Job satisfaction of college teachers of punjab with respect to area, gender and type of institution icon

Job satisfaction of college teachers of punjab with respect to area, gender and type of institution


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JOB SATISFACTION OF COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PUNJAB WITH RESPECT TO AREA, GENDER AND TYPE OF INSTITUTION.

Mrs. Gurinder Kaur, Lecturer, SMDRSD College of Education, Pathankot, Gurdaspur.143521 e-mail :grandhawa2k9@yahoo.com

Mrs. Jivan Jyoti Sidana, Principal,, Cheema College of Education, Srihargobindpur, Gurdaspur.

Abstract:- Teacher in the emerging economy has a very vital role to play in the social reconstruction and transmission of wisdom, knowledge and experience from one generation to another. The progress and future of education, its equality and ideals will depend on how and why young persons are educated. This study aimed at finding the level of Job Satisfaction of College teachers of Punjab with respect to Area, Gender and Type of Institution. The study revealed that rural college teachers were more satisfied as compared to urban college teachers because of their low expectations. On the other hand, male college teachers were more satisfied as compared to their female counterparts. Majority of women teachers pointed that they have not got recognition for job and work done. Furthermore, Government Owned College teachers were more satisfied than Government Aided and Self-financed College Teachers. The need of the hour is to put strict check on adoption of rules and regulation by Aided and Self-financed Colleges, which is mostly on the papers. Alternatively, mushrooming of the colleges should be restricted and provide security of service to college teachers in the greater interest of the nation.

Key Words: Job Satisfaction, Punjab, Area, Gender, Type of Institution.

^ JOB SATISFACTION: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The quality of education depends upon the quality of the teachers. Thus, the role of the teachers is very important in making the nation. If the teachers are versatile, intellectually enlightened, morally strong, emotionally balanced, socially and culturally advanced than the nation will have enlightened and excellent citizens.

Indian Education Commission (1966) described teacher as one of the most important factors contributing to the national development. He is the pivot around which all the educational programs, such as curriculum, syllabus, textbooks, evaluation, etc., rotate. The best system of education may fail to achieve the desire ends in the absence of sincere, competent and professionally aware teachers. National Policy on Education (1986) rightly stated “No people can rise above the level of its teachers”. As a person imbibes, interprets and disseminates the relevant items of culture and traditions of the past, he creates new knowledge, promotes innovations, critically appraises the past and its traditions and cultures, sifts the grain from the chaffe, strengthens social and economic fabrics of the nation. Education is basically the influence which the teacher exerts on the students entrusted to his care. Effective teachers are required in the classroom because even the best curriculum and most perfect syllabus remain ineffective in the absence of a good teacher. Development of the country requires a high rate of production and fullest possible utilization of both human as well as material resources. Nowadays, there is, however, a general feeling that the teachers do not have satisfaction in their job. There seems to be growing discontentment towards their job as a result of which standard of education are falling. Teachers are dissatisfied in spite of different plans and programs, which have been implemented to improve their job. Higher academic and professional qualification of the teachers, no doubt ,can raise the standard of education as well as of nation, but dissatisfied teachers , in spite having a good and sound academic career and professional training , will do much harm than good because they will neither work whole heartedly nor will they try to contribute anything to education. So, job satisfaction is a crucial factor in improving the quality of instruction, educational and research output and student teacher relationship. Job satisfaction consists of total body of feeling about the nature of job promotion, nature of supervision etc. that an individual has about his job. If the sum total of influence of these factors gives arises to feelings of satisfaction, the individual has job satisfaction. Under such circumstances it is essential that the proper understanding concerning satisfaction emanating from the job life be obtained.


Job satisfaction is a complex variable and is influenced by situational factors of the job as well as the dispositional characteristics of the individual (Sharma & Ghosh: 2006). It is defined as the positive emotional response to the job situation resulting from attaining what the employee wants from the job. This implies that job satisfaction can be captured by either a one dimensional concept of Global Job satisfaction or a Multi Dimensional faceted construct of job satisfaction capturing different aspects of a job satisfaction that can very independently.. Job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional state of the appraisal of one’s job; an effective reaction and an attitude towards one’s job. No doubt job satisfaction is an attitude but one should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviours (Weiss, H.M. 2002). Hence, Job satisfaction is an attitude towards job taking into account feelings, beliefs and behaviours.. According to Dictionary of Education, Job satisfaction is the quality, state and level of satisfaction as a result of various interests and attitudes of a person towards his job. It is the desire or undesired with which employees view their work. It expresses the extent of match between the employer’s expectations of the job and rewards that the job provides.

The term ‘Job Satisfaction’, however, lacks adequate definition (Hertzberg et al. 1957) as well as a satisfactory theory about its meaning. The difference in a broad spectrum of views seems to be caused firstly by the various nature of jobs that individuals perform; secondly the attempts to conceptualize job satisfaction in a variety of ways by different disciplines like Psychology, Sociology, Education and Management etc., and finally, the variety of methods employed by various researchers to study job satisfaction. It is widely accepted as psychological aspect of effective functioning in any profession. The credit of this thought goes to Hoppock (1935) who commented that there were many opinions about job satisfaction but there were few studies undertaken in this field. For him, Job Satisfaction was a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say, “I am satisfied with my job”. Thus Job Satisfaction is a favorableness with which employees view their work.

According to Bullock (1952), Gitmer (1966) and Schulz (1973), Job Satisfaction is an attitude which results from a balance and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with job. Katzell (1964) remarks that the term job satisfaction has been used in a variety of ways inter changeably with job morale, vocational satisfaction and job attitude by various authors. Siegel (1962) points out those factors which psychologically satisfy the worker and which usually lie in the job but also quite often lie outside the job. He called such factors as intrinsic and extrinsic to the job. Blum (1965) and Blum and Naylor (1968) considered job satisfaction as a generalized attitude of the individual resulting from many attitudes in three areas, namely, specific job factors, individual characteristics and group relationship outside the job. Smith, et. al. (1969) however suggested that Job Satisfaction is the employee’s judgment of how well his job on the whole satisfying his various needs. He also indirectly refers to a fit between what the job demands from the job-doer in terms of his/her needs – material and non-material.

^ Tiffin and Mc. Cormich’s (1969) recognized that job satisfaction is a function of need satisfaction derived from, or experienced in the job. According to Kochan (1978), Job Satisfaction is the whole matrix of job factors that make a person like his work situation and is willing to head for it without distaste at the beginning of his work day. This means that Job satisfaction includes two aspects: Living and enjoying the job and Going to one’s job with head erect and smiles. According to Paul Specters (1985) “Job Satisfaction is liking of one’s job and finding fulfillment in what you do. It combines an individuals feeling and emotion about their and how their job effect their personal lines.”

Brief (1998) wrote, “If a person’s work is interesting, pay is fair, promotional opportunities are good, supervisor is supportive and co-workers are friendly, then a situational approach leads one to predict that she/he is satisfied with her/his job”. In simple words if the pleasures associated with one’s job outweigh the pains, there is some level of satisfaction.

. ^ NEED OF THE STUDY:

Now-a-days, the concept of job satisfaction is not only limited to employee sector, but covers all the sectors, where there is involvement of the employees and workers. Job satisfaction is liking of one’s job and its fulfillment what one do. It is acquiring an increasingly important role in modern society, in which man spends most of his time on his job, basically undertaken for payment received in lieu of it. Job satisfaction is important both to the employee as well as the employer. Greater job satisfaction is likely to lead eventually to more effective functioning of the individual and the organization as a whole. Infact, working life is to be evaluated not simply in terms of the amount of goods turned out, the productive efficiency and the profit it brings but the level of satisfaction that the participants derive from it. The satisfied worker is in general a more flexible and better adjusted who has the capacity to over come the effects of an environment. He is more realistic about his own situation and goals. The worker dissatisfied with his job, in contrast, is often rigid, inflexible, unrealistic in his choice of goals, unable to overcome environmental obstacles and generally unhappy and dissatisfied. Lack of job satisfaction can be a significant source of daily stress. There can be various reasons of job dissatisfaction, such as, Bickering co-workers supervisor; Conflict with your supervisor; Not having necessary equipment or resources to succeed; Lack of opportunities for promotion; Having little or no say in decisions that affect you; Fear of loosing your job; Work that you find boring or overly routine and Work that doesn’t tap into your education, skills or interests. A study of job satisfaction classifies and categorizes the conditions and factors that lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Besides one could reinforce conditions that make work more satisfying and fulfilling instead of dull and disappointing. The same is true for teachers also. In the education line, there has been an increasing awareness of the demands of teachers. Of course, the schools, colleges and universities as humanizing and educating institutions have a major role in the growth and development of the students they serve, but the social well-being, advancement, and growth of pupils depends to a great extent on the enthusiasm, efficiency and professional skills of the teachers. The progress and future of education, its quality and ideals will depend upon how and by whom young persons are educated.

Therefore, the job satisfaction of teachers is of much value to administrators who frame policies, take decisions and create conditions in which teachers try to maximize their potential and thus derive greater job satisfaction.

In this context, therefore a study of job satisfaction can provide information to educational administrators to help them understand the teachers in a better way and explore the best possible ways to maximize the career adjustment of the college teacher’s.


^ STATEMENT OF THE STUDY JOB SATISFACTION OF COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PUNJAB WITH RESPECT TO AREA, GENDER AND TYPE OF INSTITUTION


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To assess the level of job satisfaction of college teachers according to area of location of college.

  2. To assess the level of job satisfaction of college teachers according to their gender

  3. To assess the level of job satisfaction of college teachers according to type of management of the college

  4. To identify the various factors that influence the level of job satisfaction of college teachers

  5. To identify the various reasons of job dissatisfaction of college teachers according to area, gender and type of institution.



^ RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem where we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying research problem along with the logic behind them. The basic purpose of research is to find out solution to certain questions by making use of the scientific and systematic techniques. Before finding an appropriate solution to a problem, one has to design a way who to proceed in future, known as development of research design. Research design is concerned with the methods and ways in which the investigator manages the situation to study the selected problem. "A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure." (Jaboda et al., 1952). In simple words, research design is a process of deliberate application of research methods directed towards bringing an expected situation under control.

Sampling Frame:

The universe of the study was college teachers of Punjab. Keeping in mind the limitation of time and other factors, it was not possible to cover the entire population of the region. The sampling method used here was non-probability convenience sampling wherein the sample were selected directly by researcher as was felt convenient. The sampling frame for the present study was degree colleges affiliated to Guru Nanak Dev University (GNDU), Amritsar. There were six universities in Punjab –three general and three technical universities. Keeping in view the familiarity of the area and easy accessibility of the investigator – GNDU was selected for detailed examination. There were two types of colleges, namely, professional and general degree courses. Majority of the professional colleges were of the recent origin and hence not included in the present study. There were 87 degree colleges affiliated to GNDU managed by three different types of management, namely, government owned colleges (GOC), government aided colleges (GAC) and self-financed colleges (SFC) situated in both the rural and urban areas of the state. For classification of different colleges according to area, definition used in 2001 census by the Census Commission of India has been taken into consideration. According to this criterion, rural area is defined as an area having less than one lakh of population i.e. rural and semi-urban area. On the other hand, area having more than one lakh of population is considered as urban area. There were 14 towns (Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar, Bathinda, Jalandhar, Pathankot, Hoshiarpur, Batala, Moga, Abohar, SAS Nagar, Malerkotla, Khanna, and Phagwara) which were considered under urban area. (Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2008, an annual publication of Economic and Statistical Organization, Government of Punjab, Chandigarh). The distribution of selected colleges according to area and type of management presented in Table 1 revealed that one-half of the total colleges affiliated to GNDU were under self-financed management. There were only 13 government colleges majority of which was situated in rural areas. Since, the number of government colleges affiliated to GNDU was very small, coupled with lower number of teachers, all the GOC were selected for this study. Among the GAC and SFCs 50 per cent of the colleges were selected randomly for the present investigation. Therefore, various respondents selected for the study was from 51 colleges affiliated to GNDU.

Sample Size:

The primary source of collecting information was directly approaching the teachers of different Degree Colleges of GNDU to fill the questionnaires. The sample size for the present study was 400 teachers selected from different degree colleges of GNDU comprising of males and females, single or bachelor scattered in both rural as well as urban areas. Further, irrespective of the total staff of the selected colleges, the faculty available at the time of visit to the college was selected purposely

^ TOOLS USED:

Following standardized questionnaires were used to study job satisfaction of college teachers with respect to their personal, professional and organizational characteristics. All these questionnaires were selected because of their suitability to the sample and being able to meet the various standards of reliability and validity.

General Mental Ability scale-:

The group test of General Mental Ability (20-52) developed by S Jalota (YNM) was administer/ used as a measure of intelligence because of its reliability and validity, easy to administer, its popularity and wider application.

Socio Economic Status Scale:-

Socio Economic Status Scale developed by Bhardwaj(1984) has been used. It has been developed for literate people. It can be administered on the illiterate people also but only by personal interviews. It was self administering scale which gave better results with individual test rather than group testing. The reliability of the test was calculated by test and retest method. The content validity was found to be high and promising.

Life Satisfaction Scale:--

Life satisfaction scale developed by Q.G. Alam and Ramji Srivastava (2001) has been used to find out the adjustment problems faced by respondents in rapidly changing societies. 60 items related to six areas namely health, personal, economic, marital, social and job were put in the scale to test life satisfaction of respondents. Test Retest reliability was computed after a lapse of 6 weeks. The obtained quotient was 0.84. The validity of the scale was 0.74 and 0.82. The scale has face as well as content validity also

Professional Characteristics Questionaire:--

To develop professional characteristics score a questionnaire was self-prepared which was pre-tested before administering on the respondents. Questionnaire covered three aspects namely General Background, Financial aspect and Academic aspect. Sum of all the scores of all the aspects was taken as PC score.

Organizational Climate scale:-

Organizational Climate Scale developed by Sanjyot Pethe, Sushma Chaudhary and Upinder Dhar(2001) was used which consisted of 22 items compiled in the form of a bipolar scale with affirmative and negative poles or ends. The split half reliability co-efficient was o.87. The scale has high content validity and face validity of being o.93..

Leadership Behaviour Scale:-

Leadership Behaviour Scale developed by Dr. Asha Hinger(2005) has a six dimensional scale comprising of 30 items. These were 1. Emotional Stabilizer, 2.Team Builder, 3. Performance Oriento, 4. Potential Extractor, 5. Socially Intelligent and 6. Value Inculcator.. Construct validity was found to be 0.49. Split –half reliability was 0.69.

Job Satisfaction Scale:--

Job Satisfaction Scale used by Amar Singh and T.R. Sharma (1999) has been used. It was comprehensive and omnibus in nature. It was brief, reliable and valid and can be administered to any type of workers.. The test test-retest reliability worked out to be 0.978 and validity of 0.743.and coefficient of correlation was 0.81

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED:----- Mean, Standard Deviation, Chi-Square, Z-value and factor analysis were used in the present study to find the level of job satisfaction and the influence of various determinants.

^ ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA

Table I revealed the distribution of respondents according to area , type of institution and gender. Majority of the respondents were in GAC and least (22.5per cent) were in GOC. The rest (33per cent) were in SFC. In urban colleges, 85.4 per cent of the respondents were in GAC whereas 66.6per cent were in GOC. The rest 57.6 per cent are SFC. However, the distribution of the respondents in the rural areas revealed that the lion share was claimed by SFC while the GAC have least number of respondents. This may be attributed to the fact that leading group of institution ware not interested to penetrate in rural areas while more and more SFC were coming up in rural areas due to availability of cheap land coupled with relaxed affiliation conditions.

Furthermore, the distribution of respondents according to gender, revealed that majority of respondents were female 67.5 per cent. However, there were more male respondents in GOC (36.92 per cent) and GAC 52.31 (per cent) whereas female teachers dominate in SFC at 43.70 per cent. This was due to easy and cheap (on less salary) availability of female staff. Similar situation was also examined for both the location of the colleges. In urban areas, the pattern of distribution of respondents revealed that female teachers dominate in GOC and SFC, percentage being 80.9 per cent; and 62.7 per cent respectively while in GAC male teachers with 91.2 per cent dominate. Likewise, in rural areas, in GOC and SFC male teachers dominated with 45.8 and 85.7 percentage while in GAC female teachers with 18.2 per cent dominated the faculty.

^ TABLE I: Distribution of Respondents According to Area, Sex-wise and Type of Institution




Male

Female

Total (M + F)




GOC

GAC

SFC

Total

GOC

GAC

S.FC

Total

GOC

GAC

SFC

Total

Rural

22

(45.8)

6

(8.8)

12

(85.7)

40

(30.8)

8

(19.1)

20

(18.2)

44

(37.2)

72

(26.6)

30

(33.3)

26

(14.6)

56

(42.4)

112

Urban

26

(54.2)

62

(91.2)

2

(14.3)

90

(69.2)

34

(80.9)

90

(81.8)

74

(62.7)

198

(73.3)

60

(66.6)

152

(85.4)

76

(57.6)

288

Total

48

(36.9)

68

(52.3)

14

(10.8)

130

(32.5)

42

(15.5)

110

(40.7)

118

(43.7)

270

(67.5)

90

(22.5)

178

(44.5)

132

(33.0)

400

Figures in brackets are percentages

Sources: Survey Method


^ LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION

The level of job satisfaction of the respondents was shown in Table II..The average level of job satisfaction of the selected college teachers was estimated at 78.19 with standard deviation of 9.448. Furthermore, the level of job satisfaction of male college teachers was estimated at 80.32 while that of female college teachers was estimated at 77.16.The difference between the two in their level of job satisfaction was highly significantly, because the estimated Z-value (3.208) is greater than the Table value of 2.33. Lower level of job satisfaction among female college teachers may be attributed to dual nature of job both at workplace as well as at homes. Females were generally more responsible, better qualified, and more talented and have more tendencies for challenging jobs as compared to their male counterparts. But they had long arduous journeys to do which tire them both ways. Moreover, male teachers were compensated by large tuition work and not called upon to do any domestic duties. Likewise, level of job satisfaction according to place of posting was also examined through Table II. Level of job satisfaction of rural teachers was estimated at 80.88 as compared to their counterparts in urban areas (77.14). Difference between their level of job satisfaction was highly significant. Apparently, rural college teachers were more satisfied as compared to urban college teachers. Lower level of satisfaction of urban college teachers may be attributed to higher expectations from their jobs. Though, urban college teachers may be better qualified and more talented, but have higher socio-economic status and less satisfied from their lives because of higher expectations.

Level of job satisfaction according to type of management of college was also examined through Table II. As expected, teachers in GOC were much more satisfied; the level of job satisfaction was estimated at 81.09. On the contrary, against the general observation that GAC teachers were more satisfied as compared to SFC teachers, SFC teachers were more satisfied (78.67) against college teachers in the GAC (75.91). However difference between the levels of job satisfaction of GOC teachers was significantly different from GAC and SFC teachers with varied level of significance. Furthermore, SFC teachers more satisfied than under GAC teachers because majority of self financed colleges were in the rural area coupled with higher degree of educated unemployment. Instead of remaining unemployed, they prefer to work in SFC with lower wages, insecure service, lack of co-curricular activities and promotional opportunities. They become habitual to work under such conditions. Moreover the mushroom growth of SFCs they were easily approachable from the place of residence and have lower burden of extra co curricular activities, less stringent rules and regulations.


^ TABLE II: LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEGE TEACHERS:

AREA, SEX AND CATEGORY OF MANAGEMENT WISE

^ Category of Colleges

Number of Observation

Mean

Standard Deviation

Group Compared

Z-Value

Rural

112

80.88

9.4466

R-U

3.574***

Urban

288

77.14

9.2718







Male

130

80.32

9.1055

M-F

3.208***

Female

270

77.16

9.4702







GOC

90

81.09

11.120

GOC-GAC

3.727***

GAC

178

75.91

9.965

GOC-SFC

2.104**

SFC

132

78.67

8.578

GAC-SFC

1.987*

Total

400

78.19

9.448

-

-

Notes: R stands for Rural Area; U stands for Urban Area; M stands for Male and F stands for Female.

*** stands for 0.01 level of significance for a two tail test

** stands for 0.05 level of significance for a two tail test

*Stands for 0.10 level of significance for a two tail test

Source: Survey Method.


The level of job satisfaction among different types of management according to area and sex was also examined through Table III. A close examination of data in Table revealed that there was no significant difference in the rural female teachers under different categories of management due to obvious reason. However, urban female teachers under SFC were more satisfied (79.18) as compared to GOC (78.17) and under SFC (73.42) but the difference between GOC and SFC was non significant while that of GOC and GAC and also between GAC and SFC was significantly different. Against the general expectations, higher level of job satisfaction of urban female college teachers under SFC may be attributed to lesser numbers of government colleges, hence lesser job opportunities, no fear of transfer and not at far away location of colleges pick up facilities from the place of residence. Moreover, management of SFC was easily approachable, having easier selection criteria, immobility (having no fear of transfer) and mushroom growth of SFC, hence wider job opportunities. Likewise, urban male college teachers in GOC were more satisfied as compared to their counterparts under SFC (73.00) and GAC (78.68). However, difference in the level of job satisfaction among GOC and SFC was highly significant.

Again as expected, rural male teachers under GOC has higher level of job satisfaction at 87.22 followed by GAC teachers at 77.50 and SFC at 68.66. But the difference in the level of job satisfaction among SFC and GAC was non significant. Teachers under GAC were less satisfied because GAC get the government grants often late hence delayed salary for months forcing them to harsh living conditions coupled with strict r ules and regulations and stringent working conditions.

^ TABLE III: LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEG TEACHERS:

AREA, SEX AND CATEGORY OF MANAGEMENT WISE

Category of Colleges

Number of Observation

Mean

Standard Deviation

Groups Compared

Z#-Value

UFGAC

90

73.42

9.799

UFGAC-GOC

2.542***

UFGOC

34

78.17

9.084

UFGOC-SFC

0.546ns

UFSFC

74

79.18

8.585

UFGAC-SFC

4.000***

RFGAC

20

80.00

8.497

RFGAC-GOC

0.128ns

RFGOC

8

79.00

21.494

RFSFC-GOC

0.085ns

RFSFC

44

78.35

5.696

RFSFC-GAC

0.791ns

UMGAC

62

78.68

8.333

UMGAC-GOC

0.471ns

UMGOC

26

79.72

9.890

UMGOC-SFC

3.465***

UMSFC

2

73.00

0.000

UMGAC-SFC

0.983ns

RMGAC

6

68.66

22.03

RMGAC-GOC

2.071**

RMGOC

22

87.72

9.177

RMGOC-SFC

3.453***

RMSFC

12

77.50

7.687

RMGAC-SFC

0.954ns

Notes: # In case of small sample, estimated t-values were reported

R stands for Rural Area; U stands for Urban Area; M stands for Male and F stands for Female.

*** stands for 0.01 level of significance for a two tail test

** stands for 0.05 level of significance for a two tail test

*Stands for 0.10 level of significance for a two tail test Source: Survey Method

^ DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION:

To identify the various factors that influenced the level of job satisfaction, Factor Analytic approach had been used in the present study. It was generally used to analyze interrelationship among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in terms of their common underlying dimensions (Factor). It was designed as the queen of analytical methods because of its power and elegance. The general purpose of Factor Analytic Technique was to find a way in condensing(summarizing) the information contained in a number of original variables into a smaller set of new composite dimensions(Factor) with a minimum loss of information, that was, to search for and define the fundamental constructs or dimensions assumed to underline the original variables.

Suitability of Data for Factor Analysis

In order to test the suitability of data for Principal Component Analysis, the correlation matrix was computed and enough correlations were found to go ahead with factor analysis. Further Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin measure of sample Adequacy (KMO) was calculated which was found to be 0.649 which supports that the sample was good enough for factor analysis. Further Anti-image correlations calculated revealed that partial correlations were low, indicating that true factors existed in the data. Hence, the data was found fit for factor analysis.

Extraction Method and Number of Factors Extracted

Principal component Analysis was employed for extracting factors and the number of factors to be extracted were finalized on the basis of ‘Latent Root Criterion’ i.e. variables having Eigen values greater than 1. Six factors were extracted which together accounted for 68.56 percent of the variance. Finally, the Principal component Analysis with Orthogonal Rotation has been used in the present study. In Orthogonal Rotation, it was assumed that factors operate independently of each other. Varimax Rotated Factor Analysis which was the most popular method of Orthogonal Rotation has been used. The results were obtained through orthogonal rotations with Varimax and all factor loadings greater than 0.4 (ignoring signs) were retained. The results of Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation for college respondents were presented in Table IV. The results showed that 68.56 percentage of the total variance was represented by the information contained in the factor matrix. The percentage of variance explained by factors 1 to V is 22.016, 18.209, 11.716, 9.507 and 7.114 respectively. The percentage of total variance was used as an Index to determine how well a particular factor solution accounted for what all the variables together represent. The communalities had been shown at the far right side of the Table VI which showed the amount of variance in a variable that was accounted for by the six factors taken together. The size of communality was a useful index for assessing how much variance in a particular variable was accounted for by the factor solution. Large communalities indicate that large amount of variance in a variable had been extracted by the factor solution. Small communalities showed that a substantial portion of the variance in a variable was not accounted for by the factor solution.

^ NAMING OF FACTORS

A factor loading represented the co-relation between the original variable and its factors. The signs were interpreted just like any other correlation coefficients. On each factor, ‘like signs’ of factor loadings mean that the variables were positively related and ‘opposite signs’ mean that variables were negatively related. Some variables had loaded on two factors. But on the basis of higher loadings, it had been considered in that factor only.The names of the factors and the loadings were summarized in Table3

Factor I: Organizational Characteristics:-

An organizational characteristic had emerged as a significant factor accounting for 22.016 per cent of the total variance. Five out of 17 statements were loaded on this factor of which 4 are highly correlated. The high positive loading on the first factor of this variable, namely, organizational climate, results, rewards and interpersonal relations, organizational processes, clarity of roles and sharing of information and altruistic behaviour pull the college teachers to have high level of job satisfaction. All these loadings belonged to organizational environment which play a dominant role in job satisfaction of college teachers.

Factor II: Leadership Quality:-

Leadership quality of college teachers had emerged as a second major factor with percentage of variance equal to 18.209. Here again, five out of the 17 statements were loaded in this factor. All these loadings were highly co-related (Leadership behaviour, Performance Orienteer, Potential Extractor, Socially Intelligent, and Value Inculcator). Thus, quality of leadership among college teachers had a high potential for job satisfaction

Factor III: Professional Characteristics:-

Two statements had been loaded on this factor with percentage of variance equal to 11.716. Both the statements, namely, professional characteristics and age were highly co-related with the factor. Implication of this factor was that with the advancement of the professional characteristics coupled with age lead to higher level of job satisfaction of college teachers of study area.

Factor IV: Personal Characteristics:-

In this factor, three statements, namely, Intelligence Quotient, Emotional Stabilizer and Team Builder have been loaded on this factor with percentage of variance equal to 9.507. All these statements were positively co-related with factor signifying that higher intelligence quotient coupled with team building quality and emotional stabilizer promoted higher level of job satisfaction among college teachers.

Factor V: Better Living Conditions:-

A better living condition was the fifth important factor with percentage of variance equal to 7.114. Two statements have been loaded on this factor (Life Satisfaction and Socio-Economic Status) were positively co-related with the factor. This factor highlighted that higher socio-economic status and level of life satisfaction encouraged the college teachers for higher level of job satisfaction.


TABLE IV: F ACTOR ANALYSIS of COLLEGE TEACHERS

^ NO.OF TEACHERS (400)




Rotated Component Matrix

S.No.

Components

1.000

2.000

3.000

4.000

5.000

Communalities

1.

Intelligence Quotient

-0.084

-0.146

0.031

0.557

-0.077

0.345

2.

Leadership

Behaviour

0.184

0.874

-0.072

0.315

0.105

0.913

3.

Organizational Climate

0.971

0.138

-0.012

0.006

0.055

0.965

4.

Life Satisfaction

-0.043

0.236

0.238

-0.043

0.546

0.414

5.

Socio- Economic Status

0.174

-0.111

-0.003

-0.012

0.720

0.561

6.

Professional Characteristics

0.016

-0.118

0.946

-0.002

0.114

0.922

7.

Emotional Stabilizer

-0.064

0.080

-0.050

0.0643

0.472

0.649

8.

Team Builder

0.217

0.291

-0.051

0.674

-0.094

0.597

9.

Performance Orienteer

0.000

0.726

-0.094

0.319

-0.176

0.669

10.

Potential Extractor

0.272

0.692

-0.005

0.024

-0.120

0.567

11.

Socially Intelligent

0.064

0.692

-0.139

-0.318

0.213

0.649

12.

Value Inculcator

0.162

0.735

-0.037

-0.140

0.159

0.613

13.

Results, Rewards & Inter personal relations

0.924

0.121

-0.076

-0.010

0.061

0.877

14.

Organizational Process

0.908

0.169

0.023

-0.085

0.009

0.862

15.

Clarity of Roles and Sharing of Information

0.863

0.127

0.067

0.084

0.068

0.778

16.

Altruistic Behaviour

0.404

0.120

0.303

0.317

0.046

0.356

17.

Age

0.006

-0.142

0.947

-0.024

0.048

0.920




Eigen Values

4.668

2.567

1.859

1.474

1.078







% of Variance

22.016

18.209

11.716

9.507

7.114







Cumulative %

22.016

40.225

51.941

61.448

68.562




Source: Survey Method


^ SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The average level of job satisfaction of the selected college teachers was estimated at 78.19 with standard deviation of 9.4481. However, the level of job satisfaction of male college teachers was higher at 80.32 as compared to their female counterpart estimated at 77.16. Lower level of job satisfaction among female college teachers may be attributed to dual nature of job both at workplace as well as at homes. Females are generally more responsible, better qualified, and more talented and have more tendencies for challenging jobs as compared to their male counterparts. But they have long arduous journeys to do which tire them both ways. Moreover, male teachers are compensated by large tuition work and not called upon to do any domestic duties. Furthermore, the study reveals that rural college teachers are more satisfied as compared to urban college teachers. Lower level of satisfaction of urban college teachers may be attributed to higher expectations from their jobs. Though, urban college teachers may be better qualified and more talented, but have higher socio-economic status and less satisfied from their lives because of higher expectations. Furthermore, SFC teachers are more satisfied than GAC teachers because majority of SFC are in the rural area coupled with higher degree of educated unemployment. Instead of remaining unemployed they prefer to work in SFC with lower wages, insecure service, lack of co-curricular activities and promotional opportunities. They become habitual to work under such conditions. Moreover due to mushroom growth of SFCs they are easily approachable from the place of residence and have lower burden of extra co curricular activities and less stringent rules and regulations.

Organizational characteristics such as organizational climate, results, rewards and interpersonal relations, organizational processes, clarity of roles and sharing of information and altruistic behaviour has emerged as a significant factor for job satisfaction. All these loadings belong to organizational environment which play a dominant role in job satisfaction of college teachers. Leadership behaviour, Performance Orienteer, Potential Extractor, Socially Intelligent, and Value Inculcator all belonging to quality of leadership has also a high potential for job satisfaction. Personal Characteristics such as higher intelligence quotient coupled with team building quality and emotional stabilizer promotes higher level of job satisfaction among college teachers. Higher socio-economic status and level of life satisfaction too encourage the college teachers for higher level of job satisfaction. It is encouraging to note that some teachers in spite of having low professional awareness were satisfied with their jobs. Whatever may be the cause; this is an important area for further investigation. Colleges should be provided with the needed infrastructure in terms of building, teaching aids, well equipped libraries etc. Teachers academic, professional and individual problems may be looked into and necessary steps taken to solve them in collaboration with administration and community support. Efforts are needed to boost the morale, inculcate positive attitude and mental health of the teachers.

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