis meTodi.

oqro sufTavdeba (rafinirdeba) oqros qlorwyalbadmJavas xsnaridan _ sufTa Zvirfasi liTonis misaRebad iyeneben afinaJs (gawmenda), romelic metalurgiuli procesis ciklia. amJamad ga­moiyeneba ufro srulyofili, ZiriTadad eleqtrolituri meTodi. eleqtrolizi warmoebs faifuris abazanaSi 70 temperaturaze. madnis bunebazea damokidebuli ama Tu im saSualebis arCeva. oqros siwminde damokidebulia mis daniSnulebaze. gvaqvs 99,9%, 99,99%, 99,999% sisufTavis oqro. sufTa oqros gamoyeneba mrewvelobaSi maqsimalurad SezRudulia. igi gamoiyeneba uzustesi xelsawyoebis, raketebisa da TviTmfrinavebis mSeneblobaSi, qimiur mrewvelobaSi, rogorc antikoroziuli safari, Cveulebriv, maRali temperaturi­sas. garda teqnikisa da saiuveliro saqmisa oqro gamoiyeneba mone­tebis, ordenebis, medlebis, sxvadasxva daniSnulebis oqros furc­lebis da dekoratiuli galvanuri safarebis, kbilis proTezebis, sxmulebis, zodebisa da sxvaTa dasamzadeblad.

saiuveliro nakeTobaSi oqros Senadnobebis Sedgeniloba ganisazRvreba sinjebis mixedviT. SenadnobSi farTod gamoiyeneba specialuri danamatebi, rac oqros Senadnobs aZlevs sxvadasxva fers. oqro SeiZleba iyos TeTri, yviTeli, wiTeli, mwvane, vardis­feri, Savi, cisferi. aRsaniSnavia, rom mravali ferovneba arcTu iSviaTad axasiaTebs erT nakeTobas.

saiuveliro saqmeSi sufTa oqro gamoiyeneba mxolod mooq­roebisas. saiuveliro nakeTobebis dasamzadeblad, oqrosTan erTad iyeneben sxvadasxva Zvirfas an araZvirfas liTonebs, riTac SesaZ­le­belia gansxvavebuli liTonebis mqone Senadnobis miReba.

saiuveliro nakeTobis dasamzadeblad oqrosTan erTad, xS­i­rad gamoiyeneba spilenZi, vercxli, platina da paladiumi.


vercxli

vercxli TeTri, kriala, plastikuri, rbili, Zlier Wedvadi, wevadi liTonia. sirbilis mixedviT Sualeduria oqrosa da spi­lenZs Soris. vercxli kargad prialdeba. eleqtrobisa da siTbos saukeTeso gamtaria. aqvs udidesi arekvlis unari (95%). iglineba Txel furclebad sisqiT 0,00025 mm. iWimeba Zlier wvril mavTulad da SesaniSnavad ixveva, iWreba daniT.

vercxlis xvedriTi wona 10,50, dnobis temperatura _ 960,5, simagre moosis skaliT _ 2,7, absoluturi – 25kg/mm2.

vercxli mdgradia tenian garemoSi, magram haerSi cota odenobiT gogirdwyalbadis arseboba vercxls aSavebs, aseve ozoni zemoqmedebas axdens vercxlze.

vercxli oqrosTan SedarebiT naklebmedegia. haerisa da nes­tiani garemos mimarT mdgradia. ixsneba koncentrirebul gogird da azotmJavaSi.

bunebaSi vercxli zogjer gvxvdeba TviTnabadi saxiT, xolo ufro xSirad Sedis spilenZisa da tyvia-TuTiis madnis Sedgeni­lobaSi.

madnidan vercxls iReben ZiriTadad liTonebTan erTad, ume­tes SemTxvevaSi tyviis gamodnobisas. vercxlis gamoyofa vercxlis Semcveli madnebidan, iseve, rogorc oqrosi, warmoebs: gamolRobis, cianirebis, amalgamirebis da flotaciis gziT. vercxlis afinaJi warmoebs eleqtrolitis gamoyenebiT, romelic Seicavs azotmJava vercxlis sust xsnarsa da azotmJavas. sufTa, wminda Zvirfasi liTonis misaRebad iyeneben afinaJs (gawmendas), romelic metalur­giul procesTa ciklia. amJamad iyeneben ZiriTadad eleqtrolitur meTodebs, rogorc ufro srulyofils.

sufTa saxiT vercxli gamoiyeneba naxevrad Zvirfasi liTone­bis dasafaravad, rasac uwodeben movercxvlas.

saiuveliro samkaulis dasamzadeblad vercxlis SenadnobSi xSirad iyeneben spilenZs.

vercxli farTod gamoiyeneba qimiur mrewvelobaSi: eleqtro­teq­nikis, sarkis dasamzadeblad, mxatvruli da saiuveliro nawar­mis SeqmnaSi. vercxlisagan mzaddeba rogorc saiuveliro, agreT­ve sayofacxovrebo daniSnulebis nawarmi. vercxlis kombinireba SesaZ­le­belia oqrosTan, emalTan, Zvirfas da naxevrad Zvirfas qvebTan, marjanTan, margalitTan, giSerTan da aseve spilos ZvalTan.


platina

platina monacrisfro _ TeTri feris liTonia, sakmaod We­da­di, Znelad lRobadi, simagriT oqroze da vercxlze gacile­biT maRa­lia. arekvlis unari vercxlze dabalia (87%). iolad eqvem­de­ba­­reba glinvas, tvifrvas, Runvas.

platinis simkvrive aris 21,45, dnobis temperatura _ 1769, simagre mosiis skaliT _ 5, absoluturi _ 50kg/mm2.

haeris minimaluri da maqsimaluri temperaturis dros pla­tinis feri ucvlelia. platinasTan reaqciaSi damoukideblad ar Sedis arc erTi mJava. igi ixsneba mxolod cxel samefo wyalSi, ris Sedegad warmoiqmneba qloriani platina. glinvis Sedegad miiReba 0,0025 mm sisqis furceli, iWimeba uwvrilesi sisqis mavTulad. iuvelirebs platina izidavs Semdegi TvisebebiT: plas­tikurobiT, simyariT, SidamdgradobiT da bzinviT.

garda saiuveliro saqmisa platina gamoiyeneba teqnikaSi: cecxlgamZle da mJavegamZle qimiuri WurWlis, katalizuri bade­ebis, maRali temperaturuli Rumelebis dasamzadeblad. platina Seucvlelia saaviacio da kosmosur teqnikaSi.

bunebaSi platina ufro xSirad gvxvdeba mxolod TviTnabadi saxiT dunitebis, peridotitebis da piroqsenitebis Sedgeniloba­Si. agreTve gvxvdeba qviSrob sabadoebsa da sulfidur madnebSi (sur.16).



sur. 16. TviTnabadi platina

platinian liTonebs _ platinoidebs (platinis jgufs): paladiums, iridiums, rodiums, ruTeniums da osmiums aqvT msgavsi Tvisebebi da bunebriv pirobebSi umetesad erTad gvxvdebian.

platina da mis TanamgzavrTa mopoveba warmoebs platinis Semcveli qviSrobebis garecxviT an madnebis pirometalurgiuli damuSavebiT.

platina moxdenilad da efeqturad gamoiyureba Zvirfas qvebTan SexamebiT, gansakuTrebiT briliantebTan. xSirad platinis­gan amzadeben Txel bafTisebr samajurebsa da sakidebs, rac gansa­kuTrebuli eleganturobiTa da simtkiciT gamoirCeva. Zalian Txe­li platinis mavTuli gamoiyeneba filigranuli morTvisa da Txe­li jaWvebis dasamzadeblad, magram sufTa saxiT ar gamoiyeneba mi­si sirbilis gamo, mas alegireben iridiumTan, rodiumTan da spilenZTan.


paladiumi

paladiumi TeTri-movercxlisfro liTonia, rbili, mniSvne­lovani Wedvadobisa da kargi Wimvadobis mqone. kargad iglineba sifrifana furclebad da iWimeba wvril mavTulad. vercxlsa da platinas Soris Sualeduri ferisaa, muqi _ vercxlze, Ria _ platinaze. miekuTvneba platinis jgufs. fizikuri da qimiuri Tvi­sebebiT mniSvnelovnad Camouvardeba platinas. paladiumis kuTri wonaa 11,4, dnobis temperatura _ 1554, simagre moosis skaliT _ 5, absoluturi _ 52kg/mm2.

paladiumi haerze normalur temperaturaze ar iJangeba, magram 860 iJangeba. iodis spirtian xsnarSi paladiumi fers icvlis, muqdeba, iolad ixsneba samefo wyalSi, azotmJavaSi da azot da marilmJavaTa narevSi.

paladiumi bunebaSi TviTnabad mdgomareobaSi platinasTan erTad gvxvdeba da miiReba platinisa da misi jgufis liTonebis amowlilvis dros.

saiuveliro warmoebaSi paladiumi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba Se­nadnobebSi. igi Sedis TeTri oqros ligaturul SedgenilobaSi. xels uwyobs Senadnobis gaTeTrebas TeTri oqros miRebisas. Zlier efeqturia TeTri oqros saaTebi, Zvirfasi qvebis budeebi da sxv. aseve, misgan amzadeben dabali sinjis oqros Senadnobs, raTa mas mianiWos antikoroziuli Tviseba.

paladiumi, garda saiuveliro saqmisa, farTod gamoiyeneba qimiur, eleqtroteqnikur da sxvadasxva xelsawyo-mowyobilobaSi.


iridiumi

iridiumi TeTri feris liTonia monacrisfro elferiT. igi xasiaTdeba maRali simagriTa da simyifiT, rac iZleva misi meqani­ku­­ri damuSavebis saSualebas. wiTlad gavarvarebis dros iZens Wedadobis unars.

iridiumis kuTri wonaa 22,41, dnobis temperatura _ 2454, simagre moosis skaliT _ 6,5, absoluturi _ 170kg/mm2.

iridiumi erT-erTi mdgradi liTonia. maRali simagris gamo Znelia misi damuSaveba. umTavresad mas iyeneben platinisa da sxva liTonebTan Senadnobebis saxiT. iridiumis mimateba _ mniSvnelov­nad adidebs platinis simagres.

iridiumi gansxvavdeba uCveulo qimiuri mdgradobiT, ar Se­dis tuteebTan, mJavebTan da maT narevebTan reaqciaSi, ar ixsneba samefo wyalSi, magram mxolod 800-is maRla eqvemdebareba qloris, ftorisa da Jangbadis zemoqmedebas.

Tavisi qimiuri mdgradobidan gamomdinare iridiumi da platina, radiumTan erTad gamoiyeneba qimiuri WurWlis dasam­zadeblad. platina-iridiumis Senadnobebi gamoiyeneba agreTve saiu­veliro, kbilis samkurnalo, qirurgiuli iaraRebis warmoebasa da pirometriaSi _ maRali temperaturis gasazomad, saaTis meqanizmis dasamzadeblad.

iridiumi miiReba TviTnabadi platinisa da platinasTan erTad myofi osmiumisa da iridiumis madnebis gadamuSaveba-gawmen­dis gziT.


rodiumi

rodiumi aris mkrTali, mocisfro-TeTri feris liToni, romelic alumins gvagonebs. magari, Znelad lRobadi, axasiaTebs Zlieri arekvlis unari. maRali temperaturis dros wneviT muSav­deba. haerze Jangbadi masze gavlenas ver axdens, wiTlad gavar­varebis dros aqvs erTgvari Wedadoba.

rodiumis kuTri wonaa 12,41, dnobis temperatura _ 1960, simagre moosis skaliT _ 5,5-6,0, absoluturi _ 101kg/mm2. igi qimiurad mdgradi liTonia, haerTan reaqciaSi ar Sedis, magram gacxelebis dros iJangeba da ifareba Savi safariT, xolo 1200-is temperaturis miRwevis dros Savi safari qreba.

rodiumze ar moqmedebs samefo wyali, igi koncentrirebul gogirdmJavaSi ixsneba. rodiumi mdgradia Jangbadis, gogirdis, fosforis, qloris da ftoris zemoqmedebis mimarT.

rodiumis fizikur-qimiuri Tvisebebidan gamomdinare, iuveli­rebi am liTons iyeneben, rogorc dekoratiul damcav saSualebas (rodireba) TeTri oqrosa da vercxlis saiuveliro nakeTobebis dasafarad.

didi arekvliTi unaris gamo (arekvlis koeficienti 75-80%) rodiumi gamoiyeneba saiuveliro saqmeSi safarad, rogorc liTon­ze agreTve minazec, maT Soris, refleqtorebis, optikuri sarkee­bisa da sxvaTaTvis.


ruTeniumi

ruTeniumi feriT mogvagonebs platinas. magari, Znelad lRobadi, myife liTonia, igi meqanikur damuSavebas ar eqvemdeba­reba. CaquCis dartymisas imsxvreva namcecebad.

ruTeniumis kuTri wonaa 12,45, dnobis temperatura _ 2310, simagre moosis skaliT _ 6,5, absoluturi – 220kg/mm2.

ruTeniumi sustad ixsneba samefo wyalSi. platinis jgufis sxva liTonebTan SedarebiT gogirdis zemoqmedebis mimarT mdgra­dia. umniSvnelo raodenobiT Sedis platinis SenadnobSi. miiReba TviTnabadi platinis gadamuSavebisas masSi izomorfuli ruTeniu­mis gamoyofiT.

saiuveliro saqmeSi gamoiyeneba platinis Senadnobis kom­ponentad. teqnikaSi iyeneben platinasTan Senadnobs fonografebis, nemsebis, saweri kalmebisa da saburRavi iaraRebis da sxvadasxva zusti iaraRebis dasamzadeblad.

osmiumi

osmiumi nacrisfer-TeTri feris, moruxo-cisferi elferiT, magari, faqizi, myife, Znelad lRobadi liTonia.

osmiumis kuTri wonaa 22,50, dnobis temperatura _ 2700, simagre moosis skaliT _ 7,0, absoluturi – 200kg/mm2. haerze Jangbadi da mJavebi masze zemoqmedebas ver axdens. gadnobisas iJan­geba da aqroldeba.

osmiumi miiReba TviTnabadi platinis gadamuSavebis gziT.

osmiums saiuveliro saqmeSi praqtikulad ar iyeneben. igi gamoiyeneba mrewvelobaSi xelsawyoTwarmoebaSi, qimiur mrewvelo­baSi da didi simagrisa da drekadobis mqone platinis Senadnobebis misaRebad.





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