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Paths of Virtue?


Appendix 2


Primary material relating to texts discussed

Sir Charles Grandison title page 1753

Hogarth: The Lady’s Last Stake 1758-59 287

Jane Austen ms Grandison c 1791

Circulating Library ticket post 1750 288

Evelina title page 1778

Gillray: Tales of Wonder 1802 289

Romance of the Forest title page 1791

Wright: Dovedale by Moonlight 1784-85 290

‘What Girls Read’ 1888

‘100 Best Novels’ 1899

East Lynne bookplate 1905 291-3

The Nation CCC 1886 294

The Literary World CCC 295

Notes on Books CCC 296

The Best Reading 1887 297-9

Books for Girls and Women… 300-304





Samuel Richardson: Sir Charles Grandison, 1753 title page





Hogarth: The Lady’s Last Stake, 1758-9 (Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo)





Manuscript of Jane Austen’s dramatization of

Sir Charles Grandison,

started c 1791, aged 16

(Chawton House Library)





A ticket for a Circulating Library post 1750




Fanny Burney: Evelina title page to vol ii, 4th edition, 1779





James Gillray, Tales of Wonder, 1802 (Princeton University Library)





Title page of the first edition of The Romance of the Forest, 1791





Wright: Dovedale by Moonlight, 1784-5

(Allen Memorial Art Museum, Ohio)


Salmon: What Girls Read’, 1888.


Daily Telegraph, 1899: 100 Best Novels

(chosen by the editor, Sir Edwin Arnold, H.D. Traill and W.L. Courtney)

^ W. H. Ainsworth

The Tower of London

Old St Paul's

Windsor Castle

Jane Austin

Pride & Prejudice

Sense & Sensibility

Honoré de Balzac

Pere Goriot

J. M. Barrie

A Window in Thrums

^ W. Besant and J . Rice

The Golden Butterfly

Rolf Boldrewood

Robbery Under Arms

M. E. Braddon

Lady Audley's Secret

Charlotte Bronte

Jane Eyre

Shirley

^ Hall Caine

The Deemster

Henry Cockton

Valentine Vox

Wilkie Collins

The Woman in White

The Moonstone

J. Fenimore Cooper

The Last of the Mohicans

The Pathfinder

The Prairie

^ F. Marion Crawford

Mr Isaacs

Charles Dickens

Martin Chuzzlewit

Nicholas Nickleby

The Old Curiosity Shop

Dombey and Son

Oliver Twist

^ Conan Doyle

The Firm of Girdlestone

Alexandre Dumas

The Three Musketeers

Twenty Years After

The Count of Monte Cristo

George Eliot

Scenes of Clerical Life

^ Henry Fielding

Tom Jones

Joseph Andrews

Mrs Gaskell

Mary Barton

James Grant

The Aide de Camp

The Romance of War

^ Bret Harte

Gabriel Conroy

N. Hawthorne

The Scarlet Letter

The House of the Seven Gables

O. W. Holmes

Elsie Venner

Anthony Hope

The Prisoner of Zenda

^ Thomas Hughes

Tom Brown's Schooldays

Victor Hugo

Les Misérables

Toilers of the Sea

Notre Dame

Charles Kingsley

Two Years Ago

Alton Locke

Hypatia

^ Henry Kingsley

The Recollections of Geoffrey Hamlyn

Rudyard Kipling

Soldiers Three

George Lawrence

Guy Livingstone

Charles Lever

Harry Lorrequer

Charles O'Malley

^ E. Lynn Linton

The Atonement of

Leam Dundas

Samuel Lover

Handy Andy

Rory O'More

Lord Lytton

Last of the Barons

Night and Morning

Rienzi

The Caxtons

^ Captain Marryat

The King's Own

Peter Simple

Jacob Faithful

Midshipman Easy

George Meredith

Diana of the Crossways

D. M. Muloch

John Halifax, Gentleman

^ Ouida

Under Two Flags

Charles Reade

It is Never Too Late to Mend

Peg Woffington and Christie Johnstone

Hard Cash

Capt Mayne Reid

The Headless Horseman

^ Amelie Rives

Virginia of Virginia

Olive Schreiner

The Story of an

African Farm

Michael Scott

Tom Cringle's Log

Cruise of the Midge

^ H. Sienkiewicz

Quo Vadis?

Sir Walter Scott

Rob Roy

The Bride of Lammermoor

Old Mortality

Kenilworth

Guy Mannering

Woodstock

The Talisman

^ Frank E. Smedley

Frank Fairlegh

Tobias Smollett

Roderick Random

Peregrine Pickle

Mrs F. A. Steel

On the Face of the Waters

Laurence Sterne

The Life and Opinions of

Tristram Shandy, Gentleman

^ H. B. Stowe

Uncle Tom's Cabin

R. S. Surtees

Soapey Sponge's Sporting Tour

Eugene Sue

The Wandering Jew

W. M. Thackeray

The History of Henry Esmond

The Newcomes

The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon

^ Count L. Tolstoy

Anna Karenina

Anthony Trollope

Orley Farm

Mrs H. Ward

Robert Elsmere

D. C. L. Warren S.

£10,000 a Year

^ E. Wetherell

The Wide, Wide World

G. J. Whyte-Melville

Market Harborough

Inside the Bar

Mrs Henry Wood

East Lynne



Ellen (Mrs Henry) Wood’s ^ East Lynne remained popular for many decades after its first publication: bookplate in American edition of East Lynne (but presented in Birmingham UK) for Severn Street Class XIV: Afternoon Bible Class, ‘For the year ending 1905’ presented to H. Green.




The Nation. [Number 1096] July 1, 1886

Page 14


^ RECENT NOVELS.

Colonel Cheswick’s Campaign. By Flora L.

Shaw. Boston: Roberts Bros.


A novel by the author of ‘ Hector’ has been a

pleasant anticipation, which is now pleasantly

realized. ‘ Colonel Cheswick’s Campaign’ is not

a great book, but it is a charming story. The

mutual love of father and daughter forms the

main theme, which is worked out through all the

manifold incidents of the attractive life of an

English country-house. A wider horizon bends

round the whole, encircling with the English fens

the Egyptian sands. It would have been too

much to expect, on the larger scale, the simple

perfection of ‘Hector.’ Neither introspection

nor analysis is part of Miss Shaw’s method, and

to fill her canvas she employs a number of minor

figures which crowd each other, and which we

could gladly have spared. Not of these, however,

is the beautiful old pair, in their death not

divided. The main figures stand out very clearly.

It is no small power of characterization

which, almost without a comment, makes us

understand the complex nature of the Colonel

and his wife. The latter, trivial, foolish, selfish,

we can still see is lovable to the fond eyes of

loyal daughter. In the Colonel is combined that

reckless, happy-go-lucky spirit which justifies

self-indulgence that is even cruel to wife and

children ; and yet, in his place at the head of his

regiment, he is the duteous, brave, ardent soldier.

It was an early comment that the daughter, Ailsa,

is only Zélie (from ‘ Hector’) or Phyllis Browne

(from the story of that name) grown up. No one

will admire or love her the less for that : it is

very high praise.


Review of ^ Colonel Cheswick’s Campaign,

The Nation, July 1st 1886



The Literary World‎ May 29th 1886


Colonel Cheswick's Campaign. By Flora L. Shaw. [Roberts Brothers. $1.00.]




Review of Colonel Cheswick’s Campaign, from Notes on Books, February 27th 1886





The Best Reading in 1892 included Shaw’s novels under

juvenile and general fiction




Shaw’s Juvenile novels listed in ^ The Best Reading




Colonel Cheswick’s Campaign identified as ‘the best reading’





Title page of ^ Books for Girls and Women and their Clubs, 1895




Forward to Books for Girls and Women and their Clubs




Preface to Books for Girls and Women and their Clubs




Continuation of the Preface to

^ Books for Girls and Women and their Clubs




Flora Shaw entry in Books for Girls and Women and their Clubs


Appendix 3


Art referenced within each chapter


Chapters 4 & 5:

Eighteenth-century Young Adult girl readers 308


Paul and Virginia 309


Baudouin: The Reader 310

The Night 310


Chapter 6:

Fuseli: The Nightmare 311


Chapter 7:

Egg: Past and Present 312


Hunt: The Awakening Conscience 313


Watts: Jane Nassau 313


Millais: Sophie Gray 314


Burne-Jones: Sidonia von Bork 314


Rossetti: Lucrezia Borgia 315

Fazio’s Mistress 315

Helen of Troy 315

Bocca Baciata 316


Chapter 8:

Sophie Gengembre Anderson:

Young Girl Fixing her Hair 316

Portrait of a Young Girl 316


Millais: The Black Brunswicker 317

Love 317

A Young Woman Reading 317

Mariana 318

Yes 318


Frank Bernard Dicksee: Chivalry 319

Romeo and Juliet 319


John William Waterhouse: Lamia 319


Marianne Stokes: Aucassin and Nicolette 320


Edmund Blair Leighton: God Speed 320


Lord Leighton: The Maid with the Golden Hair 320


Artur Grottger: Farewell 321


Wladyslaw Bakalowicz: Farewell 321


John Horsley: The Soldier’s Farewell 321


Magazine illustration for Lady Audley’s Secret 322


George Elgar Hicks: Woman’s Mission: 322

Companion to Man


Cope: Hope Deferred, And Hopes And Fears

^ That Kindle Hope 322


Nineteenth-century Young Adult girl readers 323


Eighteenth century Young Adult girl readers





Fragonard: ^ A Young Girl Reading, c. 1776

(National Gallery of Art, Washington)





Betsey Wynne 1778-1857 (Dukes of Buckingham and Chandos)




The Reading of Paul and Virginia

from Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot: A Popular History of France From The Earliest Times (1876)





Schall/Descourtis illustration for 1797 edition of ^ Paul et Virginie



Julia Margaret Cameron

Paul and Virginia 1864 (V&A Museum, London)





Pierre-Antoine Baudouin: The Night 1767

(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)





Pierre-Antoine Baudouin: The Reader 1760

(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)





(Detroit Institute of the Arts)

Fuseli: The Nightmare 1780-1781.


The subject proved so popular that Fuseli

produced a number of different versions.


1790-91

(Goethe Museum, Frankfurt)






Augustus Leopold Egg: Past and Present (1), 1858

(Tate Gallery, London)





(2) above

(3) below








William Holman Hunt: The Awakening Conscience 1853

(Tate Gallery, London)





Watts: Mrs Nassau Senior, Jane Elizabeth Hughes1828-77, 1856

(National Trust, Wightwick Manor)




Millais: Portrait of a Girl (Sophie Gray) 1857

(private collection)





Burne-Jones: Sidonia von Bork 1860

(Tate Gallery, London)





Rossetti: Lucrezia Borgia, 1860-1, reworked 1868

(Fogg Museum of Art, Harvard)





Rossetti: Aurelia (Fazio’s Mistress), 1863-1873

(Tate Gallery, London)





Rossetti: Helen of Troy, 1863 (Kunsthalle, Hamburg)




Rossetti: Bocca Baciata, 1859

(Museum Of Fine Arts, Boston)




^

Sophie Gengembre Anderson: Young Girl Fixing Her Hair,

post 1860 (private collection)




^

Sophie Gengembre Anderson: Portrait of a Young Girl,

post 1860 (private collection)






Millais: ^ The Black Brunswicker, 1860 (Lady Lever Art Gallery, Liverpool)





Millais: Love, 1862 (V&A Museum, London)





Millais: Young Woman Reading (The North-West Passage), 1874

(Tate Gallery, London)




Millais: Mariana, 1851 (Tate Gallery, London)





Millais’ illustration for Moxon’s edition of Tennyson’s poem, 1857





Millais: ‘Yes’, 1877 (private collection)




Dicksee: ^ Romeo and Juliet, 1884 (City Art Gallery, Southampton)





Dicksee: Chivalry, 1885 (private collection)





Waterhouse: Lamia, 1905 (private collection)





Stokes: ^ Aucassin and Nicolette, c.1875 (private collection)





Blair Leighton: God Speed, 1900 (private collection)





Lord Leighton: ^ The Maid with the Golden Hair, 1895

(private collection)




Horsley: The Soldier’s Farewell, 1853 (private collection)





Grottger: Farewell, 1866 (National Museum, Cracow)





Bakalowitz: Farewell, 1867 (private collection)





^ Lady Audley's Secret, illustration in the London Journal, 1863

(Wolff Collection, University of Texas)





Hicks: Woman’s Mission: Companion to Man, 1863

(Tate Gallery, London)





Cope: ^ Hope Deferred, And Hopes And Fears That Kindle Hope, c.1888

(Rochdale Art Gallery)


Renoir 1877 (private collection)


Perugini 1878 (Boston Harbor Museum)


Stott 1884 (private collection)




Burne-Jones c. 1884 (private collection)

Nineteenth-century Young Adult girls absorbed in their reading


Appendix 3 Notes


Victorian Narrative Art.


Images referenced below appear in Appendix 3:312-313.


In the second half of the nineteenth-century artists became obsessed with story-telling. They chose subjects which illustrated popular stories and anecdotes. They are all very precisely detailed to make their subjects appear more credible. Many of them look bewildering today but they were understood by Victorian audiences who worked out their plots from the characters’ expressions and body language, and the titles of the pictures. Symbolic details were the biggest clue – a dropped glove could mean betrayal and a snuffed out candle the end of hope. Victorians read their pictures as closely as their books. Paintings which refer particularly to the subjects of sensation novels such as East Lynne are:


^ Augustus Leopold Egg: Past and Present 1858 (Tate).

A series of three paintings which depict the consequences of adultery. In the first a woman lies at her husband’s feet. He holds a letter, evidence of her unfaithfulness, and stamps on a portrait miniature of her lover. On the left, the girls’ house of cards collapses, signifying the breakdown of the family. The cards were supported by a novel by the French writer Balzac, famous for his tales of adultery. And an apple has been cut in two. One half, representing the wife, has fallen to the floor. The other, representing the husband, has been stabbed to the core.

The second shows the girls, now young adults, reflecting on their mother’s fate. When this triptych was first exhibited the drawing-room scene was hung between this painting and the final scene. John Ruskin wrote: ‘the husband discovers his wife’s infidelity; he dies five years afterwards. The two lateral pictures represent the same moment of night a fortnight after his death. The same little cloud is under the moon. The two children see it from the chamber in which they are praying for their lost mother, and their mother, from behind a boat under the vault of the river shore.’ Ruskin’s comments show that audiences were expected to ‘read’ pictures like novels.


The final image is set under the Adelphi arches, by the River Thames. The ^ Art Journal described them as ‘the lowest of all the profound deeps of human abandonment in this metropolis’. The woman shelters a young child, the result of her affair. The posters behind her advertise two plays – Victims and The Cure for Love – and ‘Pleasure excursions to Paris’. These are ironic comments on her situation. This is a social moralist series of paintings but it is left to the viewer to decide whether the woman is to be pitied or condemned. (From the Tate display captions, July 2007).

^ William Holman Hunt: The Awakening Conscience 1853 (Tate).

Hunt’s approach to art was often highly moralistic. Here he shows a kept woman in a modern setting, in order to explore contemporary issues of sin, guilt and prostitution. The young woman rises suddenly from her lover’s lap. Inspired by the light pouring through the window from the garden, she realises the error of her ways. Hunt captures this fleeting moment of consciousness with characteristic exactitude. The complex composition is loaded with symbolism. Many of the intricate details, such as the bird trying to escape from a cat, emphasise the picture’s underlying message of possible redemption. Ruskin wrote of this image, 'There is not a single object in that room ... but it becomes tragical, if rightly read'. (From the Tate display caption July 2007)


^ John Millais: The Black Brunswicker 1860 (Lady Lever Art Gallery, Liverpool).

Studies for the work exist both in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Liverpool, archives as well as in Tate Britain. Millais used Charles Dickens’s daughter Kate as the model for the girl and a private in the Life Guards for the soldier.


Edward Burne-Jones was one of several Pre-Raphaelite artists who were particularly drawn to creating images of chivalry and courtly love, often based on literary originals from the Middle Ages, or nineteenth-century reinterpretations. According to Burne-Jones himself in these images they sought to portray ‘a beautiful romantic dream of something that never was, never will be - in a light better than any light that ever shone - in a land no one can define or remember, only desire - and the forms divinely beautiful’.


The Victorian narrative art already discussed may be further examined for its messages on the perceived responsibilities of ideal wives. Additional images are those by George Elgar Hicks: ^ Woman’s Mission (1863), Companion of Manhood: a triptych comprising Guide of Childhood, Companion of Manhood, Comfort of Old Age, of which the first and third painting are now lost. These showed the woman tending her son and ministering to her father in old age.


^ Companion of Manhood shows the same woman comforting her husband, who has just received bad news. The Times newspaper described the works as representing ‘woman in three phases of her duties as ministering angel’. These images may be found in Appendix 3:322.


Pre-Raphaelite Art


Images referenced below appear in Appendix 3:313-314.


A comparison of G.F. Watts’ Jane (‘Jeanie’) Elizabeth Nassau Senior (1857-58) or Millais ^ Sophie Gray (1857), with Burne-Jones Sidonia von Bork (1860) or Rossetti Lucrezia Borgia (1860-61) reveals the difference in the depiction of women, from earlier realistic portrayals to the strong, sexualized images of Pre-Raphaelite seductresses. In Rossetti’s Fazio’s Mistress (1863) we even see the process by which the loose, sensuous, luxuriant, waving hair was obtained. Rossetti’s Helen of Troy (1863) shows us an image very like that in Lady Audley’s portrait: ‘these feathery masses of ringlets with every glimmer of gold, and every shadow of pale brown…strange sinister light to the deep blue eyes. No one but a Pre-Raphaelite could have given to that pretty pouting mouth the hard and almost wicked look it had in the portrait…a beautiful fiend’ (107).


Images referenced below appear in Appendix 3:314-6.


Bocca Baciata is a reference to the seventh tale on the second from Boccaccio’s Decameron in which the heroine makes love to eight men before marrying the ninth, a virgin. The parallel with Lady Audley, though not exact, is apt.


^ Sidonia von Bork is the central character in Wilhelm Meinhold's Gothic romance 'Sidonia the Sorceress'. The novel is set in sixteenth-century Pomerania and chronicles the crimes of the evil Sidonia, whose beauty captivates all who see her. She is shown here at the court of the dowager Duchess of Wolgast, one of the early intrigues in a career that leads to her execution as a witch. (From the Tate caption).


Images referenced below may be found in Appendix 3:319.


Frank Bernard Dicksee’s Chivalry (1885), and John William Waterhouse’s later paintings ^ Lamia (1905) and Tristan and Isolde (1916), feature images of knights which are typical of the Pre-Raphaelite technique of illumination.


Images referenced below may be found in Appendix 3:319-320


In addition to the Pre-Raphaelite and narrative art works referenced earlier in this appendix can be added Marianne Stokes’ ^ Aucassin and Nicolette (undated, post 1884, pre 1900), many works by Edmund Blair Leighton (as distinct from Frederic, Lord Leighton), and mid- to late Victorian images of Shakespeare’s young lovers Romeo and Juliet. This was a popular subject, with noted images by Ford Maddox Brown (1870) and Dicksee (1884). Young lovers in romantic moonlit settings were also the subject of magazine and book illustration, commercial art, postcards and greetings cards. Images by Stokes, Blair Leighton and Dicksee may be found in Appendix 3:319-320.


Numerous images can be compared with Shaw’s depiction of Ailsa’s parting from Jack, including Millais’ Mariana (1851), Marie Spartalli Stillman’s Mariana (1868), Artur Grottger’s Farewell (1866),Wladyslaw Bakalowicz’s Farewell (1867), John Horsley’s The Soldier’s Farewell (1853), and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and others’ images of models such as Elizabeth Siddal (1850s), which are characterized by the subject’s halo of illuminated hair. These images may be found in Appendix 3: 317, 320 and 321.


Works Cited









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