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Otar Bagaturia

^ The Common Ground theory - Cradle of Georgian Solidary State Philosophy


SUMMARY


The historical and social-political basis of the beginning of Georgian State

Philosophy and the role of Ilia Chavchavadze for awakening consciousness of Georgians who were on the way towards national degeneration is considered.


There are analyzed the social and political processes which have been happened during the second half of XIX century and beginning of XX century in Georgia and “The Theory of Common Ground” that was formulated by Archil Jorjadze on the basis of the national positions and the cultural heritage of Ilia Chavchavadze. The theory could solve the national and liberation problems as well as the social-economic questions and gave the opportunity of reconciliation between the opposite political movements. It is shown why Georgia of those times didn’t keep in mind the national-liberation ideas and had preferred the social-democratic doctrine. Today the theory remains an extremely urgent question.


^ Отар Багатурия

Теория Общей Почвы - Истоки грузинского Солидарного государвственного мировоззрения


РЕЗЮМЕ

Рассмотрены исторические и социально-политические основы происхождения грузинского государственного мировоззрения и роль Ильи Чавчавадзе в деле пробуждения сознания грузин вставших на путь национального вырождения.

Проанализированы общественно-политические процессы протекающие в Грузии во второй половине 19-го и начала 20-го столетия, а также «Теория общей почвы» сформулированный Арчилом Джорджадзе на основе национальных позиций и духовном наследии Ильи Чавчавадзе, которая решала как социально-экономические так и национально-освободительные проблемы и давала возможность примирения противоборствующих политических течений. Показано почему не приняла тогдашная Грузия национально-освободительные идеи и отдала предпочтение социал-демократическому учению. Сегодня «Теория общей почвы» вновь весьма актуальна.





roza gafrindaSvili


hipokrates uTqvams, mkurnalobisTvis sami ram aris saWiro _ sityva, balaxi da danao. sityviT mkurnalobis Tanamedrove meTodad fsiqoanalizia miCneuli, romelic didi popularobiT sargeblobs dasavleTSi. specialistebis azriT, fsiqoanalizi warmatebiT kurnavs sxvsdasxva fsiqikur aSlilobebs (fsiqozs, isterias, nevrozs, fsiqosTenias, nevrasTernias da sxva); amasTan, igi Aalkoholizmisa da narkomaniisagan TavdaRwevis saSualebadac miaCniaT.

saqme imaSia, rom, fsiqologebs alkoholizmi da narkomania sulieri aSlilobis gamovlenad miaCniaT; maTi azriT tradiciuli meTodebiT, medicina, sulieri aSlilobebis mizezebs ki ar mkurnalobs, aramed mxolod mis gamomwvev simptomebs; amitomaa umetes SemTxvevebSi medicinis Zalisxmeva uSedegod rom mTavrdeba. maTi mizezebis

kvlevas ki kacobriobis uSores warsulamde _ veluri barbarosobis xanamde mivyavarT, roca adamianTa sazogadoebriv arsebobas stiqiurad Camoyalibebuli akrZalva-tabuireba anu cxoveluri (biologiuri) qceva-moqmedebebis SezRudva daedo safuZvlad. Tavdapirvelad igi cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferoebs exeboda, romelTa Soris, yvelaze mTavari kvebisa da gamravlebis instinqtebi iyo. adamianebTan maTi gamovlena-dakmayofileba mxolod tabuirebis (akrZalva-regulirebis) Sedegad gansxvavda cxovelTa igive instinqtebze damyarebuuli aqtivobisagan. akrZalva-tabuirebis gamo akumulirebuli energia ki kulturas daedo safuZvlad. am movlenas fsiqoanalizis fuZemdebelma zigmund froidma ,,sublimacia” uwoda.. maSasadame, fsiqoanalizisave mixedviT, adamianis gaadamianureba-gamoralurebas tabus unda vumadlodeT.

droTa ganmavlobaSi maRalganviTarebul xalxebSi tabus safuZvelze Camoyalibebul morals adamianis kulturul moTxovnilebebTan dakav-Sirebuli wesebisa da akrZalvebis mTeli sistema daemata _ rogor unda moiqce an ar moiqce ojaxSi, sazogadoebaSi, saxelmwifoSi; rogor unda icxovro an ar icxovro, ra unda moiwono an ar moiwono, rogor unda moepyra adamianebs, cxovelebs, nivTebs... Tavis mxriv nivTebis warmoeba-moxmarebis procesmac sakuTari amkrZalavi wesebi da kanonebi Seqmna. yovelive aman movaleobaTa da SezRudvaTa rTuli kompleqsi Seqmna, ramac gazrdil-gamravalferov-nebuli moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebas ,,safrTxe” Seuqmna.

maSasadame, Zveli da axali Taobis fsiqoanalizis warmomadgenlebis mtkicebiT, kulturas ,,tabus” unda vumadlodeT (froidi, fromi, iungi, adleri da sxvebi).

ukiduresad gazrdil-gamravalferovanebul SezRudvaTa sistema ki, TandaTan adamianis jer fsiqikur da mere fizikur janmrTelobas daemuqra; es akrZalvebi akompleqseben adamians da rac metia igi, miT ufro nevrotulia, fsiqiurad gadaxrili an misken midrekilia adamiani; xolo rac ufro naklebia akrZalvebi (primitul xalxebSi), miT ufro laRi, ukompleqso da maSasadame jansaRi.

aqedan gamomdinare gakeTda daskvna _ kulturebi nevrozebs awarmoebeno! amis gacnobierebam, Tanamedroveoba akrZalvebis winaaRmdeg aamxedra da yovelgvari normis ZirisZirs _ tabus Seutia. ,,janyi” ZiriTadad seqsualur urTierTobebs Seexo, raki tabuirebuli sferodan (sma-Wama, ufros-umcrosebs Soris mimarTeba, tomis, an zogierTi cxovelis da mcenarisadmi damokidebuleba da a.S.) yvelaze metad swored igi ,,dazaralda”, rac imaSi gamoixata, rom sasicocxlo instinqtebisken ltolva (biologiuri), moralis, religiis da nawilobriv samarTlis (anu kulturis) zegavleniT, cnobieridan aracnobier fsiqikaSi ganidevna. maT gamovlena-dakmayofilebas, mowesrigebuli, kulturuli urTierTobebi (ojaxuri, colqmruli cxovreba, adamianebs Soris moraluri mimarTebebi, kvebis reJimi da sxva) mxolod nawilobriv `rTavs nebas~.

`cnobierebidan gandevnili Sinaarsebis~ daTrgunvis meqanizmi Sinagani cenzori, anu sindisia (zogisTvis igi RvTis mier adamianisTvis boZebuli unaria, zogisTvis evoluciis procesSi Camoyalibebuli Sinagani msajuli). fsiqoanalizis mixedviT, sindisis es cenzoruli `moRvaweoba~ Tu kulturuli arsebis sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisTvis (adamianisTvis) sasargebloa, misive fsiqikuri janmrTelobisTvis sazianoao.

amgvarad, raki tabus mier adamianis biologiuri (cxoveluri) bunebis SezRudul sferoebs Soris didi adgili seqss eWira, Cvens droSi yvelaze metad am ,,cixesimagres” Seuties, imaze ki naklebad saubroben tabus axsniT sindiss, adamianis `Tavisuflebis~ am `dauZinebel mters~ da maSasadame mTels kulturas safrTxe rom daemuqra. dasavleTSi, Tavis droze, am moZraobas `seqsualuri revolucia~ uwodes da progresisken gadadgmul gigantur nabijad Seafases (gasuli saukunis 40-50-ian wlebSi berlinisa da parizis universtetis studentebi, froidis wignebisa da suraTebis frialiT, demonstraciebs marTavdnen da sazogadoebas seqsualuri revoluciisken mouwodebdnen. Tumca iq am moZraobam dRes ukve ukan daixia). CvenSi ki seqsualuri revoluciis talRam dagvianebiT SemoaRwia da sazogadoebis didma nawilma, romlebic Tavs progresistebs miakuTvneben, igi xalisiT aitaca.

`progresistebi~ propagandas uweven ara marto `Tavisufal siyvaruls~, aramed Tavisufal Cacmulobas (siSiSvles), Tavisufal metyvelebas anu tabuirebuli sityvebis legalizebas (amas mowmobs kulturis mTel rig dargebSi _ kino, Teatri, televizia _ akrZalul-tabuirebuli sityvebis da moqmedebebis farTod gamoyeneba).

erTi sityviT, dRevandeli progresistebi kulturis mier cnobierebidan gandevnili Sinaarsebis da sxeulis bunebrivi silamazeebis legalizebaSi sulieri harmoniisa da sijansaRis miRwevis gzas xedaven. vfiqrob Znelia amaSi Sedaveba; cxovelebze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom isini fsiqiuri daavadebiT naklebad avadmyofoben, rac albaT imis Sedegia, rom maTs `Tavisuflebas~ arc morali da arc is `saSineli qimera~ zRudavs, rasac sindisi ewodeba.

yovelgvari ironiis gareSe ki SeiZleba iTqvas, rom moralis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebas fsiqoanalizs ver davabralebT. im azrs, rom tradiciuli moralis moTxovnebi cxovrebis progresuli gziT svlas uSlis xels, ufro adre, nicSes filosofiaSi vxvdebiT, raki man morali sustebis gamogonilad, progresis mtrad gamoacxada da sazogadoebas mouwoda _ Sors yovelgvari moralio.

fsiqologebis gamokvlevebis mixedviT, moraluri akrZalvebi sulier aSlilobebs iwvevs, sulieri aSliloba _ autanel mousvenrobas. adamiani metwilad gaucnobiereblad eZebs misgan xsnis saSualebebs. aseTi saSualebebi mravalnairia. erT-erTi maTgani alkoholi an narkotikia. sxva SemTxvevaSi es SeiZleba iyos dagroveba-SeZenisadmi, an Tanamdebobisadmi dauokebeli swrafva, aRiarebis mopovebis mwveli survili, prostitucia, agresia da a.S. alkoholi da narkotiki (biologiuri) yvelaze advilad iwvevs imas, rac aseT adamians aklia _ simSvide (socialuri). aq igi droebiT `TavSesafars~ poulobs, magram faqtiurad esaa xafangi, radgan garkveuli drois Semdeg mas sxeuli engreva, efiteba (isev bilogiuri). amas sxva satanjvelic emateba _ alkoholi da narkotikis SesaZeni fulis Sovna (isev socialuri). amaT gareSe avadmyofebs ukve aRar SeuZliaT. ratom? pasuxi martivia _ adamiani bio-socialuri arsbaa da erT-erTis ignorireba jer mankierebis, Semdeg ki borotebis saxiT gvevlineba.

amis magaliTad narkomania ganvixiloT; es sakiTxi sakmaod kargad aris Seswavlili; narkotiki eiforiul mdgomareobas iwvevs _ simSvides, sasiamovno warmodgenebs, magram yvela narkotiki xuTi-eqvsi saaTis Semdeg wyvets moqmedebas. saqme imaSia, rom romelime narkotikis ramdenjerme miRebis Semdeg sxeuli egueba mas, radgan organizmi am dros mis gamaneitralebel nivTierebas gamoyofs (raki bunebriv pirobebSi masze moTxovnileba ar aqvs, narkotiki misTvis ucxoa, amitom ebrZvis mas. aseTi reaqcia aqvs organizms yvela wamlis mimarT. amitomaa droTa ganmavlobaSi yvela wamali rom kargavs efeqturobas). siamovnebis misaRebad saWiro xdeba narkotikis dozis gazrda. roca igi zRvrul odenoba miaRwevs, narkomani veRaraviTar siamovnebas veRar iRebs. amis mere sxva ubedureba iwyeba. esaa abstinencia, rasac TviT narkomanebi `lomkebs~ uwodeben. am dros organizmis mier gamomuSavebuli da gamoyofili gamaneitralebeli nivTiereba wamlavs organizms.

ase, rom xSirad narkomani siamovnebisTvis ki aRar xmarobs narkotiks, aramed lomkebis mosaxsnelad. e.i. narkotiks xmaroben imitom, rom abstinencia (lomkebi) moixsnan, lomkebi ki imitom aqvT rom narkotiks xmaroben.

tradiciulad narkomanebs ase mkurnaloben: maT saimedod gamohketaven, raTa ,,lomkebis” dros narkotikis miRebis saSualeba ar hqondeT. marTalia isini am dros saSinlad itanjebian, magram ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi, Tu narkotiks ar miiReben, gamaneitralebeli nivTierebis gamoyofa Sewydeba da ,,lomkebi” moexsnebaT. garkveuli drois Semdeg narkomani gankurnebuli gamodis profilaqtoriumidan, magram zogi Sin misvlamde garbis ,,wamlis” misaRebad.

ratom? narkomaniis mizezad fsiqologebs sulieri aSliloba miaCniaT. am aSlilobis mizezi ki mravali SeiZleba iyos _ ararealizebuli unarebi, mouwyobeli cxovreba, Ralati, sulieri siRatake, cnobismoyvareoba... (socialuri). isini (fsiqologebi) daaskvnian, rom narkomanma ar icis ra aris siyvaruli (biologiur-socialuris anu maTi dialeqtikuri erTianoba); ukeTes SemTxvevaSi maT mxolod siyvarulis surogatebTan (biologiurTan) aqvT saqme, rac imas niSnavs, rom narkomania, upirveles yovlisa daavadebaa, romelic sxvadasxva danaSaulisaken ubiZgebs adamians. seqsologebs da fsiqologebs miaCniaT, rom Tavisufali siyvaruli narkomaniasTan brZolis erT-erTi bunebrivi saSualebaa, magram ara mkurnalobis!

narkomaniis samkurnalod fsiqologebi fsiqoanalizs asaxeleben. maTi azriT mkurnalobis es meTodi Seumcdaria. ikurneba yvela daavadebuli, Tu didi ,,staJis” gamo gadagvarebuli araaqvs tvinis ujredebi.

rogor SeiZleba misi gankurneba? sulier aSlilobaTa (maT Soris narkomaniis) mizezebs ikvlevda da avadmyofebs mkurnalobda zigmund froidi (XX saukune, vena). pirvel yovlisa aRiarebul iqna sulier aSlilobaTa fsiqikuri warmomavloba, ris Semdegac, sxva mkvlevarebTan erTad, froidi im daskvnamde mivida, rom sulieri aSliloba adre bavSvobidan iwyeba (xuT wlamde asakidan). fsiqologebis azriT yvela miuRebeli ltolva Cvilobidan iwyeba, Semdeg ki akrZalvebis, kulturis (socialuris) zemoqmedebiT adamianebi am ltolvebs ebrZvian. esaa brZola biologiursa (bunebriv moTxovnilebebs) da socialurs (moralis moTxovnebs) Soris. yvelaferi es Seugneblad, aracnobierad xdeba. didobaSi gamovlenili akviatebebi bavSvobis droindeli natvrebi an SiSebi da travmebia, akrZalvis gamo aracnobierSi miCqmaluli da miviwyebuli.

froidologebi amtkiceben, rom froidi warmatebiT mkurnalobda sulier aSlilobebs, Tu im miCqmalul survilebs da natvrebs an SiSebs miagnebda. e.i. Tu pacients maT gacnobierebaSi daexmareboda. moyolis Semdeg isini Tavs kargad grZnobdnen da sulieri aSlilobis simptomebi uqrebodaT. roca amas hipnozis dros akeTebdnen e.i. roca pacienti amas ar acnobierebda, isini mcire xnis Semdeg kvlav avaddebodnen. saWiro iyo maT gaegoT, gaecnobierebinaT am daavadebis mizezebi. hipnozisas maTze Tavisuflad saubrobdnen, radgan am dros ,,cenzori” moxsnilia. gaRviZebisas ki es ,,monstri” amis uflebas ar iZleva! Tu am faruli ltolvebis Sesaxeb eqimi etyoda, pacients es ar sjeroda da Seuracxofilic ki rCeboda.

droTa ganmavlobaSi, gulaxdili saubrebis da xangrZlivi seansebis dros, froidi moxerxebulad aTavsebda pacientebs taxtze, TviTon ki mofarebiT ijda da saubrobdnen. xSirad es saubrebi erT-or weliwadsac ki grZeldeboda; pacienti iwyebda sakuTari Tavis, sakuTari aracnobieris Seswavlas da Sedegebic damakmayofilebeli hqonda. froidi fsiqiatri iyo. Tavisi praqtikuli moRvaweobis Sedegebi man mokled ase Camoayaliba: adamians dabadebidan Tan dahyveba cxoveluri (biologiuri) Tvisebebi, magram man, cxovelisagan gansxvavebiT, kultura (socialuri) Seqmna. is, rac CvenSi cxoveluria, gamudmebiT dakmayofilebas moiTxovs, magram mkveTr sazogadoebriv akrZalvebs awydeba da brkoldeba. amitom, adamiani mTeli cxovrebis manZilze ebrZvis sazogadoebisTvis miuRebel ltolvebs da moTxovnilebebs.

adamianis aracnobieri ltolvebis gacnobierebas xels uSlis erTgvari ,,makontrolebeli meqanizmi” ,,cenzura” (eTikaSi mas sindiss uwodeben). igi yovelTvis ver axerxebs aracnobieri ltolvebis aRmofxvras, magram imdeni ki SeuZlia, rom cnobierSi amotivtivebisas mis calkeul nakads saxe Seucvalos. SesaZloa ngrevis survili SenebiT daikmayofilos, agresiuli ltolva _ moferebiT, zrunviT... an xelovnebaSi, sportSi gamovlindes... e.i. sazogadoebisTvis misaRebi formiT moevlinos sazogadoebas. Zlieri ,,cenzuris” patroni, xSirad axerxebs Tavisi ltolvebis SeniRbvas, amgvarad mis aracnobieradve dakmayofilebas da mis suls avadmyofoba aRar emuqreba. magram roca ,,cenzura” aracnobieri ltolvis ,,gadakeTebas” ver axerxebs, igi saxecvlili, magram mainc miuRebeli saxiT aRmocendeba. ,,cenzura” imdens mainc axerxebs, rom am adamianma ver Seicnos ratom, saidan modis es ucnauri, misTvis miuRebeli akviatebebi. adamiani ibneva, nerviulobs da sulieri aSlilobac saxezea.

fsiqoanalizis specialistebi amtkiceben, rom im aracnobieri ltolvebis gacnobiereba xsnis aSlilobis mizezebs. es gacnobiereba SesaZloa Zalze mtkivneuli iyos, magram daavadeba mainc ar aris da adamiani normalur cxovrebas ubrundeba.

magram saqmes, mTlad, arc ,gacnobiereba” Svelis. Tu am logikas gavyvebiT, unda vaRiaroT, rom igi mxolod im ,,didi saqmis” dasawyisia, rasac gankurneba hqvia. ,,gacnobierebas” ,,saqme” unda mohyves. ,,saqme” ki im ,,sasicocxlo moTxovnilebebis” SeuzRudavi realizaciaa, rasac moralis enaze aRviraxsniloba hqvia. marTalia fsiqoanalitikosebi amas ar gulisxmoben, raki isini ,,siyvarulis surogatebze”, rogorc faqtiurad daukmayofilebel vnebaze, laparakoben. maTive azriT, mxolod namdvil, did siyvaruls SeuZlia mianiWos adamians bedniereba, rac swored socialuris, kulturis Sedegia. aq biologiuri isea kulturul moTxovnilebebTan Serwymuli, rom maTi cal-calke warmodgena, ukve SeuZlebelia.

,,saSveli” isev fsiqoanalizis SemqmnelebTan unda veZioT. kerZod, roca isini amtkiceben, tabuirebiT ,,dazaralebuli” da aracnobierSi Caketili sasicocxlo moTxovnilebebi ,,cenzuris” (sindisis) ,,SiSiT” cnobierSi saxeSecvlili _ Senebis, sxvaze zrunvis, gmirobis, musikis, saxviTi xelovnebis, politikosobis da a.S. saxiT amodiano! Tu asea, ,,saSvelic” napovni yofila. raki arsebobs imis SesaZlebloba, rom cxoveluri ltolvebisa da survilebis akrZalva-tabuirebiT dagrovili energia sxva, kulturul saqmianobaSi gadairTos (rasac froidma sublimacia uwoda), imis SesaZleblobac unda davuSvaT, rom kacobrioba am ,,energias”, Cveni winaprebis msgavsad, kvlavac kulturis (socialuris) Sesaqmnelad gamoiyenebs da sulieri aSlilobebic TavisTavad ,,naSveli” iqneba. anu, adamianTan socialuri (kultura) ar moiazreba biologiuris gareSe iseve, rogorc biologiuri ar moiazreba socialuris gareSe. es ori mxare dialeqtikur mTels warmoadgens, rac imas niSnavs, rom urTierT dapirispirebis miuxedavad, isini mainc erTni arian (rasac hegelma dapirispirebulTa brZolisa da erTianobis kanoni uwoda).

dilemac amaSi mdgomareobs _ isini uerTmaneTod ar arseboben, erTimeores ki ,,zians” mainc ayeneben, rac socialuris (kulturis) mxriv biologiuris SezRudvaSi gamoixateba. xolo Tu socialuri faqtori (kultura) biologiuris ,,daCagvras” moaxerxebs, biologiuri ,,dazaraldeba” rac janmrTelobis ganadgurebiT gamoixateba. esaa gza sulieri aSlilobidan somatur daavadebamde.

fsiqoanalizis SemqmnelebTan SedarebiT Cemi mokrZalebuli kompetenciis miuxedavad gavbedav moZRvrebis am nawilSi mcire koreqtivi Sevitano, Zveli berZeni filosofosebis daxmarebiT. kerZod: Tanamedrove medikosTa, fsiqologTa da eTikosTa daskvniT yoveli daavadeba (biologiuri) uzneobiT (socialuriT) iwyeba; es daskvnac fsiqoanalizidan gamomdinareobs, raki narkomanias adreul bavSvobaSi miRebul travmebs (anu viRacis uzneobas) ukavSireben.

vfiqrob, daavadebis mkurnaloba, anu Cvens SemTxvevaSi biologiuris da socialuris dilemis gadaWrac zneobas unda daefuZnos, rac ZvelisZveli zneobrivi principis _ zomierebis anu ,,oqros Suagulis” _ ,,xelaxla aRmoCenaSi” mdgomareobs. ara sulieri aSlilobis SiSiT tabuirebul ltolvaTa SeuzRudavi dakmayofileba, ara kulturis ,,WirveulobiT” daTrgunuli ltolvebi, aramed ,,raRac sxva...” anu zomiereba! (antikurobis erT-erTi sibrZne). am principis ,,naklic” da Rirsebac isaa, rom igi TiToeulma individma TviTon, damoukideblad unda gadaWras, raSic mas isev kultura _ msoflios didi maswavleblebi daexmareba. daexmareba da ara aswavlis! humanizmis erT-erTi ZiriTadi principic esaa _ ara aswavlo ra aris WeSmariteba, aramed daexmaro mas WeSmaritebis povna-aRmoCenaSi.

statia ki netari avgustines cnobili SegonebiT minda davamTavro _ urwmenod ar arsebobs WeSmariteba! anu WeSmariteba, romelic sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis maregulirebel meqanizms angrevs, WeSmariteba ar aris!

literatura:

  • k.g. iungi, analizuri fsiqologiis safuZvlebi, Tb. 1994.

  • mencari, Tb. 1996.

  • r. gafrindaSvili, alternatiuli eTika da fsiqologia, 2000.

  • r. gafrindaSvili, eTika, 2001.

  • З. Фроид, Лекции по введению в психоанализ, т. 1-2, М., 1922

  • З. Фроид, Тотем и табу, М., 1923.

  • Э. Фромм, Психоанализз и этика, М., 1993.

  • С. Лазарев, Диагностика кармы, СПБ, 1993-96 гг.


Roza Gaprindashvili


SUMMARY


The article covers the problems relating to biologic and cultural explanations of social events that might have physical or psychological impact on human’s health.The revival of the antique slogan – “ nothing too much!” or “golden midst” can soive such problems, avoiding mankind of spiritual disorder and related somatic diseases.


^ Роза Гаприндашвили


Диалектика биологического и социального и моральная дилема

РЕЗЮМЕ


В статье показываются недостатки интерпретации социальных явлений с точки зрения как биологизма, так и культурализма. Крайности этих концепций угрожают физическому и психическому здоровью человека.Вновь открытий девиз античности – «ничего лишнего», т.е. теория «золотой середины» - минимализирует эти трудности, следствием которого будет психическое и физическое здоровье человека.



qeTevan xuciSvili


religiuroba sakmaod zogadi terminia. religiurobis gansazRvrisas adamianis religiur praqtikaSi CarTvis xarisxis (anu ritualuri ganzomilebis) garda gasaTvaliswinebelia sxva ganzomilebebic, kerZod eqsperimentuli, ideologiuri, garemoebiTi da inteleqtualuri. amdenad, pirovnebis cxovrebaSi religiis mniSvneloba mis religiasTan emociuri kavSirebis siZlieriT, religiuri doqtrinis rwmenis xarisxiT, am rwmenis yoveldRiur qcevaSi gamoxatvis, ritualuri aqtiurobis sixSiriTa da religiuri jgufis istoriisa da dogmebis codnis siRrmiT izomeba. am TvalsazrisiT, adamianebi sxvadasxva ganzomilebiT sxvadasxva doniT religiurebi SeiZleba iyvnen. marTalia, religiuroba, garkveuwilad, pirobiTi kategoriaa, magram dasaxelebul ganzomilebaTa mixedviT, mainc SesaZlebelia iTqvas, rom amerikelebi ufro religiurebi arian vidre, magaliTad, evropelebi.

Tu eklesiur qrisatianTa raodenobas gaviTvaliswinebT aSS, albaT dasavleTis saxelmwifoTa Soris yvelaze religiuri qveyanaa. aSS-s daaxloebiT 60 milioni moqalaqe acxadebs, rom “xelaxla moiqca” (heivudi: 2004: 360). amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleobis 95% acxadebs, rom swams garkveuli saxis RvTaebrivi Zala, 60%-s ar eeWveba RmerTis arseboba, ase rom eqsperimentuli ganzomilebiT aSS-s mosaxleoba mniSvnelovnad religiuria. magram sxva ganzomilebebis mixedviT situacia icvleba. ideologiuri TvalszrisiT, magaliTad, mxolod 70% aRiarebs sicocxlis arsebobas sikvdilis Semdeg. ritualuri religiurobis mixedviT procentuli raodenoba ufro mcirdeba, ase rom, religiurobis dadgena rTuli problemaa. amasTan, gasaTvaliswine-





belia,rom religiuroba amerikuli kulturis normativia da adamianebi SeiZleba ufro met religiurobas iCemebdnen vidre sinamdvileSi arian. realurad aSS-s mosaxleobis mxolod erTi mesamedia religiuri. religiurobis xarixxi icvleba denominaciebis Sesabamisad (kaTolikebi ufro religiurebi arian vidre protestantebi, maTze ufro religiurebi ki seqtebis wevrebi .) (Macionis: 1995: 503-5).

religiurobidan gamomdinare sxvadasxvaa religiur an aseTad miCneul qmedebebSi CarTvis xarisxic. yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi religiuri qmedebebi ama Tu im jgufis mrwamsisa da praqtikidan gamomdinare sxvadasxva SeiZleba iyos. pirobiTad es SeiZleba davyoT religiur-ritualur, socialur da politikur aqtiurobad.

religiuri aqtiurobis gamovlinebaTa arsis garkvevisaTvis saWiroa amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi arsebuli religiuri viTarebis zogadi daxasiaTeba.

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi mravalkonfesiuri saxelmwifoa. evropuli kolonizaciis dawyebamde amerikis adgilobrivi mosaxleoba adgilobriv gvarovnul-tomobriv kultebs scemda Tayvans. XV saukunidan regionSi TandaTan fexs ikidebs qristianoba. dRes amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi umravlesoba protestantia.

aSS msoflioSi yvelaze rTuli konfesiuri Semadgenlobis qveyanaa, rac msoflios yvela kuTxidan mimdinare migraciebiTaa ganpirobebuli. dRes aq daaxloebiT 56%-ia protestanti, kaTolike – 28%. protestantuli jgufebidan yvelaze mravalricxovania baptistebis jgufi, romelic mTeli mosaxleobis 19%-s Seadgens, meTodistebi – 8%-ia, luTeranebi - 6%, presviterianelebi – 3%, ormocdaaTianelebi - 2% da anglikanebi - 2%. aSS-Si arian aseve iudaistebi - 2%, marTlmadideblebi - 3%, muslimanebi - 2%. mosaxleobis 10%-s ara aqvs gansazRvruli religiuri mikuTvnebuloba (Лобжанидзе: 2005: 112-3; 162) mecnierTa nawili miiCnevs, rom religiuri rwmena centraluri mniSvnelobis mqonea amerikelTa erovnul yofaSi, sxvebi acxadeben, rom religia aRaraa iseTi Zalis mqone rogoric winaT iyo, magram yvela Tanxmdeba imaSi, rom amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi sxva industriuli qveynisgan gansxvavebiT religia SedarebiT didi gavlenis mqonea.

nacionaluri gamokvlevebis Tanaxmad amerikel axalgazrdaTa 90% Tavs romelime religiur jgufs miakuTvnebs. 60% ki Tavs romelime religiuri organizaciis wevrad ganixilavs. religiuri mikuTvnebuloba gansxvavdeba regionebis mixedviT (magaliTad, samxreT-dasavleTi kaTolikuria, samxreTi - baptisturi, CrdiloeTi ufro metad luTeranulia, mormonebi koncentrirebuli arian iutas StatSi da a.S.) (Macionis: 1995: 503-5). am religiuri jgufebis mokle daxasiaTeba saSualebas iZleva maTi aqtiurobis garkveuli formebi dakavSirebul iqnas maT mrwamssa da praqtikasTan.

evangelizmi protestantuli qristianobis erT-erTi mimdinareobaa. igi ar warmoadgens arc seqtas arc gansakuTrebul jgufs. es aris moZraoba, romlis mimdevrebic reformistuli tradiciis erTgulni arian. am moZraobas ekuTvnian presviterianelebi, baptistebi, ormocdaaTianelebi, meTodistebi da xsnis eklesiebis warmomadgenelni.

evangelikuri moZraoba SeiZleba SevadaroT mozaikas, romelic gansxvavebuli qvebisgan erTian mTlian saxes qmnis. maTi saerTo safuZveli XIX saukunis evangelisturi da misioneruli moZraobebia. evangelikuri moZraobis winamorbedebad SeiZleba miviCnioT germanuli pietizmi, meTodizmi da amerikuli koloniebis gamoRviZebis moZraobebi, aseve anglikanuri eklesiis “evangelikuri partia”, jorj uiliamzis axalgazrda qristianTa asociacia, xsnis armia, aseve xsnisa da ormocdaaTianelTa moZraobebi da bolos 1846 wels Seqmnili evangelisturi aliansi.

aSS-Si es moZraobebi maTi fundamentalizmis gamo krizisSi moeqca. amis gamo 1942 wels Seiqmna evangelistebis erovnuli asociacia. maT moiTxoves sazogadoebasa da eklesiaSi infiltracia. Tanamedroveobas miuaxloves TavianTi Sexedulebebi. dRes maT inteleqtualuri sajarooba axasiaTebT, Tavs “neo-evangelistebs” uwodeben da amiT xazs usvamen TavianT kavSirs Zvel evangelistur moZraobasTan. erTianobis SegrZnebas uCens maT: a) Teologiuri seminarebi; b) avtoritetebi (mag: bili grahami da bil braiTi); g) Jurnalebi (mag: „qristianoba dRes“); d) garkveul jgufebze momuSave, eklesiebs gareT arsebuli organizaciebis didi ricxvi. evangelistebs axasiaTebT socialuri prioritetis gakeTeba misiasa da evangelizaciaze, risTvisac iyeneben Tanamedrove teqnikisa da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs da agreTve atareben ufro mcire masStabis (saxlis bibliis wreebi, sakvirao skolebi, qalTa sauzmeebi, bavSvTa evangelizacia da a.S.) samuSaoebs.

zogadad evangelistebs prozelitoba axasiaTebT. zogjer isini mimdevrebisagan moiTxoven saerTod yvelanairi kontaqtis gawyvetas evangelisturi poziciis ar mqone sazogadoebasTan (axasiaTebT absolutizmis pretenzia). dRes evangelisturi moZraoba 150 milion qristians aerTianebs msoflioSi. maT aqvT organizaciebis, konferenciebis, programebis da ganaTlebis kerebis Zalian didi qseli.

evangelisturi organizaciebi yvelaze kargad organizebuli CrdiloeT amerikaSia. aqedan momdinareobs moZraobis ZiriTadi impulsebic. muSaobs “msoflio evangelisturi TanamSromloba” da lozanis “msoflio evangelistebis komiteti” (romelic bili grahamma Camoayaliba). arian memarcxene evangelistebic romelTaTvisac evangelizacia da socialuri angaJireba ganuyofeli sakiTxebia. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis evangelistebisTvis patriotuli da sameurneo saqmianoba arsebuli status qvos SenarCunebas gulisxmobs. miuxedavad Teologiuri diferenciaciisa evangelisturi moZraoba mainc erT mTlianobas warmoadgens. misi unari - realobis gazrdili sirTuleebis sawinaRmdegod simSvide da usafrTxoeba SesTavazos Tavis mrevls, Zalian kargad ewyoba patara biurgerul garemos, aseve warmatebiT ikidebs fexs saqmian da akademiur wreebSic. evangelizmi socialuri garemos Sesabamisad SeiZleba iyos politikur-socialurad konservatuli, amave dros “radikaluri”, patriotuli an apologeturi (Gasper: 1995; 263-270).

evangelisturi moZraobis nawils warmoadgens baptizmi. igi protestantuli mimdinareobaa, romelic inglisSi Camoyalibda puritanizmidan. inglisSi 1689 wels rwmenis Semwynareblobis kanonis miRebamde opoziciuri religiuri jgufebi idevnebodnen da bevrma maTganma “axal samyaros” miaSura. maT Soris iyo independenti rojer uiliamsi. man 1639 wels providensSi daaarsa amerikel baptistTa pirveli Temi. TandaTanobiT baptistTa centrma samxreTSi gadainacvla. 1684 wels gaCnda kerZo baptistebis pirveli Temi pensilvaniaSi, 1707-Si ki xuTma Temma daaarsa filadelfiis baptisturi asociacia, romelmac aqtiuri misioneruli saqmianoba gaaCaRa, jer adgilobriv, Semdeg ki saerTaSoriso masStabebSi.

baptizmis rigma specifikurma maxasiaTeblebma (organizaciebis demokratiuloba, Sida simtkice, “cnobieri naTlobis” moTxovna, puritanizmis eTika, evangelizaciis lozungi da a.S.) ganapirobes mis mimdevarTa ricxvis swrafi zrda (Христианство: 1994: 43). swored baptizmi gaxda XVIII saukuneSi “revaivelizmis” safuZveli. am dros gaCnda axali baptisturi organizaciebi (qristes baptisturi eklesia, meSvide dRis baptistebi, Tavisufali nebis baptistebi da a.S.). baptizmi warmoadgens umsxviles protestantul organizacias, igi flobs msxvil kapitals, aqvs Tavisi universitetebi, Jurnal-gazeTebi, gamomcemlobebi, misiebi, sazogadoebebi da a.S. dRes baptizmi amerikanizmis arsebiTi komponentia.

baptistebisTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania Tavisi rwmenis gavrceleba, rac TiToeulis movaleobaa: yoveli baptisti morwmune mRvdelia da Tavs sulebze mebadurebs uwodebs (sayovlTao mRvdlobis principi) (fanjikiZe: 2003: 157). baptisturi eklesia disciplinirebuli da kargad gamarTuli organizaciaa, romelic sakmaod aqtiuria rogorc ritualuri, aseve socialuri da politikuri TvalsazrisiT.

meTodistebi aSS-Si mosaxleobis saSualo fenebs Seadgenen da Sesabamisad did yuradRebas aqceven socialur sakiTxebs, kerZod, cxovrebis pirobebis gaumjobesebas. isini omis winaaRmdeg gamodian da ekumenisturi moZraobis momxreni arian. britanuli meTodisturi eklesiebisagan gansxvavebiT amerikul meTodistur eklesias episkopaluri mowyoba aqvs. isini gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmoben evangelizaciasa da samqadageblo saqmianobas. Sesabamisia maTi socialuri aqtiurobac. politikaze gavlenis TvalsazrisiT, aRniSvnis Rirsia, rom meTodisti iyo amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis oTxi prezidenti: jeims noqs polki (1845-49), ulis simfson granti (1869-77), raterford berCard heisi (1877-81) da uiliam mak-kinli (1897-1901) ) (Народы: 2000: 771).

qarizmatuli moZraoba XX s-is Sua wlebSi warmoiSva. qarizmatebi miiCneven, rom RmerTisadmi mudmivi samsaxuris saSualebad suliwmidisgan iReben gansakuTrebul sulier ZRvens – qarizmas. qarizmatuli moZrobis nawilia ormocdaaTianeloba, romelic aSS-Si daarsda kanzasis StatSi 1901 wels Carlz foksis mier qarizmatebis, baptistebisa da metodistebis gaerTianebiT (maT swamT xsna moqcevis saSualebiT, suliwmindis meSveobiT naTloba – madlis gadmosvla). dRes ormocdaaTianeloba moZraobadaa Camoyalibebuli.

amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi ormocdaaTianelTa umsxvilesi gaerTianebebia RvTaebrivi asamblea, qristes eklesia (afro-amerikuli gaerTianeba), RvTis eklesia da ormocdaaTianelTa wminda eklesia. isini ewevian aqtiur misionerul moRvaweobas, aseve didia maTi aqtiurobis xarisxi sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi.

presviterianeloba kalvinizmis erT-erTi formaa, romelsac jon noqsma daudo safuZveli SotlandiaSi. amerikaSi presviterianelebi Tavdapirvelad niu-jersiSi, pensilvaniasa da virjiniaSi dasaxldnen. igi dRemde sakmaod gavleniani denominaciaa amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. Tavis droze presviterianelebis mier niu-jersiSi daarsebuli kolejidan ganviTarda prinstonis universiteti. didi mniSvneloba eniWeba eklesiis rols sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. ewevian farTo misionerul saqmianobas. presviterianelebi iyvnen prezidentebi: e. jeksoni, j. biukeneni, s. klivlendi, b. harisoni, v. vilsoni, d. eizenhaueri (Народы: 2000: 807).

kalvinizmis erT-erTi formaa kongregacionalizmic (xSirad mas independentizmTanac akavSireben). dRes isini yvelaze mravalricxovani aSS-Si arian. 1818 wlamde konektikutisa da 1824 wlamde masaCusetsis kongregacionistul eklesiebs saxelmwifoebrivis statusi hqondaT. dRes maT reformistebTan, presviterianelebTan da meTodistebTan erTad aqvT qristes gaerTianebuli eklesia. maT rwmenis mkacrad doqtrinaluri formebi ar gaaCniaT da amiTaa ganpirobebuli mimdevarTa Sexedulebebis farTo diapazoni liberaluri tendenciebidan dawyebuli, konservatuliT damTavrebuli (Народы: 2000: 751). kongregacionalistTa mier 1636 wels kembrijSi daarsebuli kolejis safuZvelze ganviTarda mogvianebiT harvardis universiteti.

aSS-s protestantuli episkopaluri eklesia anglikanuri eklesiaa. daarsebis oficialur TariRad iTvleba 1789 w. filadelfia. XX saukunis Sua xanebidan daiwyo aSS-s episkopalur eklesiaSi moZraoba sazogadoebaSi moraluri standartebis Sesustebis sawinaaRmdegod eklesiis poziciis ganmtkicebisaTvis. mimdinareobda diskusia seqsualuri cxovrebis, eklesiis homoseqsualizmTan mimarTebisa da qalis mRvdlobis Taobaze. 1976 wels miRebul iqna gadawyvetileba qalis mRvdlad kurTxevis daSvebis Sesaxeb da 1988 wels arCeul iqna pirveli qali episkoposi. Sedegad bevrma mimdevarma datova episkopaluri eklesia da daarsda axali anglikanuri organizaciebi.

aSS-s episkopaluri eklesia farTo misionerul saqmianobas eweva (Народы: 2000: 810-1) maTi aqtiuroba socialur-sazogadoebrivi sferoTi Semoifargleba. Tumca Tavis droze garkveul gavlenas flobdnen politikur asparezzec (jorj vaSingtoni anglikani iyo).

amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi ramdenime luTeranuli eklesia moqmedebs. maTi saqmianobis sferoebia Teologiuri ganaTleba, misioneruli da sagamomcemlo saqmianoba (Христианство: 1994: 263).

XX saukunis miwuruls upiratesoba qristianulma seqtebma da zogierTma sxva jgufma mag. mormonebma, meSvide dRis adventistebma da sxv. moipoves.

mormonebi marginaluri protestantizmis warmomadgenlebi arian. jgufi daarsda 1830 wels niu-iorkis StatSi jozef smitis mier. maTTvis xsnis gzad rwmenisa da saidumloebebSi monawileobis garda (naTloba qorwineba, ziareba) aucilebelia keTili saqmeebi eklesiis saxeliT (Народы: 2000: 774-5). Sesabamisia maTi aqtiurobis formebic. cxovrebis wesi da eTika biurgerul-konservatulia. monawileoben kulturul, samecniero da politikur saqmianobaSi (Gasper: 1995: 701).

meSvide dRis adventistebi qristianul seqtad gnixileba. igi dRes arsebuli yvelaze didi adventisturi gaerTianebaa. adventisturi moZraobis ZiriTad mrwamss warmoadgens rwmena qristes xorcielad meored mosvlis Taobaze da bibliur winaswarmetyvelebebze dayrdnobiT garkveuli gamoangariSebebis safuZvelze konkretuli TariRebis dasaxeleba. adventisturma moZraobam gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT XVIII-XIX saukuneebis mijnaze ifeTqa. Camoyalibda mravali jgufi, romelTa mier dasaxelebuli TariRebis ar gamarTlebis Semdeg iqmneboda sxva jgufebi (Gasper: 1995: 18-20). erT-erTi aseTi SemTxvevis Semdeg aSS-Si meSvide dRis baptistebs 1863 wels gamoeyo jgufi elen da jeims uaitebis xelmZRvanelobiT da Camoyalibda meSvide dRis adventistTa Temi miCiganis StatSi (q. baTl-kriki).

elen uaitma gaaerTiana adventisturi moZraobis 125 Temi, romelTa wevrebis ricxvi 3500 iTvlida. intensiurma samisionero saqmianobam, skolebisa da saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebisa da gamomcemlobis gaxsnam nel-nela warmateba moutana gaerTianebas da gazarda mimdevarTa ricxvi. (Gasper: 1995: 989-990) maT mkveTrad centralizebuli mmarTveloba aqvT. isini Rrmad morwmune bibliis fanatikosebad iTvlebian. meSvide dRis adventistTa centraluri dawesebulebebi merilendis StatSi (q. takoma-parkSi), vaSingtonSi da mis mimdebare teritoriazea ganlagebuli. organizacia wevrebis Semowirulobebis xarjze eweva aqtiur saqvelmoqmedo saqmianobas, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba fizikur janmrTelobas da aqvT samkurnalo dawesebulebebis farTo qseli: saavadmyofoebi, sanatoriumebi (Народы: 2000: 674-5), aseve skolebi, universitetebi, gamomcemlobebi, radio da tele-arxebi (Gasper: 1995: 992).

religia garkveul mimarTebaSia socialur klasebTanac. mag. episkopaluri eklesiis mimdevrebi da presviterianelebi socialurad yvelaze maRla mdgomi fenebia, Semdeg modian luTeranebi, baptistebi, aseve iudevelebi. saSualo pozicia ukaviaT kongregacionalistebsa da meTodistebs. dabal socialur fenebs Seadgenen kaTolikebi (rodesac jon ficjerald kenedi, cnobili da gavleniani ojaxis Svili airCies pirvel kaTolike prezidentad 1960 w. opozicia misi winaaRmdegi iyo religiuri kuTvnilebis gamo (Macionis: 1995: 271)),

luTeranuli, baptisturi da seqtanturi organizaciebi, ra Tqma unda internaluri variaciebiT. religiuroba mimarTebaSia aseve eTnikur kuTvnilebasTan, Tumca aris religiuri gansxvavebulobac eTnikur jgufebSi. relgiuri aqtiurobis formebi rasobrivi TvalsazrisiTac gansxvadeba. magaliTad afro-amerikelebis sulieri da politikuri cxovreba istoriulad dakavSirebulia religiur organizaciebTan. amitom ar aris gasakviri is, rom martin luTer kingma an jesi jeqsonma moRvaweoba afro-amerikuli religiuri organizaciebis xelmZRvanelobiT daiwyes da maTi aqtiuroba politikur miznebs Seicavda.

religiuri aqtiuroba amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi araa yovelTvis politikur formaSi gamoxatuli. Tumca aseTi tendenciac SeimCneva. religiuri liderebi cdiloben lobi hqondeT kongresSi da amiT miaRwion TavianTi eklesiebis gavlenas amerikul politikaze. religiuri lobistebi, rogorc sazogadoebriv politikaze, aseve TavianTi wevrebis xarjze gavlenas axdenen mTel erovnul sazogadoebriv sivrceze. amasTan, iyeneben formulas – “warmateba udris kompromisebs” (Hertzke: 1988).

bunebrivia, sxvadasxva jgufebs gansxvavebuli taqtika aqvT, magram aRsaniSnavia, rom isini xSirad mimarTaven amerikuli politikisTvis ara warmomadgenlobiT Rirebulebebs. religiasa da politikas isic aaxloebs, rom orive maTgani RirebulebaTa (pirovnul, socialur Tu transcendentalur RirebulebaTa) arCevans exeba (Reichley: 1985: 9). amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 1970-iani wlebis bolos Camoyalibda axali qristianuli memarjveneoba, moZroba, romelic religiisa da politikis Serwymisken miiswrafoda. “axali qristianuli memarjveneoba” gamaerTianebeli terminia da im dajgufebaTa Tavisufal koalicias aRniSnavs, romlebsac upirveles yovlisa aerTianebs garkveuli mimarTeba moralisa da socialuri sakiTxebisadmi (heivudi: 2004: 360). mas safuZveli daedo, rogorc kampanias “tradiciul ojaxur faseulobaTa” aRdgenis mizniT. mis sagangebo samizneebs warmoadgendnen “mtkicebiTi saqmianoba” (pozitiuri diskriminacia SavkanianTa sasargeblod), feminizmi (kerZod, “Tanabar uflebaTa Sesworeba”) da homoseqsualistebis uflebaTa dacvis moZraoba.

1980-90-ian wlebSi zneobriobis es politika sul ufro metad gaerTianda antisaaborto sakiTxis irgvliv. dasaxelebuli sakiTxebis garSemo sxvadasxva organizaciis mobilizacias xSir SemTxvevaSi e.w. “teleevangelistebi” axorcielebdnen. am organizaciaTa Soris iyo “religiuri mrgvali magida”, “qristianuli xma”, “tradiciul faseulobaTa dacvis amerikuli koalicia” da yvelaze gavleniani “moraluri umravlesoba”. 1980-iani wlebis Semdeg “moralurma umravlesobam” da sxva msgavsma jgufebma daafinanses kampania da daiwyes amomrCevelTa registracia demokratebis damarcxebis mizniT. maT surdaT aseve gavlena moexdinaT respublikelebze, raTa am ukanasknelT mieRoT axali socialuri da moraluri programa (heivudi: 2004: 360-1). faqtiurad socialuri problemebi moralis sakiTxebTanaa kavSirSi da amitom arian religiuri organizaciebi amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi socialurad sakmaod aqtiurebi.

axali qristianuli memarjveneobis ideebs iziarebda ronald reigani, magram man ver SeZlo am moZraobis moraluri programis danergva. reiganis epoqis damTavrebis Semdgom axali qristianuli memarjveneobis avtoriteti mniSvnelovnad Seirya. jorj buSi ufrosi am moZraobas ar emxroboda.

qristianulma memarjveneebma prezidentobis TavianTi kandidati wamoayenes (teleevangelisti pat robertsoni) magram damarcxdnen. qristianulma memarjveneobam Tavisi politikuri bazisi ver gaafarTova da TeTrkanianTa evangelisturi protestantuli gaerTianebis farglebiT SeizRuda. sapasuxod evangelisturi moZraobis wevrebma ufro agresiul strategias mimarTes (Seqmnes e.w. milicia, romelsac “qristiani patriotebi” marTavdnen). qristianulma memarjveneobam garkveuli mxardaWera mas Semdeg moipova, rac 2000 wels prezidentad j. buSi umcrosi airCies. misi kabinetis mravali wevri TviT buSisa da vice-prezident dik Ceinis CaTvliT “xelaxla moqceuli” qristianebi arian. garda amisa, evangelistTa lideri jon eSkrofti generalur prokurorad dainiSna (heivudi: 2004: 362).

qristianuli memarjveneoba gavleniani fundamentalisturi moZraobaa. es arc aris gasakviri radgan religiuri fundamentalizmi farTomas-Stabiani politikuri aRorZinebis iaraRad miiCneva.

fundamentalizms aqvs unari biZgi misces politikur aqtiurobas da morwmuneTa mobilizacias. fundamentalistebi aqtiurad iyeneben masobrivi komunikaciis Tanamedrove saSualebaTa upiratesobebs (mag. aSS-is “teleevangelistebi”) da zemoqmedeben, rogorc fsiqologiur ise socialur doneebze (heivudi: 2004: 346). Sesabamisia sxvadsxva saxis qmedebebiT gamoxatuli maTi aqtiuroba. rogorc aRiniSna, ritualuri da socialuris garda amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis religiuri organizaciebi politikuri aqtiurobiTac gamoirCevian. garkveulwilad am viTarebas amerikuli mmarTvelobis sistema ganapirobebs, romelic gulisxmobs specialuri interes-jgufebis gavlenas politikaze. isini qmnian da moicaven e.w. „zewolis jgufebs“, sxvadasxva saxis komitetebsa da gaerTianebebs da amiT uzrunvelyofen politikaSi CarTulobas.


literatura:


  • fanjikiZe T. religiuri procesebi saqarTveloSi XX da XXI saukuneTa mijnaze, Tbilisi, 2003

  • heivudi e. politikuri ideologiebi, Tbilisi 2004

  • Лобжанидзе А.А., Горохов С.А., Заяц Д.В. Этногеография и география религий, Москва, 2005

  • Народы и религии мира, Энциклопедия под ред. В.А. Тишкова, Москва,. 2000

  • Христианство, словарь под ред. Митрохина Л.Н., Лещинского А.Н., Одинцова М.И., и Рашковой Р.Т. Москва, 1994

  • Hertzke A.D. Representing God in Washington. The Role of Religious Lobbies in the American Polity. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1988

  • Gasper H., Müller J., Valentin F.; Lexikon der Sekten, Sondergruppen und Weltanschauungen, Herder. Freiburg-Basel-Wien, 1995

  • Macionis J.J., Sociology, Prentie Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, 1995

  • Reichley A.J. Religion in American Public Life. The Brookings Institution Washington, D.C. 198 z5



Ketevan Khutsishvili


Forms of Religious Activities in the United States of America


SUMMARY


The United States of America is considered to be the most religious country among the Western States. Religiosity is a normative of American culture. According to the level of religiosity the level of participation in the religious or activities considered to be religious are different. In each case religious activities depend on the kind of belief or the practice of each group. Such activities may be divided into religious-ritual, social and political ones. There can be seen the tendency of expressing the religious activity in the political form. The Religious leaders are trying to become lobbies in the Congress and achieve the participation of their groups in the political life of the state. The tactical means are different. In the end of 1970-s the movement of the New Christian Rights was founded. This movement has become helpful since 2000 (the election of the president Bush). The political activity of the religious organizations in the USA is caused also by the type of governmental system, which means the influence of the special interest-groups on the political affairs. These groups are forming various unions and committees and are providing the in the political life.


^ Ketevan Хуцишвили


Религиозная активность в Соединенных Штатах Америки


РЕЗЮМЕ


Соединенные Штаты Америки самая религиозная страна среди государств Запада. Религиозность норматив американской культуры. Исходя из религиозности разнообразен уровень участия в религиозных или принятых таковыми действиях. В каждом конкрктном случае религиозные действия зависят от веры и пратики каждой группы. Условно их можно разделить на религиозно-ритуальные, социальные и политические активности. В США существует тенденция проявления религиозной активности в политической форме. Религиозные лидеры стараются найти лобби в конгрессе и этим влиять на политическую жизнь Америки. У разных религиозных групп разнообразная тактика. В конце 1970-их образовалось новое движение – новые христианские правые, которое стремилось воссоединить политику с религией. Это движение получило поддержку с 2000 года, после избрания президентом Дж. Буша младшего. Политическая активность религиозных организации обусловливается влиянием на политику специальных интересс-групп. Они создают «группы влияния» разного рода и этим обеспечивают включение в политическую жизнь.





kote abulaZe

`nu icxovreb xalxTan, visac... meti sapyrobile aqvs, vidre sastumro...~ ambobda piTagore. antikuri epoqis udidesi mecnierisa da moazrovnis es sentencia naTlad metyvelebs, Tu ra mniSvneloba eniWeboda stumarTmoyvareobas uZvelesi xanidan.

civilizaciis erT-erTma fundamenturma cnebam – stumarTmoyvare-obam antikuri epoqidan daiwyo Camoyalibeba rogorc industriam. mogzaurTa ganTavsebis pirveli obieqtebi moxsenebulia jer kidev manuskriptebSi, maT Soris babilonis mefe hamurabis kodeqsSi (daaxloebiT 1700 wels Cvens welTaRricxvamde). restornebi, tavernebi, Ramis gasaTevi saxlebi aRmoCenilia pompeis gaTxrebisas.

saqarTvelos gzajvaradinebze uZvelesi droidan yoveli erTi dRis savalze Sendeboda sastumros tipis saxlebi. iyo SedarebiT ufro keTilmowyobili sastumroebic, romlebsac qarvaslebs an fundukebs uwodebdnen.Qaq sastumro oTaxebis garda iyo darbazebi, maRaziebi, Rvinis sardafebi, sawyobebi, saxelosnoebi da ezoebi qaravnis dasayeneblad. Tbilisis erT-erT qarvaslaSi Teatri da biblioTekac ki funqcionirebda.

turistuli industriis ganviTarebaSi, kerZod sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis srulyofaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Sietanes evropelebma. swored amis Sedegia XX saukunis dawyebamde msoflio sastumro meurneobaSi evropuli klasikuri modelis dominireba.

XIX saukuneSi elitaruli turizmis ganviTarebam ganapiroba axali sastumro produqtis – mdidruli sastumros, e.w. otel-palasis koncefciis Camoyalibeba, romlis avtori iyo cnobili otelieri cezar rici. am koncefciis safuZvels warmoadgenda sastumros mowyobis sami ZiriTadi faqtori: fufuneba, sinatife, aristokratizmi.





msoflios umdidresi, saukeTeso sastumroebis jadosnuri samyaro amJamad ukve sakmaod didi da WeSmaritad gasaocaria. maTi ricxvi 300 aRemateba, umravlesoba amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, italiaSi, germaniasa da safrangeTSia. maT Soris aris legendaruli sastumroebi, romlebic mefeebsa da dedoflebs, saxelmwifoTa meTaurebsa da literaturis gigantebs, ukvdav msaxiobebsa da gavlenian politikosebs maspinZlobdnen.

erT-erTi maTgania baden-badenis sastumro `briners park hotel end spa~. mefuri komfortis mqone am SesaniSnav sastumros umaRlesi rangis stumarTa miRebis mravalwliani tradicia gaaCnia. igi maspinZlobda safrangeTis prezidentebs – Sarl de gols, valeri Jiskar de stens, Jak Siraks, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da ruseTis prezidentebs – bil klintonsa da boris elcins, germaniis federalur kanclers – konrad adenauers, iordaniis mefe huseins, dalai-lamas, henri fords, kompozitor igor stravinskisa da balerina maia pliseckaias, cnobil iluzionist devid koperfildsa da supermodel klaudia Sifers.

gabsburgebis tradiciis sidiadiT gamoirCeva graf viutembergis mier qalaq venaSi aSenebuli sastumro `imperiali~. igi 1837 wels gaxsna TviT imperatorma franc iozefma. manve mianiWa saxeli `roial siuti~ im nomers, sadac SemdgomSi cxovrobdnen germaniis imperiis pirveli reixskancleri oto bismarki, oskar uaildi da uolt disnei, rotSildi da xiCkoki. aq xSiri stumaria luCano pavaroti.

warsulis arqiteqturul Sedevrebs miekuTvneba aRorZinebis epoqis WeSmarit stilSi agebuli da mowyobili, legendad aRiarebuli `otel danieli~, romelic ganlagebulia venecieli doJis andrea dandolos sasaxleSi. aq xSirad Cerdebodnen prusiis mefe vilhelmi, onore de balzaki, mel gibsoni, marsel prusti da rihard vagneri, henri kisinjeri da riCard giri.

veneciis `griti palasi~ – greta garbosa da CerCilis, mark tvenisa da vudi alenis sayvareli, Cveuli rezidenciaa, sastumro, romelsac somerset moemi Tavisi saxlisgan Sors mdebare misive saxlad miiCnevda. TiTqos TviT istoria Semoinaxa im orma nomerma, romlebsac misi da ernest hemingueis saxeli hqvia. am sastumrosa da misi nomrebis mediCis karisTvis damaxasiaTebel fufunebas TiTqos ar aqvs sazRvari. aseT sastumroebSi cxovrebis gansakuTrebuli, erTaderTi da ganumeorebeli stili sufevs.

safrangeTis samxreTiT, espaneTis sazRvris maxloblad, biskais yures zRvispira balneo-klimaturi kurorti biarici cnobilia agreTve rogorc serfingis msoflio dedaqalaqi.

swored aq mdebareobs otel `de luqsi~ – erT-erTi mdidruli sastumro im milionerebisaTvis, romlebsac romantikuli ganmartoeba surT. es araCveulebrivi, istoriuli Senoba agebulia XIX saukuneSi napoleon III mier misi meuRlis pativsacemad. aq 1864 da 1865 wlebSi ewyoboda istoriaSi e.w. `biaricis Sexvedrebis~ saxelwodebiT cnobili diplomatiuri Sexvedrebi napolen III da bismarks Soris, romelTa Sedegad am ukanasknels imedi hqonda avstriasTan mis mier dagegmil omSi safrangeTis neitralitetisa.

frenk sinatras, henri fordis, luCano pavarotis, elitaruli wreebis mravali sxva warmomadgenlis es sayvareli sastumro dResac udidesi popularobiT sargeblos msoflioSi.

miuxedavad evropelebis didi damsaxurebisa, Tanamedrove sastumro specifokur amerikul gamogonebadaa miCneuli. pirveli sastumro amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi _ 70 nomriani `siTi oteli~ gaixsna 1794 wels, xolo 1859 wels niu-iorkis erT-erT sastumroSi mexuTe aveniuze pirvelad msoflioSi daamontaJes lifti. pirveli sastumro eleqtroganaTebiT `hotel evereti~ gaixsna niu-iorkSi.

pirveli biznes-oteli – specializebuli sastumro biznesmenebi-saTvis `bafalo statleri~, romlis TiToeul nomers qonda Tavisi saabazano da tualeti, telefoni agreTve amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, qalaq bafaloSi gaixsna 1908 wels.

XX saukunis 50-ian wlebamde turizmis industrias ZiriTadad sastumro meurneoba warmoadgenda. meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi daiwyo turizmis industriis ganviTarebis axali, mniSvnelovani etapi, rac ganpirobebuli iyo rigi socialur-ekonomikuri faqtorebiT: mosaxleobis Semosavlebisa da Tavisufali drois zrdiT; samgzavro reaqtiuli aviaciis ganviTarebiT; mogzaurobis Rirebulebis SemcirebiT; qalaqebSi ekologiuri situaciis gauaresebiTa da mzardi urbanizaciiT.

dargis ganviTarebis procesi intensiurad grZeldeboda gasuli saukunis bolomde, rodesac turizmis industriis brunva praqtikulad iseTi ganviTarebuli qveynis erovnul Semosavals gauTanabrda, rogoricaa iaponia.

turizmis Tanmedrove industria aris ganTavsebisa da kvebis sawarmoebis, turopereitingis, turizmis satransporto, savaWro, saswavlo, sainformacio, samecniero infrastruqturebisa da dargis marTvis organoebis erToblioba.

amrigad, turizmis industria Camoyalibda rogorc sameurneo struqturis damoukidebeli rgoli – ekonomikuri sistema Semdgari dargebisa da ekonomikuri subieqtebisagan, romelTa funqciaa dasvenebisa da garTobis sxvadasxva saxeobebze mravalferovani moTxovnis dakmayofileba.

saerTaSoriso, erovnebaTSorisi da regionalur proeqtebSi turizmis industrias ganixilaven Semdeg aspeqtebSi: turizmis ganviTarebis zogadi prognozireba; dargis ganviTarebis ekonomikuri, socialuri, ekologiuri Sedegebi; zogadi strategia da saprogramo RonisZiebebi.

Tu gasul saukuneSi turizmis industriis ganviTarebas ZiriTadad ganapirobebda satransporto teqnologiebi da mogzaurobis Rirebulebis Semcireba, XXI saukunis Tvalmisawvdom periodSi mas gansazRvravs mikro da makro doneebis sul sxva faqtorebi.

mikro donis faqtorebis detaluri analizis gakeTebis mcdelobac ki sakmaod Znelia, vinaidan isini warmoadgenen yoveli qveynis turistuli da sabazro politikis sagans.

makro donis faqtorebidan aRsaniSnavia: sociodemografiuli cvlilebebi; mosaxleobis Semosavlebisa da Tavisufali drois zrda; eleqtronuli informacia da komunikaciis sistemebi; momxmareblebis mzardi moTxovnileba; turistuli produqtis realizaciis bazrebis gamoTanabreba; globaluri, saSualo da mcire biznesiT dasaqmebuli turoperatorebis saqmianobis polarizacia.

Tanamedrove teqnologiebis, marTvis sistemebis danergva, xels Seuwyobs axali sabazro sivrcis aTvisebas. turistuli bazris globalizacia ki gamoiwvevs transnacionaluri turistuli da sastumro korporaciebis poziciebis ganmtkicebasa da konkurenciis gamZafrebas.

amasTan dakavSirebiT bunebrivia ibadeba kiTxva Tu rogoria Cveni qveynis perspeqtivebi. araerTgzis miTqvams, rom saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebas ver ganapirobebda mxolod dargis prioritetis usafuZvlo deklarireba. pirvel rigSi aq politikuri neba iyo saWiro, magram amisTvis aravis ecala.

CvenTan rogorc iqna dasrulda lozungomania. gaCnda turizmis ganviTarebis realuri perspeqtivebi da imedebi.

bolo periodSi saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulma politikurma movlenebma didi turizmi iluziidan realobad aqcia, ramac gamoiwvia didi interesi saqarTvelos turistuli bazris mimarT sastumroebis iseTi cnobili da mZlavri transnacionaluri korporaciebis mxridan, rogorebicaa `redison-sasi~, `haiati~, `hiltoni~ da sxva.

jerjerobiT ki sastumro momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi da sruli nomenklatura uzrunvelyofilia mxolod TbilisSi ganlagebul im sastumroebSi, romelTa marTvaSi monawileoben cnobili saerTaSoriso kompaniebi `Seratoni~ da `marioti~.

turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis gadadgmuli praqtikuli nabijebi da uaxloesi perspeqtivebi moiTxoven saqarTvelos turistuli produqtis xarisxis mkveTr gaumjobesebas, rac SeuZlebelia sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis Sefasebis koncefciisa da sistemis Secvlis gareSe.

gardamavali periodis ekonomikis pirobebSi, rodesac saqarTvelos sastumro meurneoba stiqiurad yalibdeboda, xolo qveyana depresiuli turizmis regionebs miekuTvneboda, momsaxurebis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis saSualebad miCneuli iyo standartizaciis sabWouri modeli _ saxelmwifos mier mkacrad gansazRvruli moTxovnebi dawesebuli normatiuli dokumentebis (e.w. gostebis) meSveobiT.

saqarTveloSi sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis Sefasebis saSualebas warmoadgenda saxelmwifo standarti sst 12-96 `turistul-saeqskursio momsaxureba sastumroTa klasifikacia~. igi ZalaSia 1997 wlidan, magram miuxedavad amisa, dRemde ucnobia dargSi dasaqmebulTa farTo wrisaTvis.

aRsaniSnavia, rom sastumro biznesis warmomadgenelTa Soris ar arsebobs ndoba am standartis mimarT, isini ar iyvnen darwmunebulni im organoebis kompetenturobaSi romlebac atarebdnen sastumroebis sertifikacias.

amasTan, aRniSnuli standarti amJamad ukve moZvelebulia da veRar asrulebs konkurentunarianobis stimulatoris rols. misi moTxovnebi ucvleladaa gadmotanili ruseTis Sesabamisi standartidan ГОСТ Р 50645-94, romelic SemuSavebulia 1994 wels, rac Cveni erovnuli standartis kidev erT arsebiT naklad migvaCnia.

amitom dargisaTvis Zalze aqtualuria msoflio savaWro organizaciis wevri qveynebis saerTo SeTanxmeba, romlis Sedegad saqarTvelom unda Secvalos Zveli sabWouri standartebi _ e.w. `gostebi~.

amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs gardamavali periodis ekonomikis pirobebSi, vinaidan saqarTvelos sastumro meurneobis kerZo seqtori jer kidev yalibdeba stiqiurad, arsebuli normebisa da moTxovnebis, momsaxurebis Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe.

Cvens winaSe mwvaved dgas ara sastumroTa proeqtirebisa da mSeneblobis, aramed sastumro produqtis proeqtirebis problema, rac pirvel rigSi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli momsaxurebis xarisxTan, sastumro meurneobis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebTan, standartizaci-asTan.

amJamad mowinave qveynebSi standartizaciis politikas axasiaTebs liberalizaciis procesi, standartebis SemuSaveba komerciuli, sazogadoebrivi, samecniero organizaciebis mier. mravali civili-zebuli qveynis dargobrivi gaerTianebebi, asociaciebi ibrZvian korporaciuli normatiuli dokumentebis SeqmnisaTvis upirveles yovlisa gamZafrebul konkurenciaSi gamarjvebis mizniT.

magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi ar arsebobs sastumroebis klasifikaciis samTavrobo organizaciebis mier damtkicebuli oficialuri sistema. umaRles statuss sastumroebs aniWebs ori asociacia _ American Automobile Association (AAA) da Mobile Travel Guide. aRsaniSnavia, rom amisaTvis isini iyeneben specialur reitingul sistemas.

analogiuri praqtikaa did britaneTsa da SveicariaSi. am mxriv sayuradReboa Cveni mezobeli qveynebis magaliTic. bolo dromde ruseTis `saxstandarti~ damoukideblad iRebda gadawyvetilebas sastumroebisaTvis `xarisxis varskvlavebis~ miniWebis Sesaxeb. amJamad aRniSnuli problemiT dakavebulia ruseTis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros turizmis departamenti – federaluri struqtura, romelic pasuxismgebelia agreTve sastumro momsaxurebis teqnikur donesa da ganviTarebaze.

aRniSnuli funqciisa da saerTaSoriso standartizaciis dargSi mimdinare procesebis gaTvaliswinebiT savsebiT kanonzomieria, rom ruseTSi sastumro momsaxurebis nebayoflobiTi sertifikaciis sistema Seqmnilia swored turizmis departamentis mier.

saqarTvelos garadamavali periodis ekonomikis, standartizaciis erovnuli sistemis reformirebisa da turizmis ganviTarebis realuri safuZvlebis pirobebSi aucileblad migvaCnia saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis gamoyeneba sastumro momsaxurebis Sesabamisobis Sefasebis optimaluri dargobrivi sistemis Seqmnis mizniT.

aseTi sistemis modeli SemuSavebulia Cvens mier. sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis nebayoflobiTi reitinguli TviTSefasebis testis Sedgenisas gamoyenebulia: saerTaSoriso normebi da praqtika; msoflio turistuli organizaciis rekomendaciebi; amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, did britaneTSi, safrangeTSi, italiasa da zogierTi sxva qveynebSi, teransnacionalur korporaciebSi miRebuli sastumro momsaxurebis Sefasebis kriteriumebi; helapis institutis mier Catarebuli gamokvlevis meTodebi; Cvens qveyenaSi ganxorcielebuli kvlevis Sedegebi sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis marTvis dargSi, kerZod xarisxis Sefasebis kvalimetruli parametrebi, sastumros personalis profesionalizmis obieqturi Sefasebis meTodi.

testSi gamoyenebuli kriteriumebi da parametrebi adaptirebulia saqarTvelos pirobebTan, rac momsaxurebis donis Sefasebis reitinguli (e.w. balebiani) sistemis gamoyenebisas iZleva maqsimalurad obieqturi suraTis miRebis SesaZleblobas.

Cvens mier SemuSavebuli sistema ar warmoadgens standartiza-ciisa da sertifikaciis sistemis alternativas. arsebiTad es aris sastumro momsaxurebis TviTSefasebis paraleluri dargobrivi (korporaciuli) nebayoflobiTi sistema.

aRsaniSnavia, rom Sesabamisobis Sefasebis saxelmwifo sistemis SesaZlo Camoyalibebis SemTxvevaSic, am ukanasknelisa da nebayoflobiTi dargobrivi sistemebis erTgvari paralelizmi praqtikulad ar Seqmnis araviTar problemas. amgvari meTodi ara marto aprobirebulia, aramed ukve mravali welia warmatebiT gamoiyeneba zogierTi qveynebSi. magaliTad, aSS-Si funqcionirebs standartizaciis ori paraleluri sistema – saxelmwifo da damoukidebeli (nebayoflobiTi), am ukanasknelis udavo upiratesobiT (igulisxmeba 600-mde organizacia, romlebic SeimuSaveben standartebs).

sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis nebayoflobiTi TviTSefasebis wesis, normebisa da maxasiaTeblebis Cvens mier SemuSavebuli erToblioba miekuTvneba amerikuli klasifikaciiT gansazRvrul e.w. `de-faqto standartebs~. es aris specialuri an droebiTi standartebi, romlebic gankuTvnilia bazris ufro viwro segmentebisaTvis, vidre tradiciuli standartebi.

sastumro momsaxurebis xarisxis amaRlebis nebismier RonisZiebas win unda uswrebdes turistTa ganTavsebis sawarmos ganviTarebis miRweuli donis analizi. aseTive Sefaseba aucilebelia maSin, rodesac saWiroa ori an ramdenime sastumros Sedareba.

amisaTvis bolo periodSi evropasa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, xarisxis dargSi saerTaSoriso da erovnuli premiebis miniWebis procesSi xSirad gamoiyeneba TviTSefasebis meTodi, romelic iZleva savsebiT obieqtur monacemabs. magaliTad, SvedeTSi konkursSi xarisxis dargSi erovnuli premiis mosapoveblad yovelwliurad 30-mde organizacia monawileobs. TviTSefasebis rekomendaciebis broSurebis tiraJi 15-20 aTas egzemplars Seadgens. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi ganacxads malkolm bolbrijis premiis mosapoveblad (aSS-s erovnuli premia xarisxis dargSi) konkursSi monawileobaze 100-mde kompania waradgens. aRsaniSnavia, rom qveyanaSi yovelwliurad TviTSefasebis Catarebis 200 aTas egzemplarze meti broSura-saxelmZRvanelo iyideba.

TviTSefaseba aris sawarmos mier sakuTari saqmianobis Sefasebis efeqtiani meTodi. igi moicavs saqmianobis TiTqmis yvela aspeqts, warmoadgens TviTdiagnostikis karg saSualebas, romelic gamoiyeneba mdgomareobis aRwerisaTvis da imis gansazRvrisaTvis, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba sawarmo Tavis daniSnulebas.

xarisxis marTvis evropuli fondi gansazRvravs aRniSnul process, rogorc Sedegebis yovlismomcvel, regularul analizs, organizaciebis sistemstur Zalisxmevas maTi saqmianobis srulyofis mizniT.

vfiqrobT, rom es meTodi mniSvnelovan rols Seasrulebs Cvens qveyanaSi dargis daCqarebuli ganviTarebis procesSi.


^ Konstantine Abuladze


Georgia in expect for the great tourism


SUMMARY


Hospitality is viewed as historical importance. Especially as the foundation of civilization development realms. Such as trade and diplomacy.


Ancient eastern and antique period manuscripts describe the specifications of the ancient inns.(acommodation, hotel)

It’s mentioned that tourism by its modern meaning, (so called elite tourism)was developed in XIX century as the realm of industry and service. Also, its the fact that it is the source of national income and social welfare for many countries.


The article describes the development perspectives of this branch in Georgia. The delaying factors and the mothods of getting over them, by relying the edge of development of such countries.


^ Константин Абуладзе


Ãðóçèÿ â îæèäàнии áîëüøîãî òóðèçìà


РЕЗЮМЕ


Ãîñòåïðèèìñòâî ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ êàê èñòîðè÷åñêàÿ âàæíîñòü. Òåì áîëåå, ÷òî îñíîâà öàðñòâ ðàçâèòèÿ öèâèëèçàöèè. Òèïà òîðãîâëè è äèïëîìàòèè.

Äðåâíèé âîñòî÷íûé è ñòàðèííûé ïåðèîä ðóêîïèñè îïèñûâàåò ñïåöèôèêàöèè äðåâíèõ ãîñòèíèö. (Acommodation, ãîñòèíèöà)

Óïîìÿíóòî, ÷òî òóðèçì åãî ñîâðåìåííûì çíà÷åíèåì, (òàê íàçûâàåìûé îòáîðíûé òóðèçì) áûë ðàçâèò â XIX ñòîëåòèè êàê öàðñòâî ïðîìûøëåííîñòè è îáñëóæèâàíèÿ(ñëóæáû). Òàêæå, åãî ôàêò, ÷òî ýòî ÿâëÿåòñÿ èñòî÷íèêîì íàöèîíàëüíîãî äîõîäà è ñîöèàëüíîãî walfare äëÿ ìíîãèõ ñòðàí.

Ñòàòüÿ(èçäåëèå) îïèñûâàåò ïåðñïåêòèâû ðàçâèòèÿ ýòîé îòðàñëè(îòäåëåíèÿ) â Äæîðäæèè(Ãðóçèè). Çàäåðæèâàþùèåñÿ ôàêòîðû è mothods ïðåîáëàäàíèÿ íàä íèìè, ïîëàãàÿñü êðàé ðàçâèòèÿ òàêèõ ñòðàí.





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