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oTar baRaTuria



saqarTvelo daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamar mefis zeobis oqros xanidan moyolebuli, aswleulebis manZilze wyvdiadSi aRmoCnda. qveyana gareSe mtrebis ganuwyveteli amaoxrebeli TareSiTa da Sina omebiT gaCanagda. gapartaxebuli qveyana fizikuri ganadgurebisa da gadaSenebis zRvarze imyofeboda. ruseTis imperiis mfarvelobiT qveyanam moipova mSvidoba, magram axla misi sulieri da erovnuli gadagvarebis safrTxe warmoiqmna.

m
e-19 saukuneSi axali ZaliT iCina Tavi nihilisturma, uimedo damokidebulebam qarTveli eris momavlisadmi. qarTveli xalxi sulierad gatexili Canda, mravalwlianma monobam da erTmorwmune ruseTis mzakvrobam, mis mier ganxorcielebulma sayovelTao Cagvram, rasac religiuri devnac ki daemata, carizmis mier sastikad CaxSobilma ajanyebebma daabeCava xalxi da Searyia misi sulieri simtkice. sisxlisgan daclili, gulgatexili, religiurobidan ukve usasoobisa da nihilizmisken gadaxrili qarTveli eri imiTac bednieri Canda, rom fizikurad arsebobda. am ganwyobilebis Teoriuli gamomxatvelni gaxdnen sruliad sxvadasxva socialuri mdgomareobisa da Sexedulebis adamianebi - monarqisti giorgi muxran-batoni da xalxosani ivane jabadari. maTi daskvniT, rac ufro male gadaSendeboda qarTveloba rogorc eTnosi, gaiTqvifeboda did rus erSi, miT ukeTesi iqneboda maTTvis. sasowarkveTil adamianebs aRar swamdaT qarTuli erovnuli energiis sicocxlisunarianobisa da sxvis mfarvelobaSi yofnas amjobinebdnen, sxvis qveSevrdomobaSi yofnas miiCnevdnen qveynis, adamianTa fizikuri gadarCenis erTaderT mxsnel gzad.


sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis asparezze gamosvlidan sul male ilia WavWavaZe xdeba saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis sulieri winamZRoli

me-19 saukuneSi ilia WavWavaZem da misma Tanamoazreebma kvlav Seaxsenes saqarTvelos, qarTul sazogadoebas, rani viyaviT, ras moiTxovs Cvengan ufali saqarTvelos mTeli warsuli istoriiT, gmiruli warsuliT da Cven did winaparTa, wmindanTa da mefeTa, mwignobarTa da guTnisdedaTa kvlavac gauxunari magaliTiT, magaliTiT ,,qristes mxedrobis” Tavganwiruli msaxurebisa uflis saxelisas da samSoblos sakeTildReod. axla ki rani varT, an ki sad aris is gza, romelic RvTis xatis msgavsebamde miiyvanda kacsac da ersac, sruliad saqarTvelos. axali gzebis Zieba iliasa da misi TanamebrZolebis yoveldRiuri sazrunavi gaxda.

ra Tqma unda, iliamdec iRwvoda qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azri qarTveli eris Rirseuli arsebobisa da ganviTarebisaTvis. magram mxolod ilia WavWavaZem dainaxa da warmoaCina yovlismomcvelad qveynisa da eris winaSe arsebuli erovnuli, politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da sulier-zneobrivi problemebi. amave dros, man is gzebic dasaxa, romliTac unda gadarCeniliyo mTlianad qarTveloba.

umTavresad ilias erovnuli sakiTxi miaCnda - ,,Cveni Tavi Cvenadve gveyudnodes~. magram amasTan, ilia arasdros qadagebda erovnul izolacionizms da karCaketilobas, piriqiT, qarTveli sazogadoeba misi rudunebiT ecnoboda msoflios progresul azrs. ilias saocnebo survili iyo, exila Tavisufali saqarTvelo, erovnuli saxelmwifo, gamTlianebuli qveyana, sadac ar iqneboda ,,Catexili xidebi”. magram saqarTvelos erovnuli Tavisufleba SeuZlebelia, Tu Tavad eris Svilebi ar iqnebian zneobrivni - ,,viT mama zecis, iyavn Senc sruli~. pirovnebis ymoba ewinaaRmdegeba RvTis kanonebs. miTumetes SeuZlebelia mTeli eris monoba. samyaros harmoniuloba iTxovs bunebis mravalferovnebas da, piriqiT, mravalferovani buneba samyaros mSvenierebis da harmoniulobis wyaroa. kacobrioba mSvenieria Tavisufal erTa harmoniul TanamSromlobaSi, romelime eris damonebis mcdeloba an mis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli qmedebebi ewinaaRmdegeba RvTis mier dadgenil kanonebs, igi RvTisa da mTeli kacobriobis winaaRmdegac aris mimarTuli. dabeCavebul erTa gamoRviZeba, damonebul xalxTa ganTavisufleba RvTis kanonebis, Zaladobrivad Seryvnili bunebis mSvenierebis, sayovelTao harmoniis aRdgenaa.

swored am diadi miznebis miRwevas emsaxurebodnen Tergdaleulebi, romelTa moRvaweobis azri da amocanebi aseTi saxiT Camoyalibda:

,,- Cvenis dacemulis vinaobis aRdgena, fexzed dayeneba da dacva yovlisa mosalodnelis faTerakidan.

- yvelam, visac ra SeuZlian, am mimarTulebis qveS unda moiyaros Tavi da erTad Zmurad imoqmedos.

- ymawvil-kacoba unda momzaddes bejiTi da zedmiwevnili codniTa, unda, ramdenadac SesaZloa, Zireulad Seiswavlos evropiuli mecniereba, win gaimZRvaros evropis gamocdileba, da am Tof-iaraRiT Seudges Cveni qveynis saqmes~, radganac ,,qveyana imiTi ki ar aris uZluri, rom Raribia, aramed imiTi, rom mcodne, goneba-gaxsnili, gul-anTebuli kacebi ara hyavs...~ .

magram ,,qarTlis Wiri” gana mxolod gareSe mteria? ilia pirdapir acxadebs, rom saqarTvelos erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi katastrofis upirvelesi mizezi TviT qarTvelobaa - ,,mcire, didi, yvela flidi, cuRluti da mankieri”. diax, pirvel rigSi CvenSi unda veZioT ubedurebis mizezi vinaidan ,,- Cvenc lamazad sul yvelasa TviTo TviTod vRalatobdiT”.

damonebuli eri mankieri iqneba, damonebul qveyanaSi qvena grZnobebi iRviZeben, rasac dampyrobeli yovelmxrivad aqezebs da xels uwyobs, boroti miswrafebis mqone eris damorCileba ki metad iolia. kolonializmi damRupvelia rogorc ekonomikurad, ise zneobrivad da srulebiT anadgurebs erovnul suls da TviTSegnebas - ,,sadRa aris exla qarTuli ena? an gvindaRa qarTuli, roca Cven TviTon Cvenda dasaRupad qarTvelobazed xeli aviReT? gonebiT rom aRar vscxovrobT, qarTul enas azrs rogorRa gamovaTqmevinebT? erTobisaTvis rom aRara varT, erTnairs sityvis mniSvnelobas rogor movsTxovT Cvens enasa? Tund rom Cvens enas da sityvas azric gamovaTqmevinoT, vis rad gindaT, enas azrs vinRa sTxovs? Cven TiTon davcarieldiT gudafSutasaviT, calieri sityvebiRa gvinda, calieri xmebi, rom enam pirSi iStvinos da yurma ZarRvi ifxanos. sxva risTvis gvinda ena? saerTo saxeli qarTveli kerZoobiT gavxadeT, mamuli danexvil nafuZvrad gardavaqcieT, pativi – nexvad, Tavi – gograd, da Cveni uadamianoba iqamdin miviyvaneT, rom kaci kacs aRar niSnavs, Tu zed kacuri ar davumateT, da amis Semdeg kidev gindaT, rom ena gvqondes?”

amitom koloniuri Cagvris uRlis mocileba saWiroa ara imdenad ekonomikuri keTildReobis misaRwevad (Tumca es problemac uaRresad mniSvnelovania), aramed pirvel rigSi zneobriv-sulieri Rirsebis aRsadgenad - ,,adamiani, Tu mTeli eri imisTvis ki ar aris, rom puri sWamos, pursa sWams imitom, rom kacur-kacad acxovros STamomavali~. amitom, pirovnuli TavisuflebisaTvis unda ibrZodes rogorc calkeuli adamiani, ise mTeli eric. amisaTvis, man daundoblad unda moicilis arsebuli mankierebani, eswrafvodes zneobriv srulyofas.

,,ra ar gadagvxdenia Tavs, ra mtrebi ar mogvsevian, ra vai-vaglaxi, ra sisxlis Rvra, ra RrWena kbilTa ar gamogvivlia, ra wisqvilis qva ar datrialebula Cvens Tavzed da yvelas gavuZeliT, yvelas gavumagrdiT, SevinaxeT Cveni Tavi, SevirCineT Cveni qveyana, Cveni miwa-wyali... da droSa qarTvelobisa, Subis wveriT, isriT da tyviiT dafleTili, Cvens sisxlSi amovlebuli, xelSi SevirCineT, aravis wavaRebineT, aravis davanebeT, aravis SevaginebineT. codva ar aris, es droSa exla CrCilma SesWamos, Tagvma dagviWras!... dro-Jami amas gviqadis~

axali qarTuli saxelmwifos, mravalerovani qveynis bednieri arseboba civilizebul erTa TanamegobrobaSi SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu TviT saqarTveloSi saerTo saxelmwifoebrivi suliskveTebiT iqneba miRweuli sayovelTao Tanxmoba, rodesac saqarTvelos mosaxleoba kvlavac iqneba ,,eri, rogorc krebuli istoriiT SeduRabebuli erT-sul da erT-xorc mkvidrTa~.

qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi ideologiis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala, swored am saerToO miznisaken swrafvaa, Zieba im saerTo niadagisa, romelic saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqes ganviTarebisa da TviTdamkvidrebisTvis Tanabar SesaZleblobebs Seuqmnis. ,,vai im xalxs, romelsac saerTo ZarRvi gauwyda; vai im qveyanas, saca saerTo ZarRvSi sisxli gaSra, saca yvelaSi TiTo ar aris da TiToSi – yvela, saca TviTeuli yvelasTvis ar hfiqrobs da yvela TviTeulisTvis, saca “me” xSiria, da “Cven”- iSviaTi!”

qveynis gamaerTianebeli ideologia emyareba warsulis moazrovneTa ukve gamocdil Teoriul Sexedulebebs da masSi Sexamebulia pirovnebis Tavisuflebisa da sazogadoebis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis liberaluri Rirebulebebi da konservatoruli zneobrivi faseulobebi, erovnuli TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebisa da socialuri dacvis moTxovnebi. aseTi gamaerTianebeli ideologiis Camoyalibeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivad moazrovne sazogado Tu politikuri moRvaweebis dReniadag zrunvis sagani iyo misi arsebobis mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi da, gansakuTrebiT, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis aRmavlobis periodSi.

amdenad, saqarTvelos samomavlo gezis ucdomlad gansazRvrisaTvis da saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa politikuri cnobierebisaTvis WeSmaritebasTan miaxlebis SesaZleblobis micemisaTvis aucilebelia istoriuli gamocdilebis srulyofili gaazreba, vinaidan ,,eris dacema da gaTaxsireba maSin iwyeba, roca eri, Tavis saubedurod Tavis istorias iviwyebs. rogorc kacad ar ixseneba is mawanwala bogana, visac aRar axsovs – vin aris, saidan modis da sad midis, isec erad saxsenebeli ar aris igi, romelsac RmerTi gaswyromia da Tavisi istoria ar axsovs. ~.

aseTi ,,Rone da sagzali~ saqarTvelosTvis aris ,,kacT siyvaruli, Zmoba, erToba, Tavisufleba”. swored amitom, ,,ilia WavWavaZes saqarTvelos politikur moRvaweTa namoqmedarSi marto politikuri mxare ki ara, aramed am moRvaweobis ufro metad kulturuli gezi, sxva erTa Rirsebisa da uflebis pativiscema izidavda~ (ivane javaxiSvili). sxva eris pativiscema qarTvelTa bunebrivi Tvisebaa da eris es Tviseba, gansakuTrebiT reliefurad gamoxatuli upirveles qarTvelTa moRvaweobaSi, qmnis qveynis mSvidobiani arsebobis winapirobebs winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse samyaroSi.

,,daviT aRmaSenebeli sadidebelia Cvengan ara marto saxelovan mefobiTa, aramed didbunebovan kacobiTac. igi Tavdadebuli moyvare Tavis erovnobisa da marTlmadideblis sarwmunoebisa, didi pativmcemeli iyo sxvis erovnobisac da sarwmunoebisa. amisTana Semwynarebeli sxvisa maSin, rodesac igi yovladSemZlebel mbrZaneblad Seiqmna sxvadasxva Teslis da sxvadasxva sarwmunoebis erisa, amisTana sxva eris Tayvanismcemeli im droSi, roca kaci kacs SesaWmeladac ara hzogavda, amisTana kacTmoyvaruli pativiscema sxvis erovnebisa, sxvis sarwmunoebisa, nuTu sakvirveli da saocari magaliTi ar aris meTormete saukunis kacisgan”.

dabolos, ,,kacs ori saxeli unda hqondeso, - ambobs Cveni eri: - erTi aq dasarCeni, meore Tan wasayolio. es anderZi qarTvelisa ise aravis Seusrulebia, rogorc daviT mefesa. aq aRmaSeneblis saxeli darCa, rogorc mefes da iq, rogorc didbunebovanma kacmawaiyolia saxeli wmindanisa, didebis gvirgviniT Semkobili~.

saTanado ekonomikuri mowyobis gareSe verc Tavisufali qveyana iarsebebs. rogoria qarTveli eris ekonomikuri gamocdileba, rogor unda vicxovroT? ,,sakvirveli aris, - ra qonebam gauZlo amisTana yofasa? ra hkvebavda xalxsa, ra qonebiT uZRveboda amodena omebsa da sisxlis Rvrasa? es erTi muWa xalxi TiTqmis qudzed kacad unda mdgariyo iaraRiT xelSi, rom mtrisagan mtvrad aRgviliyo, da sazrdoebas vin aZlevda da ra aZlevda?

Cvena gvgonia, sikeTe Cvenis ekonomikuri agebulebisa da wyobisa imaSi yofila, rom miwa, ese igi mamuli-deduli, cotad Tu bevrad ufro samarTlianad morgebuli yofila Cvens xalxSi, vidre sadme sxvagan. sakvirvelia, rom dRes-aqamomde umamulo, ubinao kaci CvenSi TiTqmis arsad ar moiZeveba. amisTana wyobam mihmarTa usaTuod Cveni xalxi miwaTmoqmedebas, romelic ufro dauSromeli da mkvidri wyaroa xalxisa da qveynis sazrdoebisaTvis vidre sxva ram. xsna Cvenis qveynisa am wyobaSi unda yofiliyo, da vidre am wyobas ufrTxildebodnen Cveni mefeebi, im dromde qveyana Cveni Ronieri yofila da gasZRolia mters ase Tu ise~.

amitom:

,,... exla vaJkacoba omisa ki ar unda, rom sisxlsa hRvrides, vaJkacoba unda Sromisa, rom ofli hRvaros... qveyana exla imisia, vinc irjeba da vinc icis wesi da xerxi garjisa, vinc ufro ufrTxildeba naSroms, vinc izogavs naRvaws. dRes mZleTa-mZlea marto is, vinc mcvelia da bejiTi suliT da xorciTa, codniTa da marjveniTa... xmlianma mterma ver dagvaTmobina, ver wagvarTva Cveni miwa-wyali, Cveni qveyana. xmlians mters gavuZeliT, gadavrCiT. qveyana da saxeli SevinaxeT. saxsenebeli ar amovikveTeT, SevirCineT, saqolavi aravis avagebineT. xmlaT mosulma vera dagvaklo-ra, - SromiT da garjiT, codniT da xerxiT mosuli ki Tan gagvitans, fexs-qveSidam miwas gamogvaclis, saxels gagviqrobs, gagviwyvets, saxsenebeli qarTvelisa amoikveTeba, da Cvens mSvenier qveyanas, rogorc upatrono saydars, sxvani daepatronebian. Sromasa da garjas, codnasa da xerxs veravin-Ra gauZlebs, Tu Sroma da garja codna da xerxi win ar mivagebeT, win ar davaxvedreT, win ar davuyeneT...

exlac omia, xolo sisxlis Rvrisa-ki ara, oflis Rvrisa, omi usisxlo, mSvidobiani, wynari”.

muxlCauxreli Sroma, ofliT rwyva mamulisa da sakuTari movaleobebisa da uflebebis gasigrZeganeba qmnis adamians srulyofil pirovnebad _

,,erTi [Sotlandieli] – suliT da xorciT yoveldRe warmatebaSia, Tumca Raribi buneba axvevia, meore [sparseli] – suliTac da xorciTac dalevaSia, Tumca mis gare buneba uxvia da mdidari. ra aris amis mizezi? is aris, rom bednierma Sotlandielma icis ,,Cemi aq Tavdebao da sxvisa aq iwyebao~, ubedurs sparsels ki arc Tavisi gaegeba da arc sxvisa.

rac sxvisaa, - Cemi movaleobaa, rac Cemia, - eg Cemi uflebaa. ufleba da movaleoba, romelnic arian pirvelni da ukanasknelni saganni urTierTSoris ganwyobilebisa, daidgineba da ganisazRvreba mxolod xalxis kanonmdeblobis ZaliTa da niWiTa”.

,,Sromis sufeva” iZleva erovnuli Tavisuflebis ekonomikur safuZvels, amave dros adamiani socialurad Tavisufali unda iyos, radganac adamiani WeSmaritad Tavisufalia mxolod maSin, roca ,,arc vis emonvi da arc emonebi”. ilias moZRvrebis arsia kacTmoyvareoba, socialuri Tanxmoba, Semwynarebloba, Tanadgoma da Tanalmoba. erTianoba da ara dapirispireba da mtroba – ai, gza sanukvari miznis – samSoblos Tavisuflebis misaRwevad.

,,qveyanazed marto im ers gauZlia, marto im ers gamoutania Tavisi Tavi aTas gvar gansacdelisagan, marto im ers warumatnia da gaZlierebula, romelsac Tavis drozed Seutyvia da miugnia, rom erTis romelisame wodebis win waweva arafris maqnisia, Tu danarCeni eric win ar waweula, piriqiT, erTis wodebis win wawevas danarCenis ukan daweva mohyolia~.

,,... yvelam erTad da TviTeulma calke unda icodnen, rom igi ganuyofeli nawilia mTeli erisa da amitomac Tavis keTildReobas unda eZebdnen marto mTelis eris keTildReobaSi da ara calke~. magram, samwuxarod ,,yovelisferi uxvad gvaqvs, mxolod ara gvaqvs urTierTSorisi ganwyobileba~.

faqtobrivad, ilia WavWavaZem Camoayaliba is saprogramo dokumenti, romlis safuZvlebi jer kidev XII saukuneSi Seiqmna wmida mefis daviT aRmaSeneblis mier, ganmtkicda wmida Tamar mefis dros, monarqisa, romlis zeobis periodSi sikvdiliT dasjac ki aikrZala da sruliad saqarTvelo, mravalerovani da mravalricxovani didi qveyana cxovrobda da iRvwoda sruli TanxmobiT da keTilgonierebiT. zogadsakacobrio idealebi, romlis qadagebas ganaTlebuli evropa aswleulebis Semdeg daiwyebs da mxolod XX saukuneSi moaxerxebs mis nawilobriv realizebas, saqarTveloSi rva saukunis winaT realurad iyo ganxorcielebuli. swored am idealebis aRorZineba daiwyo wmida ilia marTalma XIX saukuneSi, magram WeSmariti qarTuli xatis miRweva ukve metad rTuli aRmoCnda socialuri dapirispirebulobiTa da erovnuli CagvriT gzaabneul saqarTveloSi, wyvdiadSi CaZiruli imperiis ganapira koloniaSi.

globalizaciis epoqam axali suli STabera ,,saerTo niadagis~ koncefcias, romelic am koncefciis avtorebis TanamedroveTaTvis gaugebari da miuRebeli aRmoCnda, ZiriTadad maSin arsebuli eTnikuri uTanasworobisa da ekonomikuri polarizaciis, mwvave socialuri dapirispirebisa da klasobrivi brZolis pirobebis gamo. globalizaciis obieqturi procesi, faqtobrivad, ganapirobebs Tanamedrove samyaros arsebobisa da Semdgomi ganviTarebis mTavar wanamZRvars da kanonzomierebas – sxvadasxva ideologiuri mrwamsis daaxloebas, eqstremistuli xasiaTis odiozuri, reaqciuli mimarTulebebis uaryofas mTeli civilizebuli da humanuri kacobriobis mier, kulturaTa da religiebis dialogs, sayovelTao, zogadsakacobrio miznebis miRwevas erToblivi ZalisxmeviT da sxv.

me-19 saukunis 90-ian wlebSi sazogadoebriv-politikuri jgufebi Tavmoyrili iyo TbilisSi gamomavali presis – erovnuli suliskveTebis mqone gazeT ,,iveriis”, saSualedo poziciis Jurnal ,,moambisa” da socialisturi ,,kvalis” garSemo.

,,iverielni” - ilia WavWavaZe, iakob gogebaSvili, anton furcelaZe, niko lomouri, grigol da aleqsandre yifSiZeebi da sxv. daucxromlad avrcelebdnen erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel ideebs mTels qveyanaSi. ,,iverielTa” Zveli Taoba Tavadaznauruli liberalizmis poziciebidan uaryofda klasobrivi brZolis aucileblobas da asabuTebda klasobrivi TanamSromlobis SesaZleblobas da saWiroebas, saqarTveloSi kapitalizmis damkvidreba ki qveynis ubedurebad miaCndaT.

me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi saqarTveloSi arsebul erovnul Cagvras gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT daemata socialuri Cagvrac, gaRrmavda mosaxleobis socialuri diferenciacia, warmoiqmna dapirispirebuli klasebi, daiwyo muSaTa moZraoba, iSviaTi aRar iyo gaficvebi, Setakebebi policiasTan. qveyanaSi SemoaRwia marqsizmis ideebma, TandaTan iqmneboda politikuri jgufebi, romlebic Semdgom politikur partiebad gardaiqmnen.

marqsistuli jgufebi mimdinare procesebs klasTa Soris antagonizmiT xsnidnen. arsebuli sinamdvilis marqsistuli aRwera nawilobriv samarTliani iyo, nawilobriv xelovnurad gazviadebuli da provocirebulic ki. ,,wodebrivi uTanxmoeba da siZulvili Cvenis axalis publikaciebis moWorebuli ambavia” – werda ,,iveria” da mohyavda magaliTebi Tavadaznaurobasa da glexobas Soris marTlac mamaSviluri, patron-ymuri (da ara baton-ymuri) damokidebulebisa, magram mainc realoba iyo is garemoeba, rom, rogorc “iveria” werda, ,,qvena grZnoba da erTmaneTis mtroba nel-nela fexs idgams da erTobis dasoba, raRac janaba uazro da umniSvnelo partioba parpaSs iwyebs”. ,,iveriis” Zveli Taobis ideali iyo erovnuli erTianoba, maTi azriT, saqarTvelosaTvis sasicocxlod aucilebeli iyo yvela wodeba da maTi TanamSromloba, romelime wodebis daqveiTeba, gaqroba erovnuli energiis, misi ukvdavi sulis dasustebas gamoiwvevda, magram aseTi erTianobis survilic ki aRar iyo imdroindeli saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi. misi umetesi nawili mTeli gulisyuriT exmianeboda socialistur Teoriebs. ,,iverielTa” axali Taobis warmomadgenlebi miesalmebodnen saqarTveloSi kapitalizmis ganviTarebas, rac qveyanas ,,evropis gzas” aaxlovebda, isini kargad xedavdnen im sikeTes, rasac ,,burJuaziuli xanis” dadgoma moaswavebda, Tumca amave dros Tvals usworebdnen kapitalizmiT, kapitalisturi urTierTobebiT gamowveul simaxinjeebs. kapitalizmis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi erovnuli sakiTxis gadaWrasac ukavSirdeboda (miwa SeiZinos man, vinc mas amuSavebs). ,,iverielTa” axalgazrda Taobac erovnuli poziciebidan mouwodebs ,,gareSe Zalebis winaaRmdeg mopirdapire dasebis gaerTianebisaken”. axalgazrda ,,iverielebs” umTavresad miaCndaT erovnul-politikuri da ara socialuri Tavisuflebis miRweva da am mizniT SesaZleblad miaCnda dapirispirebul politikur ZalTa ,,bednieri morigeba”.

Jurnal ,,moambis” furclebidan niko nikolaZe qarTvel sazogadoebas evropis qveynebis magaliTze miuTiTebda e.w. saSualo dasis anu SuaTana klasis erovnuli burJuaziis Seqmnis aucileblobaze - ,,erisa da qveynis gamomyvani siRaribisa da monobisagan, umecrebisa da uswormasworobisagan yovelTvis da yovelgan marto es saSualo dasi, burJuazia yofila da iqneba”.

xolo ,,kvali” yovelive Zvels uaryofda – ,,mogvSordiT, Tqveni arra gvsurs gamocdileba qebuli, gvinda da gvinda axal gunds brZola Tavdaviwyebuli“. asparezze gamodioda axali, mzardi Zala, romelic ucxo iyo qarTveli eris tradiciuli RirebulebebisTvis. amas kargad xedavdnen qarTveli mamuliSvilebi, aSkara, TvalSisacemi iyo, rom saqarTveloSi ZaldatanebiT, demagogiurad mkvidrdeboda yovelive Zvelis, tradiciulis uaryofis ideologia (rogorc dRevandel saqarTveloSi xdeba). ,,rogorc Wkviani irCevs tansacmelis, mas ra moergeba da ra mouxdeba, sakuTari sxeulis aRnagobis gaTvaliswinebiT, aseve unda moiqces eri, ama Tu im moZRvrebis arCevisas. jer erTi, Tu SeuZlia is moZRvreba, rac mas sWirdeba, man TviTonve unda Seqmnas. meorec, Tu amisTvis Wkua-goneba ar hyofnis da aucileblad sxvas unda daesesxos, maSin is unda aiRos, rac mas ueWvelad gamoadgeba, Tumca masac didi goniereba sWirdeba. Tu amas ver mixvda, ise mouva, rogorc im adamians, vinc modas ahyveba, Seufereblad moirTveba, moikazmeba da xalxis TvalSi sasacilo gaxdeba. eric aseve SeiZleba masxara gaxdes kacobriobis TvalSi” (niko nikolaZe).

da mainc, klasobrivi brZolis moZRvreba, Zvelis ngreva da axlis, Tumca gamoucnobis molodini ufro da ufro Zlierdeboda, sayovelTao idealad aRiqmeboda marqsistuli ,,WeSmariteba”, rom revoluciuri ngrevis Sedegad ,,proletariati arafers kargavs sakuTari borkilebis garda”. zombirebuli mosaxleoba ver acnobierebda, rom revoluciuri ngreva da xanZari sayovelTao msxverplSewirvis hekatombebs moiTxovda ganurCevlad klasisa da wodebisa.

yvelaferi dakarguli mainc ar iyo, kapitalizmis sasikeTod gamoyenebis SesaZleblobis ideas exmianeboda cnobili publicisti da sazogado moRvawe giorgi zdanoviCi – ,,Cven unda vizrunoT ara imisaTvis, rom donkixoturad gavumklavdeT am viTarebas, romelic ufro Zlieria, vidre Cveni fari da xmali, vidre Cveni unari brZolisa, aramed imisaTvis unda vizrunoT, rom yovelmxriv SeviswavloT igi viTareba da miT ise mivmarToT Cveni sazogado moRvaweoba da moqmedeba rogorc Txoulobs kanonebi sazogadoebis axali zrda-ganviTarebisa”. g.zdanoviCi, im dros marganecis mrewvelTa sabWos Tavmjomare, praqtikulad iRwvoda qarTuli erovnuli burJuaziis ganviTarebisaTvis, mogebidan miRebuli saxsrebiT WiaTuraSi moewyo saswavleblebi, saavadmyofoebi, saferSlo punqtebi, gamoyofili iyo stipendiebi moswavleTaTvis, WiaTura dasavleT saqarTvelos ara marto ekonomikur, aramed umniSvnelovanes erovnul-kulturul centrad iqca.

magram mtkice samoqmedo programa, mkafiod Camoyalibebuli politikuri programa hqondaT mxolod socialistebs. igive scada erovnulma radikalur-demokratiulma mimdinareobam ,,cnobis furcelSi” gamoqveynebuli saprogramo weriliT, romliTac gamoacxades Tavi samocianelTa memkvidred – ,,Cven gvwams maTi amagi, gvwams sidiade maTis idealisa da amitomac movaleni varT ganvagrZoT maTi Sroma eris TviTcnobierebis ganviTarebisaTvis”. werili aRiarebda kapitalizms, rogorc saqarTvelos ,,evropeizaciis” gzas, feodalur-naturalisturi meurneobidan savaWro-samrewvelo weswyobilebisaken; amave dros ar ganixileboda socialuri dapirispireba da klasTa brZola, piriqiT mxurvaled mouwodebdnen TanamSromlobisaken yvela sazogadoebriv-politikur mimdinareobas, romlebic mowodebulni arian iSromon Tavisi qveynisaTvis. ,,sxvadasxva Sexedulebebma ar unda SeuSalos xeli saerTo muSaobas, radganac CvenSi bevria iseTi sakiTxi, romelTa Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba mosaxerxebelia”. miuxedavad mkafiod gansazRvruli miznebisa, es programa mainc ar warmoadgenda mtkice samoqmedo programas.

cxadi iyo, rom saqarTveloSi realurad arsebulma socialurma winaaRmdegobebma dapirispireba gamoiwvia sazogadoebaSic. saqarTvelos politikuri cnobiereba dapirispirebuli dasebis asparezad iqca. gamarjvebis saswori marqsistebis, ,,mesame dasis” mxares ixreboda, socialuri samarTlianobis revoluciuri gziT damyarebis idea mosaxleobis farTo fenebisaTvis ufro misaRebi Canda, erovnul sazogado moRvaweTa naazrevs sastikad ebrZodnen. naTlad Canda, rom qarTveli socialistebi, ,,marqsizmis TuTiyuSebi”, mxolod sxvaTa azrs imeorebdnen, ar acnobierebdnen qveynis winaSe mdgar sasicocxlo programebs. meore mxriv, arc sazogadoebis konservatorul nawils surda daenaxa qveyanaSi mimdinare social-politikuri cvlilebebi.

,,Cven viwvevT ... erTimeoris dapirispirebuli dasebs sindisierad gadaSinjon TavianTi rwmenani; Cven viwvevT maT saerTo SeTanxmebuli moqmedebisaTvis imitom ki ara, viTom gvindodes SevarigoT Seurigebeli, aramed imitom, rom miuxedavad im bunebrivi diferenciaciisa, romelic xdeba Cvenis xalxis weswyobilebaSi, Cvens qarTvel inteligenciis winaSe warmomdgaria erTi integraluri sakiTxi Cveni eris ekonomikur da sulieri warmatebisa, is sakiTxi, romlis SemuSavebaSi monawileoba unda miiRos Cveni qveynis yvela Segnebulma wevrma” (arCil jorjaZe).

qveynis winaSe mTelis simwvaviT mdgari problemebis gadaWris gza arCil jorjaZem ipova ilia WavWavaZis sulier memkvidreobaSi da ,,saerTo moqmedebis niadagis” saxiT, faqtobrivad, samoqmedo programa warmoadgina.

arCil jorjaZem marTebulad SeniSna, rom sazogadoebis klasobriv dapirispirebas marTlac hqonda ekonomikuri safuZveli, rogorc amas marqsistebi amtkiceben, magram ilia da misi Tanamoazreebi, maT Soris a.jorjaZe kargad amCnevdnen imasac, rom daRupva emuqreboda mTel qarTvel ers da ara mxolod mis romelime klass an nawils. es istoriuli viTareba qmnida ,,niadags saerTo moqmedebisaTvis”.

dapirispirebul dasebs Soris saerTo enis gamonaxvis SesaZlebloba Camoyalibda sami ZiriTadi da ori daqvemdebarebuli mimarTulebiT: qarTuli enis dacva; qarTuli vaWroba-mrewvelobis Seqmna; qarTuli meurneobis qarTvelTa xelSi SerCena; kulturuli moRvaweoba; qalaqTa TviTmmarTvelobaSi qarTvelTa monawileoba.

qarTuli enis dacvis sakiTxi ilia WavWavaZisa da misi Tanamoazreebis, TergdaleulTa erovnul memkvidreobas warmoadgenda. ,,pirveli niSani eris vinaobisa enaa, da ai swored pirvelma aman aidga fexi CvenSi, Semdeg karga xnis dumilisa” (ilia WavWavaZe). ruseTis imperiis ganapira koloniaSi, saqarTveloSi qarTuli ena idevneboda, ar aswavlidnen skolebSi, krZalavdnen, saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi gabatonebuli iyo rusuli ena. TviT qarTveli sazogadoebis sagrZnobi nawilic nebayoflobiT ugulebelyofda qarTul enas. deda-ena marTlac ikargeboda, rac ekonomikur CamorCenilobasTan erTad, qveynis Semgom dacema-daqveiTebas ganapirobebda. ,,kulturis ayvaveba uenod SeuZlebelia, radgan ena ara marto iaraRia grZnobisa da azris gadmocemisa, aramed igi sulia erovnuli arsebisa, xalxis fsixiur ganwyobilebis maCvenebeli” (arCil jorjaZe). qveynis dabeCavebuli ekonomikur-politikuri mdgomareobis erT-erTi mizezi xalxis arasakmarisi ganaTlebac iyo - ,,ganaTleba da codna ki deda-enis saSualebiT unda iyos SeZenili”. amrigad, qarTuli enis dacva iyo upirvelesi erovnuli amocana, rac amave dros sasicocxlo aucileblobas warmoadgenda xalxis socialuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisTvis.

qarTuli enis dacva iyo ,,is pirveli sakiTxi, romelic unda aerTianebdes saqarTveloSi arsebul dasebs da romlis ganmartebaSi arc ,,dialeqtikur process” aqvs adgili da arc ,,ekonomikur materializms” (arCil jorjaZe).

Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi qarTuli enis dacva, erTi SexedviT, intensiurad da maRal doneze xorcieldeba: moqmedebs qarTuli enis dacvis da ganviTarebis saxelmwifo programa, magram praqtikulad damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifos winaSe mravali gadauWreli problebaa, jer-jerobiT ver xerxdeba saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sivrcis sruli gadafarva, mwvaved dgas saxelmZRvaneloebiT saswavlo dawesebulebebis uzrunvelyofis problema, saTanado doneze ver tardeba saganmanaTleblo politika da ver xerxdeba erTian idealebze dafuZnebuli saxelmwifoebrivi principebis formireba, romelTa mixedviTac unda moxdes erovnuli TviTSegnebis damkvidreba. yovelive es gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria swored dRes, globalizaciis epoqaSi yofili sabWoTa respublikebisaTvis – ideologiuri TvalsazrisiT naxevrad koloniur, miZinebul mdgomareobaSi myofi erebisaTvis.

Tanamedrove saqarTvelosaTvis, misi saxelmwifoebrivi interesebidan gamomdinare, sasicocxlod aucilebelia daucxromeli zrunva qarTuli da afxazuri enis dacva-ganviTarebisaTvis. aseve, metad mniSvnelovania saqarTveloSi kompaqturad mcxovrebi sxva erebisTvis saTanado pirobebis Seqmna kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianobis mSobliuri enaze Seuferxeblad ganxorcielebisaTvis.

,,saerTo niadagis Teoriis” meore punqtia qarTuli vaWroba-mrewvelobis Seqmna. saqarTveloSi istoriulad arsebulma uwindelma politikurma daqucmacebulobam gamoiwvia qveynis ekonomikuri daqucmacebulobac da saqarTveloSi ucxouri kapitalis gabatoneba, rac, Tavis mxriv, xels uSlida saqarTvelos erovnuli mrewvelobis ganviTarebas da saboloo angariSiT qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebas. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri gaerTianeba da Semdgomi ganviTareba erovnuli burJuaziis meSveobiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo. niko nikolaZe ufro konkretulad gamoxatavda erovnuli warmoebis ganviTarebis aucileblobas - “roca ar gvabadia warmoeba da arc Semosavali, ver gvixsnis veraviTari gadasaxadi. warmoebis gaCaReba aris erTaderTi Cveni xsna; unda movaxerxoT gareT meti gavitanoT gasayidi, vidre ucxoels vTxovT sayid saqonels. sanam mosazidi meti gveqneba, vinem gasazidi, monobas ver avcildebiT...” XIX saukuneSi gamoTqmuli azri gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri xdeba XXI saukunis saqarTvelosTvis...

erovnuli burJuaziis ganviTarebas ki esaWiroeboda da esaWiroeba ,,mfarvelobiTi sistemis” Seqmna. erovnuli burJuaziis, samamulo mrewvelobis mfarvelia misi bunebrivi mokavSire – erovnuli saxelmwifo, damoukidebeli qveyana. damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifos erT-erTi upirvelesi amocanaa erovnuli burJuaziisa da adgilobrivi warmoebis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba. mxolod erovnuli burJuaziis ganviTarebiTaa SesaZlebeli qveynis ekonomikuri monobidan gaTavisufleba da civilizebul samyaroSi Rirseuli adgilis damkvidreba. koloniur mdgomareobaSi myof qveyanas ar unda hqonoda saxelmwifoebrivi mfarvelobis imedi, amitomac im droisTvis ,,saerTo niadagis Teoria” iTvaliswinebda erovnuli burJuaziis mfarvelobas saqarTvelos mosaxleobis yvela fenis mier, erovnuli vaWroba-mrewvelobisaTvis mxari unda daeWira ara mxolod Tavad-aznaurobas da burJuazias, aramed mTel mosaxleobas, qarTvel muSaTa klass da glexobas. ,,saerTo niadagis TeoriiT” qveynisaTvis damRupvelad iyo miCneuli klasobrivi brZola, klasobrivi dapirispirebuloba, romelsac gamarTleba mxolod ucxour kapitalTan mimarTebaSi hqonda. erovnul kapitalTan mimarTebaSi klasobrivi antagonizmi unda Secvliliyo klasobrivi TanamSromlobiT, qarTvel proletariats klasobriv interesebze maRla erovnuli interesebi unda daeyenebina.

aseTi mowodeba cxadia, utopiuri iyo, radganac, erTi mxriv, Tavad saqarTvelos proletariati ar iyo erTgvarovani erovnuli Semadgenlobis, meore mxriv, xSirad arc qarTuli erovnuli kapitali idga patriotul poziciebze. rac Seexeba glexobas (socialisturi wodebiT ,,miwis muSebs”), – maTTvis ukiduresad mZime asatani gaxldaT socialur-politikuri kataklizmebiT gamowveuli widebrivi (klasobrivi) Cagvra parazitul cxovrebas miCveuli qarTveli Tavadaznaurobisagan, rasac gansakuTrebiT amwvavebda carizmis mouxeSavi nacionaluri da koloniuri politika.

dReisaTvis idea erovnuli mrewvelobis mfarvelobisa mTeli mosaxleobis mxridan kvlav aqtualuria, oRond am SemTxvevaSi erovnuli mrewveloba unda ganvixiloT ara eTnikuri principiT, aramed saxelmwifoebrivi TvalsazrisiT (msgavsad saxelmwifoebrivi patriotizmisa), saxelmwifo-eris principis Tanaxmad.

saqarTvelos meurneobis (miwebis) qarTvelTa xelSi SerCena ,,saerTo niadagis Teoriis” mesame punqtia. saqarTveloSi ucxouri kapitalis gabatonebis kvalobaze sul ufro meti miwis farTobi gadadioda ucxoelTa xelSi. gaRatakebuli Tavad-aznaurobis mniSvnelovani nawili, romlis kerZo sakuTrebaSi imyofeboda miwa-wylis absoluturi umetesoba, valebis gamo Calis fasad yidda mamulebs, romelTac dauyovnebliv iZendnen mevaleebi, ZiriTadad somexi erovnebis burJuaziis warmomadgenlebi da, samTavrobo politikis xelSewyobiT, rusi kolonistebi.

saqarTvelos teritoriis gasxvisebis aseTi savalalo tendenciis Tavidan asacileblad an Sesasusteblad mainc, arCil jorjaZis azriT, SesaZlebeli iyo daarsebuliyo ,,gansakuTrebuli erovnuli banki”, romelic SeiZenda qarTveli Tavad-aznaurobisagan gayidul mamulebs, daanawilebda mas SedarebiT mcire nakveTebad da qarTvel glexebs mihyidda grZelvadiani sesxis gacemis meSveobiT, radganac glexobas didi mamulis SeZenis Tanxa ar gaaCnda. msgavsi gamocdileba ukve hqondaT poloneTSi, sadac ,,gansakuTrebuli erovnuli bankis” meSveobiT polonelebis gayidul mamulebs isev polonelebze anawilebdnen.

arCil jorjaZis am winadadebas, rogorc mTlianobaSi ,,saerTo niadagis Teorias” da iliaseuli erovnuli erTianobis mxurvale mowodebebs ar mohyolia saTanado gamoZaxili. im droisaTvis saqarTvelo ar iyo mzad, aetacebina maRali erovnuli suliskveTebiT gamsWvaluli ideebi da saqarTvelos miwebs gamalebiT euflebodnen ucxoelebi.

Tumca mogvianebiT, pirveli msoflio omis wina periodSi am mizniT mainc daarsda ,,saadgilmamulo bankis komisia”, romelic glexebs miwis SeZenaSi exmareboda, aZlevda ra maT SeRavaTian sesxebs. am gziT qarTveli glexobis xelSi sakmaod didi raodenobis miwis nakveTebma moiyara Tavi, Tumca miwebis umetesi nawili mainc ucxoelTa xelSi gadadioda.

am TvalsazrisiT, ruseTis socialisturma revoluciam saqarTvelosaTvis dadebiTi roli iTamaSa _ axali mTavrobis sagangebo dadgenilebiT memamuleebs da kapitalistebs miwa CamoerTvaT, romlis mepatrone saxelmwifo gaxda. saqarTvelos teritoriis ekonomikuri aneqsia Sewyda.

dRevandel saqarTveloSi aseTi saSiSroeba aRar arsebobs, Tumca Tu saTanado doneze ar ganviTarda samamulo ekonomika, warmoiqmneba qveynis ekonomikuri dakabalebis sxva forma.

analogiurad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom dRevandel saqarTveloSi praqtikulad gadawyvetilia ,,saerTo niadagis koncefciis” mexuTe muxli. TviTmmarTveloba realizebulia mtkice sakanonmdeblo baziT. sxva sakiTxia, rom sabWoTa memkvidreobidan farTo da realur demokratiul mmarTvelobaze gadasvla garkveul dros moiTxovs.

meoTxe muxlis Tanaxmad, qarTvel inteligencias unda gaeCaRebina saxalxo kulturuli moRvaweoba. qarTveli mamuliSvilebis didi kulturul-saganmanaTleblo moRvaweobiT daarsebulma ,,qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma sazogadoebam” da sxva msgavsma organizaciebma unikaluri roli Seasrula saxalxo ganaTlebis donis amaRlebis saqmeSi, magram es srulebiT ar iyo sakmarisi. saqarTveloSi arsebuli imdroindeli ganaTlebis dabali done erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezi iyo xalxis socialuri da materialuri gaWirvebisa. Semdgom wlebSi, rodesac saxalxo ganaTlebas saTanado yuradReba daeTmo, gansakuTrebiT sabWoTa reJimis periodSi, saqarTvelom, qarTvelebma STambeWdav warmatebebs miaRwies saganmanaTleblo sferoSi, mecnierebisa da teqnikis mraval dargSi.

dRevandel saqarTveloSi formalurad metad maRalia saganmanaTleblo da samecniero-teqnikuri done, magram, faqtobrivad, igi sruliad arasakmarisia msiflios mowinave qveynebTan Tanasworuflebiani urTierTobisaTvis. amdenad, ,,saerTo niadagis” koncefciis me-4 muxli kvlavac aqtualurad rCeba.

,,saerTo moqmedebis niadagis” Teoria saerTo erovnuli moqmedebis programis Camoyalibebis pirveli srulyofili cda iyo, igi emyareboda erovnul-politikuri konsolidaciisaTvis mebrZoli qarTveli sazogado moRvaweebis, pirvel rigSi ilia WavWavaZis - ,,me-19 saukunis Cveni sazogadoebis centraluri pirovnebis” (arCil jorjaZe), pirveldaselebis, ,,iverielTa” naazrevs. ,,Zvel da axal Taobas, ilia WavWavaZis meoxebiT gamorkveuli darCa saerTo moqmedebis asparezi da swored es asparezia – nayofi politikuri cxovrebisa, - romelzedac Tavisuflad moTavsdebian Zvelis, axlis da momavali Taobis warmomadgenelni”. swored amitom, ilia WavWavaZis ,,pirveli xanis erovnuli programa aramcTu ewinaaRmdegeba Cvens dRevandel politikur programas, piriqiT, igi srulad gamomsaxvelia am mdgomareobisa, amisaTvis Cven TiTqmis Seucvlelad viRebT mas saxelmZRvanelod, mxolod am programas unda davumatoT Cveni drois Sesaferi ekonomikuri moZRvreba” – werda arCil jorjaZe 1901 wels da Cveni azriT, mas unda daeTanxmos XXI saukunis saqarTvelos politikuri cnobierebac, cxadia, im aucilebeli damatebebiT, romelsac arsebuli politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri realoba moiTxovs _ ,,politikam unda gaiTvaliswinos realuri mdgomareoba, wes-Cveulebebi, maT Soris adamianTa mankiereba (n. makiaveli)”.

Tumca arc is unda iqnas daviwyebuli, rom erovnul-demokratiuli idealebisTvis mebrZol qarTul sazogadoebaSi radikalur azrebsac hqonda gasaqani. erovnul-demokrati m. wereTeli werda – ,,adamianis ideali unda iyos ara kacobrioba da sakacobrio Rirebulebani, aramed eri da erovnuli Rirebulebani. kacobrioba fiqciaa, eri konkretuli realoba, romlis roli da mniSvneloba istoriul procesSi sul ufro izrdeba. momavalSi erebi ki ar Seerwymebian erTmaneTs, aramed axali erebi Camoyalibdebian sxvadasxva erTa garkveuli elementebis SeerTebis gziT”, rasac saerTo niadagis koncefciis poziciebidan pasuxobda a. jorjaZe – “qarTvel ers sWirdeba rogorc nacionalizmi, ise internacionalizmi”. amdenad, ,,saerTo niadagis Teoria” ilaSqrebs maT winaaRmdeg, vinc mxolod nacionalizmis an internacionalizmis ideebs iziarebs, misTvis umniSvnelovanesi iyo mTlianad ,,xalxi da erovneba” – ,,Cven niadag viyaviT da viqnebiT imisi mteri, visac erovnuli vinaobis dacva arafrad miaCnia, mxolod aranaklebi mteri varT yvela imaTi, visac kerZo anu wodebrivi interesebis mosarCleba erovnebis mosarCleobad miaCnia” (a. jorjaZe).

sxva sakiTxi iyo imis garkveva, Tu vin unda ganaxorcielos qveynis marTva – es sakiTxi erT-erTi centraluria saxelmwifoebriv ideologiaSi. qarTveli social-demokratebis azriT, eris (qveynis) sazogadoebriv cxovrebas, ,,saxalxo saqmeebs” unda gaZRolodnen isev ,,xalxis Svilebi” da ara inteligenciis warmomadgenlebi, romelTac unda CamorTmeodaT ,,saxalxo saqmeebis” marTvis ufleba. aseTi Sexeduleba ufro propagandistuli xerxi iyo, orientirebuli mosaxleobis farTo fenaze. Semdeg es azri mkafiod Camoayaliba leninma -,,saxelmwifos marTva nebismier mzareuls SeuZlia!”. rogorc Teoriulad, ise praqtikulad mtkicdeba, rom saxelmwifos marTva SesaZlebelia mxolod elitis mier. amas yvela aRiarebda social-demokratebis garda. ,,namdvil muSa xalxs, romelic dReSi 12 saaTs Sromobs, ar ZaluZs am saqmis gaZRola. yvela am saqmeebis mowesrigebisaTvis, moclis garda momzadebac unda. eg momzadeba imave mouclelobis gamo Cvens muSa xalxs ara aqvs, maSasadame, umetes SemTxvevaSi saqme unda imaT Cauvardes xelSi, vinc moclili da momzadebulia da visac namdvili survili aqvs xalxis samsaxurisa” (a. jorjaZe). aseTi ,,moclili da momzadebuli” ki saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc sxvagan – ,,mTels ganaTlebuls kacobriobaSi” – politikuri elitaa.

,,saerTo moqmedebis niadagis” Teoriis avtorTaTvis aseve miuRebeli iyo social-demokratTa ekonomikuri proeqtebi. maTi azriT, saqarTvelosa da qarTveli eris momavali, qveynis politikuri Tu ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis saxelmZRvanelo nimuSi evropis mowinave qveynebis gamocdileba unda yofiliyo. xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg (1918-1921 ww.) social-demokratebmac evropuli ganviTarebis orientacia airCies, ufro metic, maT praqtikulad iseTi saxelmwifoebrivi sistemis Seqmna ganizraxes, romelic mowinave evropulma qveynebma mxolod XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi SeZles. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis xanmokle istoriam kvlav daadastura, rom mxolod keTili ganzraxviT saxelmwifoebrivi mSenebloba warumateblad dasruldeba, Tuki es Canafiqri gamagrebuli ar iqneba saTanado social-politikuri da ekonomikuri ZalauflebiT. saqarTvelos social-demokratiuli partiis ususuroba qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRmSeneblobis saqmeSi ganapiroba swored im ideebis ugulebelyofam, romelTac mudam qadagebdnen ilia WavWavaZe da Tergdaleulebi, xolo Semdeg ,,saerTo moqmedebis niadagis” Teoriis avtorebi. ara klasobrivi brZola da dapirispireba, aramed erovnuli erTianoba da erovnuli mrewvelobis ganviTareba.

,,saerTo moqmedebis niadagi” pirwmindad uaryves qarTvelma social-demokratebma: noe Jordaniam, filipe maxaraZem, al. wulukiZem. maTi azriT, ilia WavWavaZe reaqcioneri, xolo a. jorjaZe qarTuli burJuaziis msaxuri gaxldaT, amitom ,,proletariati fxizlad unda yofiliyo, raTa ar ayoloda erovnul cru lozungebs”.

Semdeg, istoriuli procesebis ganviTareba TvalnaTliv aCvenebs, rom swored im qveynebma, romlebmac SeZles erovnuli erTianobis miRweva da ganaviTares erovnuli mrewveloba, SeZles ruseTis komunisturi imperiidan Tavis daxsna me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi da Semdeg ayvavebuli qveynis aSeneba. fineTi, poloneTi, litva, latvia, estoneTi amis saukeTeso magaliTebia.

samwuxarod, imdroindeli qarTuli sazogadoebrioba mzad ar aRmoCnda mieRo erovnuli idealebi da ,,saerTo moqmedebis niadagis” koncefcia gamwvavebuli socialuri dapirispirebulobisa da klasobrivi brZolis pirobebSi.

erovnuli TviTSegnebis gamoRviZebis dros saqarTveloSi socialuri moZraobas tons social-demokratebi aZlevdnen. qarTveli social-demokratebi utyuarad xedavdnen arsebul socialur problematikas da patiosnad iRwvodnen mTlianad qveynis keTildReobisaTvis, magram maT droulad ver gaiTvaliswines erovnuli TviTSegnebis aRorZinebisa da damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebriobis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba saqarTvelosa da saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi erebis harmoniuli arsebobisa da ganviTarebisaTvis. yovelive aman saqarTvelos demokratiuli saxelmwifoebrivi mSeneblobis procesis dawyeba TiTqmis asi wliT daagviana da kvlavac abrkolebs ukve XXI saukunis saqarTveloSi.




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