\"Comparative Typology of the English and Azerbaijani languages\" is a new kind of book in our Republic. In writing it, the authors have assumed that studying com icon

"Comparative Typology of the English and Azerbaijani languages" is a new kind of book in our Republic. In writing it, the authors have assumed that studying com


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ANA DİLİ VƏ XARİCİ DİLİN

MÜQAYİSƏLİ TƏHLİLİ.

TYPOLOGY


PREFACE

"Comparative Typology of the English and Azerbaijani languages" is a new kind of book in our Republic. In writing it, the authors have assumed that studying comparative typology, for the overseas student, makes most sense if one starts with the question "How can I learn this subject?"

In preparing this book, care has been taken to bring the text of the book up to date and to introduce the reader to some outstanding problems of modern linguistics. One of these concerns the relations between two non-kindred English and Azerbaijani languages, on the one hand and main levels and processes of the development of languages, linguistic differentiation and integration on the other.

Recent discussion of this problem has also immediate connection with the treatment of the notion of "comparativeness". Much attention has accordingly been given to the typological problems of different levels in the hierarchy of linguistics in the appropriate places.

This textbook is meant to be used as an advanced course by the students of bachelorship and mastership levels of universities specializing in Comparative Typology [HSM - 040009 - English]. The book has been compiled in accordance with the requirements of the programme of comparative typology of foreign and native languages approved and published by the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan Republic in 2004 (order no. 08, May 22).

The authors of the book has a long teaching experience of English Grammar and Comparative Typology at the Azerbaijan University of Languages.

The book covers the entire material required by the programme and consists of 23 chapters. Its main purpose is to introduce the student to the many linguistic problems connected with typological studies of phonological, morphological, lexical and syntactical characteristics in English and Azerbaijani and to the modem methods applied in dealing with them. The authors have endeavored, as far as was possible, to point out the essence of the comparative typological problems, and to state the arguments which have been, or may be, put forward in favour of one view or another. This should enable the reader to form a judgement of his own on the typological problems involved and on the respective merits of the various solutions proposed. The development of linguistics in the last few decades has been so quick and so manifold that a new insight has been gained into practically all the typological problems dealt with here, and into many others as well, for that matter. This of course was found to be reflected in the contents of the book and in its very structure.

A few words may not be out of place here concerning the kind of work students may be expected to do in their class hours. At the end of each chapter different kinds of questions involving the whole part were given. Some of these questions will probably lend themselves more readily than others to such discussion; among them, the following may be suggested: main and functional parts of speech in compared English and Azerbaijani languages, the category of case in nouns and pronouns, types of phrases and sentences, types of predicate, secondary parts of a sentence, asyndetic composite sentences, word order in non-kindred English and Azerbaijani languages.

Of course much will depend in each case on the teacher's own choice and on the particular interests expressed by the students.

What the student is meant to acquire as a result of his studies is an insight into the comparative typology of the English and Azerbaijani languages and an ability to form his own ideas on this or that question. This would appear to be a necessary accomplishment for a teacher of English [at whatever sort of school he may be teaching], who is apt to find differing, and occasionally contradictory, treatment of the typological phenomena he has to mention in his teaching.

In this way the authors hope that you will improve and extend the range of your theoretical skills in the languages.

At the end of the textbook a bibliography is provided not only as a guide to further reading, but also in acknowledgement of works we have consulted and used.

The textbook is intended for the theoretical course on "Comparative Typology of the English and Azerbaijani languages" forming part of the curriculum at our University of Languages and other Teachers Training Colleges in our Republic.

All the chapters including preface of the text book were written by Doctor of philology D.N. Yunusov and "Check yourself tests" at the end of each chapter enriching chapters IV, VIII, XI, XIX, ХХШ with additional materials were fulfilled by Candidate of philology, assistant professor L.M.Khanbutayeva.

Our sincere thanks are due to the reviewers doctor of philology, professor A.A.Abdullayev, candidate of philology, assistant professor A.R.Huseynov, to the editor candidate of philology, assistant professor E.LHajiyev and to the members of English Grammar Department of Azerbaijan University of Languages and especially to the head of the English Grammar Department, our teacher doctor of philology, professor O.LMusayev.

Undoubtedly there may be some errors and misprints in the text-book we wish to express our heartfelt gratitude to the readers in advance who will call attention to the possible misprints and errors. The suggestions will be carefully considered in-the next edition of the text-book.

The authors are also thankful in advance to those who are eager to give useful advice on this or that part of the text book.

Authors


^ CHAPTER I

TYPOLOGY OF FOREIGN AND NATIVE LANGUAGES

Subject and aims of typological studies. Language typology as a branch of linguistics. Typology and other branches of linguistics.

The word typology is derived from Greek word which means ("typos" - form and "logos" - study) "form study". Typology is the classification of languages by grammatical features. Grammatical systems, while not identical, often show remarkable similarities on a deeper level.

Typology is concerned with outlining the range of variation possible grammatical systems. It involves surveying which patterns exist in the world's languages, which are common or uncommon, which patterns seem to necessarily co-occur with other patterns. It also involves the classification of languages into groups based on shared characteristics.

Language typology can be defined as the study of differences and similarities in various formal features between languages. Investigating different languages, mainly English, Azerbaijani and Russian, one can easily find out similar features in most of them, though they are non-kindred languages. For instance, in English, in German and in some other Germanic languages we can meet a lot of words of common root. It is explained by the fact that these languages belong to one genetic group, namely Germanic family of languages.

At the same time it should be noted that from the structural point of view languages belonging to one and the same genetic group differ from each other in some certain cases. Genetic structural features are found in most various languages belonging to quite different language groups. For instance, attributive phrases in which the adjective precedes the noun without agreement exist in English, Turkish, Mongolian, Chinese, Japanese.

According to this structural features the above mentioned languages may form a certain group with common structure having the same kind of attributive phrases. So the branch of linguistics which investigates grouping of main, essential characteristic features and revealing genetic appropriateness is called typological linguistics.

Typological linguistics also studies the type of languages and type of language structure.

Being one of the Indo-European languages, the English language is the most important language in the world today. About 75% of all scientific papers are published in English and approximately 70% of the world's mail is written in English. It is also the language of shipping and air travel. English is the first or joint first language in 70 countries, while French is spoken in 23 countries. About 500 million people speak English as a first or joint-first language. This is 14% of the world's population.

English is also spoken as a second language by another 300 million people. There are also many millions of people who have learned English as a foreign language in schools or universities. It is estimated that 25% of China's one billion two hundred million population are studying English at present. The nearest estimate of the number of people in the world today who can speak English is two billion out of a total population of seven billion Furthermore we'll deal with typological studies of English, Azerbaijani and Russian languages. So comparative typology is the branch of linguistics which investigates grouping of main, essential characteristic features and revealing genetic appropriateness. It also studies the type of languages and type of language structure.

According to its object and aim typology can be divided into general and special.

General typology studies language types, their general problems showing similar and different features of separate languages. In other words general typology investigates general properties, changes, processes in languages belonging to different language groups or families (ex: the phonological system of languages, the general features in the structure of phrase and sentences, the types of morphological structure, etc.). E.g. the way of expressing the category of definiteness and indefiniteness in English, Russian and Azerbaijani; die vowel system in English and Azerbaijani; word order in English and Azerbaijani etc.

Special typology investigates the problems which are more limited and restricted. Here belong the investigation of one language or separate languages. Special typology is of great importance from practical point of view. This type of investigation can also be called comparative typology of foreign and native languages. Special typology investigates problems which are more limited or restricted. Here separate language phenomenon may be investigated. E.g. the system of personal pronouns in English and Azerbaijani; the adjective forming suffixes in English and Azerbaijani.

As it is mentioned by most scholars special typology is of great importance from practical point of view. This kind of typological investigation may be called comparative typology of foreign and native languages. So the aim of comparative typology is to teach students to determine main typological features of English and Azerbaijani languages, to show the methods of helping to compare the elements of the English language which are absent in the native one and at the same time to find out the means of expressing these meanings in the native language.

Typology as general and special investigates the typological characteristics not only native languages, but also the languages belonging to different systems.

Typological investigations may depend on the following factors:

  1. the number of languages which are investigated;

  2. the scope of work;

  3. the aim of investigation;

  4. the character of the revealed divergence;

  5. the level of analysis;

  6. the direction of investigation.

Linguistics, as an independent science, has some branches.

Such as phonetics, lexicology, stylistics and so on. Typology is also a branch of linguistics. Each of these branches has its own method of investigation.

But what is the aim of applied linguistics? It is a new branch of linguistics said of- mathematics or science dealing with theory and abstractions rather than practical applicants. It has different branches: such as graphic arts, orthography, orthoepy, lexicography and linguistic translation.

Comparative typology as a branch of general linguistics is based on theoretical language course. It is closely connected with other branches of linguistics. Such as: the history of language, general linguistics, practical grammar, theoretical grammar, the structure of the native language etc.

Language typology has several types:

  1. special;

  2. universal;

  3. general;

  4. qualitative and quantitative; N

  5. structural and functional;

  6. semasiological and onomasiological.

Special typology studies concrete languages. Here can be investigated more than two languages and these languages may be cognate or non-cognate. Our course will deal mostly with special typology comparing English and Azerbaijani belonging to different language families.

^ Universal typology analyses the languages of the world in order to find out languages universals common to all languages.

General typology investigates language types, the general features of languages structure usually in relation to a definite aspect: sound structure, morphological structure, syntactical structure of sentences. Special comparative typology studies separate aspects and elements of language structure.

Depending on the aim of investigation we may distinguish classifying and characterizing typology.

Classifying typology finds out typological classification of languages, revealing their typological groups and correlation. But the aim of the characterizing typology is to find out . specific features of the given language, its peculiarities among other languages. Our course will lay a special stress on characterizing typology which makes it known that one and the same lingual phenomena are represented unequally in different languages.

While comparing the given languages two types of divergences, may be found: qualitative divergence, quantitative divergence.

In qualitative divergence some linguistic phenomena don't exist in one of the compared languages (ex: article, gerund, adlink, sequence of tenses, etc. don't exist in Azerbaijani).

In quantitative divergence this or that phenomena may exist in both languages. But the use of their frequency isn't the same in number. E.g. the category of cases - there are two cases of English nouns, but six cases in Azerbaijani nouns. The present tense has four forms in English, but only one in Azerbaijani.

According to the object of investigation we may distinguish the following branches of language typology:

  1. genetic typology;

  2. structural typology;

  3. areal typology;

  4. comparative typology.

Genetic typology compares system of genetic kindred languages in diachrony and synchrony. This type of typology in general linguistics is called "the historical comparative method in linguistics".

Structural typology considers systems of different languages without any genetic area limitation. It tries to determine type features of languages. It may use the results of other branches of language type. The final aim of structural typology is finding out universal properties of language.

Areal typology compares languages irrespective of their relationship in order to determine common elements formed as a result of mutual influence of languages.

The object of such investigation is borrowed elements in languages; language contact, language union and bilingualism.

Contrastive-comparative typology as a rule compares two languages irrespective of their relationship with the purpose of finding out similarities between them.

Typologic linguistics considers the widest problems. It studies specific features of languages on the background of those common properties which are characteristic to human languages in general.

Comparative typology unites two directions in language study: contrastive-comparative typology. Comparative typology as a branch of general linguistics is based on theoretical language courses. It is closely connected with:

  1. the history of language;

  2. general linguistics;

  3. practical linguistics;

  4. practical and theoretical grammar;

  5. the structure of the native language.

As we know, the history of language reflects historical development of language. It gives correct explanations to the present day language.

General linguistics deals with general problems of a language. Theoretical grammar deals with different theories put forward by various scholars. These theories in some cases may coincide, in other cases they may greatly differ from one another Practical grammar deals with general grammatical rules of a language and has the purpose of teaching grammar. This type of grammar is taught to those who are to learn a language practically etc.

It was mentioned in general linguistics that we can compare die languages of quite different, not depending upon their kinship and historical relations between them. We always find out the same features, the same changes, the same historical processes opposite to one another historically and geographically.

As is seen above mentioned, typological investigations expand the borderline of linguistic investigations. It attracts non- kindred, structural languages and solves a lot of language problems. Typological investigations can be carried out in the sphere of separate systems and subsystems of tire languages. For example in the sphere of phonological, morphological, lexical systems.

Depending on the level of analyses we may differ structural and functional typology.

Structural typology studies types of language expressions.

^ Functional typology studies tow to use these types in speech.

Depending on the direction of investigation we can differ between semasiological and onomasiological typology.

Semasiological typology studies the compared facts of language from meaning to function. English and Azerbaijani words have different functions. Onomasiological typology studies language facts from meaning to form. Here we may compare different language levels which may express one and the same meaning. E.g. the ways of expressing modality in English and Azerbaijani.


^ CHAPTER II


THE HISTORY OF TYPOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Short summary of the History of typological investigation. Methods of typological analysis.

As is known the history of language reflects historical development of language and gives correct explanations to the present-day language.

Scholars still long ago observed the fact , that some of the languages are similar to one another in their forms, while other dissimilar. They expressed the idea that the languages revealing formal features of similarity have a common origin. Attempts to establish groups of kindred languages were repeatedly made from XVI century on. But a consistently scientific proof and study of the actual relationship between languages became possible only when the Historical Comparative method of language study was created and it was in the first quarter of the XIX century. This method developed in connection with the comparative observation of languages belonging to the Indo-European family and its appearance was stimulated by the discovery of Sanskrit.

No scholar in the world knows the exact number of the languages. The book "Linguistics and guide of language intercourse" which was published in Germany not long ago shows that there are 5651 languages in the world. But some other sources note that there are 3000 languages in the world. It should be noted that 1400 languages out of them didn't gain their independence. Paying a great attention to the quantity of different languages in the world we'd like to drop some words about the history of typological investigations in compared languages. The scientists think about the types of languages over 150 years.

Friedrich Shlegel (March 10, 1772 - January 12, 1829) the well-known german linguist, poet, critic and scholar was the first who gave the classification of the languages typology. He devided the languages into two groups:

  1. Languages with affixes - here belong - Chinese, Bantu (such as: Teke, Sonqo, Indigi, Suaxeli, Konde, Makua, Satko etc.) and Turkish languages.

  2. Elective languages (here belong Sami languages (Arabic, Liviya, Irag, Livan, Tunis, etc.), Georgian, French languages.

Of course the classification of the languages like that concede approximately distinctive features.

His brother August Shlegel overworking this classification distinguished three language classes:

  1. the languages without grammatical structure;

  2. languages with affixes;

  3. flective languages.

V.Humboldt, the well-known german linguist is considered to be the founder of the linguistic typology. He knew a lot of languages. To know a lot of languages gave him a great opportunity to compare the structure of the languages and to show their typological classification. He divided all the languages he knew into 4 groups:

  1. Isolating - no morphology; one-to-one correspondence between words and morphemes (E.g. Chinese)

  2. Agglutinating - a word may consist of more than one morpheme and the boundaries between morphemes are always clear-cut (Turkish languages). Examples of agglutinative languages are the Altaic languages (mainly Turkish), many Tibeto-Burman languages, Basque, the Dravidian languages, many Uralic languages (such as: Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian), the Northeast, Northwest and South Caucasian languages, some North American languages.

  3. Flective languages - he included here Indo-European languages.

  4. Incorparating languages - put lexical and grammatical morphemes together to form a word. Here he included the language of American Indians.

There were some scientists who assumed the phonological (Frans Bopp-german linguist), morphological (F.Shlegel, V.Humboldt) and syntactical (C.Shteynal) criteria as a basis in comparing languages.

Nowadays a great interest is increased in the field of typology. In typology exist mainly the following trends:

  1. Some typologists are interested in the sturcture of the languages (I.I.Meschaninov, G.P.Melnikov, V.Skalichka, A.Martine, etc.).

  2. Some typologists consider that the typology of the languages are unadvesible (V.Z.Panfilov, B.Skalichka).

  3. The majority of the linguists consider language universals revealing in typology (S.Ulmann, B.A.Uspensky, R.O.Jacobson and others).

  4. In the works of some linguists the quantitative criteria is applied (J.Kubryacova, T.Milevsky, V.Skalichka and others).

Generally all the languages are divided into four different groups:

  1. root or isolating languages;

  2. agglutinative languages;

  3. flective languages;

  4. incorporating languages.

Languages that tend not to combine morphemes at all except to form compounds are called




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