WWW sources may include texts of books, articles in magazines or newspapers, professional and personal sites, reference databases, and scholarly projects. This simple guide is far from complete.
Name of Author, Editor, Compiler or Translator of the Article, Poem, Book, etc.
“Title of Article, Poem, Short work from a scholarly project, etc.” ( in quotation marks)
Title of Book.(underlined or in italics)
Name of Editor, Compiler, etc. if different from name first cited
Publication data for any print version. (see basic forms)
Title of the Site (underlined or in italics); OR for personal sites with no title, a description such as Home page. (not underlined)
Name of the Editor of the Database or Project (if available)
Version number or Volume, Issue or other identifying number of a journal
Date of electronic publication, latest update or posting
Forum or List Name, if a posting to a discussion list or form
Number range or total number of pages (if numbered)
Name of any Organization sponsoring or associated with the site
Date when source was accessed
Electronic address, or URL enclosed in angle brackets followed by a period
ARTICLE IN REFERENCE DATABASE
“Cats.” Britannica Online. Vers 98.1. Je.
1998. Encyclopedia Britannica. 30
Bennett, Hilary. “When Cats are Feral.”
Pets Magazine 1 Feb. 1996. 4 Jl. 1999
POSTING TO A DISCUSSION LIST
Driscoll, Dianne. “Cats - Works Consulted.”
Online posting. 12 Nov. 1998.
BCTLA Forum. 13 Nov. 1998
Goode, Sally. Home page. 12 Nov. 1998
Historical Feline Project. Ed. Paul Hurt.
May 1997. Kalamazoo U. 24 Feb. 1998
^ try to keep http addresses on one line.
In-text citations: Follow same form as books
Thematic units can be the central organizer for English for the teacher who prefers this instructional approach to the more traditional genre-based approach. Themes can reveal universal ideas and concepts and present the big picture, sometimes in ways that genre-based instruction cannot. Thematic connections can also appeal to current student interest and development as certain topics are of higher interest to students depending on their ages. Students will therefore be able to make connections between their lives and the works they study. A third reason to consider theme-based instruction lies in the burgeoning field of brain research. Increasingly, brain research indicates that people learn best when considering wholes, rather than parts. Sometimes thematic connections can provide a more vivid picture of relationships and connections between ideas and concepts; brain research demonstrates the importance of emphasizing this interconnectedness.
Wherever possible, the title suggestions below were taken from textbooks that are at the listed grade level. It was impossible to be consistent with this, however, as different schools in the district use the same book at different grade levels; in this case, titles were usually taken from books below the grade in question. If, during the creation of a thematic unit, you are in doubt about which books to use, ask a colleague or your department head. (Using a textbook for a grade other than the one the department has agreed the book will be used for can create great strife as teachers are then in the dreaded position of having their students moan “We read that last year!” at the sight of the textbook being handed out.) Sometimes, a department is not in the position of having enough textbooks to support a thematic approach to instruction, as this method requires a plethora of textbooks to be available to the students at any given time. If this is your position, a few paper resources (photocopied according to CanCopy guidelines) is a good alternative, especially if the photocopied resources are short pieces of poetry, fiction and/or non-fiction.
The following thematic suggestions for grades 9-12 are based on current teaching practices in Coquitlam District #43 and represent a mere sampling of the total possibility. Full references for the textbooks mentioned follow the grade 12 thematic suggestions.
Possible Themes for Grade 9
Making a Difference
Creation and Destruction
Freedom and Bondage
Two Grade 9 Themes in Detail
1. Parent-Child Relationships
“Lullaby of the Iroquois” by Pauline Johnson (Departures)
“The Man Who Finds that his Son has Become a Thief” by Raymond Souster (Inside Poetry)
“The Chimney Sweeper” by William Blake (Inside Poetry)
“Father” by Dale Zieroth (The Poet’s Craft)
“This One’s on Me” by Phyllis Gotlieb (Departures)
“The Father” by Hugh Garner (Inside Stories I)
“The Veldt” by Ray Bradbury (Inside Stories I)
“Young Man’s Folly” by Susan Michalika (Coast to Coast)
“Penny in the Dust” by Ernest Buckler (Inside Stories I)
novel or play
The Giver by Lois Lowry
A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare
“Traveller” by Garrison Keller (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
“My Mother, My Rival” by Mariah Burton-Nelson (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
“The Worst Pain” by Scott M. Sandler (Coast to Coast)
“God Bless General Motors Whoever He Is” by Al Pittman (Departures)
“The Lesson of the Moth” by Don Marquis (Departures)
“Dreams” by Langston Hughes (Departures)
“Unemployment” by Tom Wayman (The Poet’s Craft)
“The Michelle I Know” by Alison Lohans (Coast to Coast)
“So, What are You, Anyway?” by Lawrence Hill (Coast to Coast)
“Willow Waist” by Chi Li (Inside Stories I)
“Alicia” by Gabrielle Roy (Inside Stories I)
novel or play
The Pearl by John Steinbeck
Z for Zachariah by Robert C. O’Brien
“The Search for the Perfect Body” by Mary Walters Riskin (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
“Interview with Victor Malarek” by Andrea Mozarowski (Transitions)
Possible Themes for Grade 10
Human Rights and Equality
Persecution and Survival
War and Death
Coming of Age
Taking a Stand
Two Themes in Detail:
“Crash” by Leona Gom (Inside Poetry)
“Rumours of War” by Pat Lowther (Departures)
“Dreamers” by Siegfried Sassoon (The Poet’s Craft)
“The Man He Killed” by Thomas Hardy (Departures)
“Disabled” by Wilfred Owen (Departures)
“All the Troubles of the World” by Isaac Asimov (Inside Stories II)
“Ashes for the Wind” by Hernando Tellez (Inside Stories II)
“Identities” by W.D. Valgardson (Coast to Coast)
“Stones” by Sandra Birdsell (Voices 1)
novel or play
Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
Animal Farm by George Orwell
“A Child in Prison Camp” by Shizuye Takashima (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
“Remembrance” by Timothy Findley (Sightlines 10)
“He Sits Down on the Floor of a School for the Retarded” by Alden Nowlan (Departures)
“My Father Hurting” by Fred Wah (Coast to Coast)
“The Poison Tree” by William Blake (The Poet’s Craft)
“Two Prisons Divided by a Gulf” by Jean Vanier (Themes on the Journey)
“Home” by Karen Gershon (Themes on the Journey)
“Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut (Inside Stories II)
“Boys and Girls” by Alice Munro (Inside Stories II)
“What I Want to Be When I Grow Up” by Martha Brooks (Voices 1)
“White Places” by Mary Flanagan (Voices 1)
novel or play
The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
“I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King (Sightlines 10)
“Voices of the Grandmothers: Reclaiming a Metis Heritage” by Christine Welsh (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
Possible Themes for Grade 11
The Green Planet
Two Themes in Detail
“The Highwayman” by Alfred Noyes (Departures)
“The Day of the Bride” by Joy Kogawa (Coast to Coast)
“Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allan Poe (The Poet’s Craft)
“First Person Demonstrative” by Phyllis Gotlieb (The Poet’s Craft)
“Sonnet 43: How Do I Love Thee?” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (The Poet’s Craft)
“The Red Convertible” by Louise Erdrich (Voices 2)
“Queen For A Day” by Russell Banks (Voices 2)
“The Famous Poll” at Jody’s Bar by Ellen Gilchrist (Voices 2)
“The Last Day of the Circus” by Veronica Ross (Coast to Coast)
novel or play
Othello by William Shakespeare
Snow Falling on Cedars by David Guterson
“What I Have Lived For” by Bertrand Russell (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
“Afternoon of an American Boy” by E.B. White (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
“W.L.M.K” by F.R. Scott (Inside Poetry)
“Vancouver Lights” by Earle Birney (The Poet’s Craft)
“Canadian Railroad Trilogy” by Gordon Lightfoot (The Poet’s Craft)
“Erosion” by E.J. Pratt (The Poet’s Craft)
“Canadians” by Miriam Waddington (Coast to Coast)
“Death by Landscape” by Margaret Atwood (Voices 2)
“The Loons” by Margaret Laurence (Voices 2)
“The Jade Peony” by Wayson Choy (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“The Shining Houses” by Alice Munro (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
novel or play
A Bird in the House by Margaret Laurence
Who Has Seen the Wind by W.O. Mitchell
“A Land Worth Loving” by Neil Bissoondath (Coast to Coast)
“Why Canada Has To Beat Its Literacy Problem” by June Callwood (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
Possible Themes for Grade 12
Adulthood and Responsibility
Brave New World
Take a Risk
Two Themes in Detail
“Before Two Portraits of My Mother” by Emile Nelligan (The Poet’s Craft)
“Grandfather” by George Bowering (The Poet’s Craft)
“Keine Lazarovitch” by Irving Layton (Themes on the Journey)
“The Philosophers” by R.G. Everson (Themes on the Journey)
“Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” by Dylan Thomas (Themes on the Journey)
“Miss Brill” by Katherine Mansfield (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“The Jade Peony” by Wayson Choy (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“Imagine a Day at the End of Your Life” by Ann Beattie (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“Electric Arrows” by E. Annie Proulx (Fiction)
novel or play
The Stone Angel by Margaret Laurence
King Lear by William Shakespeare
“When Does a Boy Become a Man?” by Henry G. Felson (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
“Predictable Crises of Adulthood” by Gail Sheehy (75 Readings Plus)
“My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning (Inside Poetry)
“Young Girls” by Raymond Souster (The Poet’s Craft)
“Rose’s Mother was Not Good at Keeping House” by Rosemary Aubert (Poet’s Craft)
“Housewife” by Susan Fromberg Schaeffer (Inside Poetry)
“Song of Perfect Propriety” by Dorothy Parker (Themes on the Journey)
“The Painted Door” by Sinclair Ross (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“The Yellow Wall Paper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“Holding Things Together” by Anne Tyler (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
“The Wedding Gift” by Thomas Raddall (Fiction)
novel or play
The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood
Hamlet by William Shakespeare
“Why I Want A Wife” by Judy Syers (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
“Sexism in Rock and Roll Lyrics” by Rod Cohen (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
Gordon, Jane B. and Karen Kuehner, Eds. Fiction: The Elements of the Short Story. Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company, 1999.
Fisher, David and Sharon Jeroski, Eds. Voices 2: Contemporary Short Fiction. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Stories I, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1999.
Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Stories II, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1999.
Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Stories for Senior Students. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1993.
Jeroski, Sharon and David Fisher, Eds. Voices 1: Contemporary Short Fiction. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Barry, James, Ed. Departures: Reflections in Poetry. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1991.
Barry, James, Ed. Themes on the Journey: Reflections in Poetry. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1989.
Ireland, Robert J., Ed. The Poet’s Craft. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1987.
Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Poetry. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1987.
Barry, James, Ed. Coast to Coast: Reflections in Literature. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1995.
Crane, Mary, Barbara Fullerton and Amanda Joseph. Sightlines 10. Toronto: Prentice Hall Canada, 2000.
Hilker, Douglas, Barrie Duncan, Sue Harper and Andrea Mozarowski. Transitions: Fiction, Poetry and Non-Fiction. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1995.
Barker-Sandbrook, Judith. Essays: Patterns and Perspectives. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Buscemi, Santi V. and Charlotte Smith. 75 Readings Plus, 4th Ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1998.
Drapeau, Patricia, Jon Terpenning and Alex White. Discoveries in Non- Fiction. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993.
What Do I Teach?
This section contains, for each grade, a scope and sequence, a sample course outline (each one from a different teacher in District #43) and a grid that demonstrates the link between instruction and assessment, per strand, in the IRP.
This scope and sequence is not a district mandate as decisions to that end are best made by individual English teachers and departments at the school level. However, the following scope and sequence, as well as the sample course outlines, provides a starting point for departments comprised of teachers interested in creating a school-based document or for teachers who would like structure of the type that is not provided by the Ministry-mandated Integrated Resource Packages (IRPs). Indeed, this optional district scope and sequence owes its creation to various school-based documents that already existed while the Secondary English Resource Committee was assembling this resource package. In essence, it is a culminating reflection of seven Coquitlam secondary schools and their English departments.
It is important to note that neither this scope and sequence, nor the various textbooks teachers have in their classrooms comprise the curriculum that teachers are legally required to deliver or “cover” as the mandate of their job. The curriculum is provided by the IRP alone. This Scope and Sequence is merely another frame to consider as a vehicle for the curriculum; we, the committee, hope that our colleagues will find this framework helpful.
Each section of the Scope and Sequence is dedicated to one grade; each grade’s section is divided into two parts: 1. terminology and content per genre, and 2. instructional strategies and assessment ideas from the IRP.
While the following data is over ten years old, more recent research confirms all of the findings. The implications for a scope and sequence are profound: although the scope and sequence categories imply that a separate writing unit is the best approach for writing in your classroom, another approach is, in fact, preferable. Writing should be woven throughout the year’s work, whether the teacher chooses a genre or thematic approach.
New Directions for Teaching by George Hillocks, Jr. NCRE (1986) indicates the following:
Grammar and Mechanics
the study of traditional grammar and mechanics in a separate unit has little or no effect on the improvement of writing
SC exercises can influence syntactic planning more than grammar can but SC exercises alone cannot influence higher-level plans dealing with content, audience, voice and so forth
Using models does not significantly improve the quality of written work but some studies found that using them increases student ability to identify effective techniques (any study reporting significant gains in writing used models that were relatively brief and were used to illustrate relatively few and specific points about writing)
The Use of Scales (meaning performance scales or rubrics)
Studies indicate rather clearly that engaging young writers actively in the use of criteria, applied to their own and others writing, results not only in more effective revisions but in superior first drafts
Studies strongly suggest that diffuse teacher comments (those ranging over content, development, organization, style, mechanics, etc.) have little impact on student writing
Feedback and Revision
Comments that focus on a single dimension may be more effective than diffuse comments; focused comments coupled with the assignment and revision produced a significant quality gain
Presenting students with sets of data and following this up with instruction designed to help students develop particular skills or strategies produced significant results
Little evidence suggests that free writing as a main focus of instruction is effective
Terminology and Content per Genre
Stories and Novels
myth (explanatory, social, instructional, entertainment)
mythological characters (trickster, wise old person etc.)
conflict (internal and external)
character and motivation
point of view (first, second and third person)
setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or stereotype)
plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement or conclusion)
Drama (including Shakespeare)
types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.; lyric, concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance; comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole; understatement)
terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm
autobiography and biography
purpose in writing: audience and thesis
know how to use the library and all resources in it
analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation, production and influence of audience (see Kevin McKendy resource “Media Education in YOUR Classroom” in this package)
expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
parts of speech
write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
edit for fragments and run-ons
write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation
write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense
English 9 Course Outline
English 9 is a course of study in literature, media, and language. It is designed to help you comprehend, and draw reasoned conclusions from, what you read, view, and hear. You will be encouraged to make connections between your own experiences and those presented in a variety of works, including short stories, novels, poems, plays, essays, newspaper and magazine articles, video documentaries, and films. You will read the work of local, national, and international authors from various cultural backgrounds. In responding to what you read, view, and hear, you will apply an understanding of the conventions of language and use an appropriate vocabulary. You will edit and revise your written responses to improve the quality of your expression. Also, you will work collaboratively on some assignments to foster a sense of community in the classroom.
The following are some of the units which may be done during the course:
Research Writing and Composition Unit
Composition and Writing Skills
Library Resources Unit
Absences. In the case of school functions, you must give notice as far in advance of the function as possible. After any other absence, you must provide a signed note from a parent or guardian explaining the reason for your absence or have a parent or guardian phone the school to explain your absence.
Tardiness. If you arrive late, knock once and wait for a convenient moment to be admitted.
Tutorials. Formal English tutorials are offered by the department. See the posted schedule for times and locations.
Materials. All work submitted in class must be written in blue or black pen, never in pencil, on lined, white loose-leaf paper. In addition, you must bring your ^ to record homework assignments and due dates. Please note that food and drinks (other than bottled water) are not permitted in the classroom at any time.