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General problems of stylistics
General Notes on Styles and Stylistics
The origin of the term Style and Stylistics: Lat - stylus - a stick made of material for writing. Stylistics comes from French “Stylistique” -instrument for writing.
The subject of stylistics has so far not been definitely outlined. This is due to a number of reasons. First of all there is confusion between the terms style and stylistics. The first concept is so broad that it is hardly possible to regard it as a term. We speak of style in architecture, literature, behavior, linguistics, dress and other fields of human activity.
Even in linguistics the word style is used so widely that it needs interpretation. The majority of linguists who deal with the subject of style agree that the term applies to the following fields of investigation:
1) The aesthetic function of language;
2) Expressive means in language;
3) Synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
4) Emotional colouring of language;
5) A system of special devices called stylistic devices;
6) The splitting of the literary language into separate subsystems called stylistic devices;
7) The interrelation between language and thought;
8) The individual manner of an author in making use of language.
1. There is a widely held view that style is the correspondence between thought and expression. The notion is based on the assumption that of the two functions of language: language is said to have two functions: it serves as a means of communication and also as a means of shaping one's thoughts. The first function is called communicative, the second - expressive, the latter finds its proper materialization in strings of sentences especially arranged to convey the ideas and also to get the desired response.
Indeed, every sentence uttered may be characterized from two sides: whether or not the string of language forms expressed is something well-known and therefore easily understood and to some extent predictable; whether or not the string of language forms is built anew; is, as it were, an innovation made on the part of the listener to get at the meaning of the utterance and is therefore unpredictable.
Many great minds have made valuable observations on the interrelation between thought and expression. The main trend in most of these observations may be summarized as follows: the linguistic form of the idea expressed always reflects the peculiarities of the thought. And vice versa, the character of the thought will always in a greater or lesser degree manifests itself in the language forms chosen for the expression of the idea.
2. Another commonly accepted connotation of the term style is embellishment of language. This concept is popular and is upheld in some of the scientific papers on literary criticism. Language and style are regarded as separate bodies, language can easily dispense with style, which is likened to the trimming on a dress. Moreover, style as an embellishment of language is viewed as something that hinders understanding. In its extreme, style may dress the thought in such fancy attire that one can hardly get at the idea hidden behind the elaborate design of tricky stylistic devices.
This notion presupposes the use of bare language forms deprived of any stylistic devices of any expressive means deliberately employed. Perhaps it is due to this notion that the word “style” itself still bears a somewhat derogatory meaning. It is associated with the idea of something pompous, showy artificial, something that is set against simplicity, truthfulness, the natural. Shakespeare was a determined enemy of all kinds of embellishments of language.
3. A very popular notion among practical linguists, teachers of language, is that style is technique of expression. In this sense style is generally defined as the ability to write clearly, correctly and in a manner calculated to the interest of the reader. Style in this utilitarian sense should be taught, but it belongs to the realm of grammar, and not to stylistics. It sets up a number of rules as to how to speak and write and discards all kinds of deviations as being violations of the norm. The norm itself becomes rigid, self-sustained and to a very great extent inflexible.
4. The term style also signifies a literary genre. Thus we speak of classical style or the style of classicism; realistic style; the style of romanticism and so on. On the other hand, the term is widely used in literature, being applied to the various kinds of literary work, the fable, novel, ballad, story etc. Thus we speak of a story being written in the style of a fable or we speak of the characteristic features of the epistolary style or the essay and so on.
5. Finally there is one more important application of the term style. We speak of the different styles of language. Thus we may distinguish the following styles within the English literary language: 1) the belles- lettres style; 2) the publicist style; 3) the newspaper style; 4) the scientific prose style; 5) the style of official documents and presumably some others. The classification presented here is not arbitrary; the work is still in the observational stage. The classification is not proof against criticism, though no one will deny that the five groups of styles exist in the English literary language.
I.R.Galperin: Stylisitics is a branch of general linguistics, which deals with the following two interdependent tasks:
a) Studies the totality of special linguistic means (stylistic devices and expressive means) which secure the desirable effect of the utterance;
b) Studies certain types of text “discourse” which due to the choice and arrangement of the language are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of communication (functional styles).
Depending on the school of thought there are:
2) Literary stylistics (encoding stylistics);
3) Decoding stylistics (of the reader);
1) Linguo - stylistics is the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. The linguistics is concerned with the language codes themselves and particular messages of interest and so far as to exemplify how the codes are constructed.
2) Literary stylistics: is to explicate the message, to interpret and evaluate literary writings as the works of art.
3) Decoding stylistics can be presented in the following way:
Sender - message - receiver; speaker - book - reader.
The subject of stylistics can be outlined as the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices, on the one hand, and, on the other, the study of each style of language as classified above, i.e. its aim, its structure, its characteristic features and the effect it produces, as well as its interrelation with other styles of language.
In linguistics there are different terms to denote those particular means by which a writer obtains his effect. Expressive means, stylistic means, stylistic devices and other terms are all used indiscriminately. For our purposes it is necessary to make a distinction between expressive means and stylistic devices. All stylistic means of a language can be divided into expressive means, which are used in some specific way, and special devices called stylistic devices. The expressive means of a language are those phonetic means, morphological forms, means of word-building, and lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms, all of which function in the language for emotional or logical intensification of the utterance. These intensifying forms of the language have been fixed in grammars and dictionaries. Some of them are normalized, and good dictionaries label them as intensifiers. In most cases they have corresponding neutral synonymous forms. Expressive means (EM) of the language are the choice of words, clauses, sentences, a combination of sounds, which signal additional information (emotive, expressive, evaluative, and stylistic). (I.V.A)
Expressive means (EM) (выразительные средства) are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance. (I.R.G)
Stylistic device (SD) (стилистический приём) is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalised status and thus becoming a generative model (I.R.G.) – намеренное и сознательное усиление какой-либо типической структурной и/или семантической черты языковой единицы (нейтральной или экспрессивной), достигшее обобщения и типизации и ставшее таким образом порождающей моделью. Foregrounding (выдвижение) - the ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite context (Prague school of linguistics). (I.V.A.) Выдвижение – способ формальной организации текста, фокусирующий внимание читателя на определённых элементах сообщения и устанавливающий семантически релевантные отношения между элементами одного или чаще разных уровней (I.V.A.).
The most powerful expressive means of any language are phonetic. Pitch, melody, stress, pausation, drawling out certain syllables, whispering, a sing-song manner of speech and other ways of using the voice are more effective than any other means in intensifying the utterance emotionally or logically. Among the morphological expressive means the use of the Present indefinite instead of the Past Indefinite must be mentioned first. This has already been acknowledged as a special means and is named the Historical Present. In describing some past events the author uses the present tense, thus achieving a more vivid presentation of what was going on.
The use of “shall” in the second and third person may also be regarded as an expressive means. Compare the following synonymous forms and you will not fail to observe the intensifying element in the sentence with “shall”.
He has to do it = (It is necessary for him to do it)
Among word - building means we find a great many forms which serve to make the utterance more expressive and fresh or to intensify it. The diminutive suffixes as - у (- ie), - let, e.g. dear, dearie, stream, streamlet, add some emotional colouring to the words.
Certain affixes have gained such a power of expressiveness that they begin functioning as separate words, absorbing the generalizing meaning they usually attach to different roots, as for example: -ism and - ologies.
At the lexical level there are a great many words which due to their inner expressiveness, constitute a special layer. There are words with emotive meaning only, like interjections, words which have both referential and emotive meaning, like some of the qualitative adjectives, words belonging to special groups of Literary English (poetic, archaic) or of non - standard English ( slang, vulgar, etc.) and some other groups.
The same can be said of the set expressions of the language. Proverbs and sayings as well as catch - words for a considerable number of language units serve to make speech more emphatic, mainly from the emotional point of view. Their use in everyday speech can hardly be overestimated. Some of these proverbs and sayings are so well - known that their use in the process of communication passes almost unobserved.
The expressive means of the language are studied respectively in manuals of phonetics, grammar, lexicology and stylistics. Stylistics, however, observes not only the nature of an expressive means, but also its potential capacity of becoming a stylistic device.
What then is a stylistic device? It is a conscious and intentional literary use of some of the facts of the language including EM in which the most essential features both structural and semantic forms of the language are raised to a generalized level and thereby present a generative model. Most stylistic devices may be regarded as aiming at the further intensification in the corresponding EM.
This conscious transformation of a language fact into a stylistic device has been observed by certain linguists whose interests in scientific research have gone beyond the boundaries of grammar.
The birth of a SD is not accidental. Language means which are used with more or less definite aims of communication and in one and the same function in various passages of writing begin gradually to develop new features, a wider range of functions and become a relative means of the language. It would perhaps be more correct to say that unlike expressive means stylistic devices are patterns of the language whereas the expressive means do not form patterns. They are just like words themselves, they are facts of the language, and as such are, or should be, registered in dictionaries.
The interrelation between expressive means and stylistic devices can be worded in terms of the theory of information. Expressive means have a greater degree of predictability than stylistic devices. The latter may appear in an environment which may seem alien and therefore be only slightly or not at all predictable. Expressive means are commonly used in language, and are therefore easily predictable. Stylistic devices carry a greater amount of information because if they are at all predictable they are less predictable than expressive means. It follows that stylistic devices must be regarded as a special code which has still to be deciphered.
Not every stylistic use of a language fact will come under the term SD. There are practically unlimited possibilities of presenting any language fact in what is vaguely called its stylistic use. Summing it all up the following definitions of style and stylistics can be suggested.
A style of Language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. It is the peculiar choice of language means primarily dependent on the aim of communication. “Style is the dress of thought”. (Chesterfield) Style is “The mystery of having been moved by words”. (D. Thomas) Stylus virum arguit: “The style proclaims the man”. (H.G.Widdowson) “Language expresses and style stresses”. (M.Riffattere)
Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which studies the principles of choice and the effect of choice of different language elements in rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of communication. (I.R.Galperin)
Stylistics is the study of literary discourse from a linguistics orientation and … it is essentially a means of linking linguistics and literary criticism having no autonomous domain of its own. (H.G.Widdowson)
Stylistics is a system of co-coordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfill a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. (I.R.G.)
Стилистика - наука о подсистемах литературного языка (стилях языка) и о средствах языкового выражения, применением которых обусловлен требуемый эффект (цель) высказывания. (I.R.G)
- отрасль лингвистики, исследующая принципы и эффект выбора и использования лексических, грамматических, фонетических и вообще языковых средств для передачи мысли и эмоции в разных условиях общения. (I.V.A.)
- это раздел языкознания, изучающий систему стилей языка, языковых норм, способы употребления литературного языка в различных условиях языкового общения, в разных видах и жанрах письменности, в различных сферах общественной жизни. (V.A.K.)
Stylistics - is primarily the study of synonymic language resources. (Charles Bally)
1) A unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic devices peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer’s works or even utterances easily recognizable. (I.R.G.)
2) It deals with problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their organization into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser. (V.A.K)
WHAT? WHY? HOW? are the basic questions of stylistics.
The philological circle (the circle of understanding) – L Spitzer
Stylistics is applied to:
Different Branches of Stylistics:
^ ::ENCODING STYLISTICS
STYLISTICS OF LANGUAGE::STYLISTICS OF SPEECH
FUNCTIONAL STYLISTICS::PRACTICAL STYLISTICS
Practical stylistics (практическая стилистика) is the stylistics, proceeding form the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers, journalists, teachers, etc.). (V.A.K)
In literary language the NORM is the invariant of the phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic patterns in circulation during a given period in the development of the given language. The theory of NORM is based on the theory of OPPOSITION. STYLISTICALLY NEUTRAL words are opposed to STYLICTICALLY CHARGED (COLOURED) words.
Stylistic norm (стилистическая норма) is the invariant of the phonemic, morphological, lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in language-in-action at a given period of time (I.R.G.)
Stylistic function is characterized by accumulation of the mood (tonality) expressed by different EM, constituting convergence on the whole, it is based on implication and irradiation.
General problems of stylistics
Questions and tasks
Study the definitions of style and stylistics, single out the most essential and distinctive characteristics given. Present your own commentary and interpretation.
Comment on the definitions of stylistics. Suggest some other definitions and comment on their essential and distinctive features.
Comment on the following examples and trace the stylistic elements in the semantic structure of polysemantic words.