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Components of a technical report


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AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD INSTITUTE / NATIONAL

INFORMATION STANDARDS ORGANIZATION

(ANSI/NISO)

STANDARD Z39.18-2005

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REPORTS-PREPARATION,

PRESENTATION AND PRESERVATION

FORMAT GUIDELINES

JUNE 2010

The United States Air Force uses ANSI NISO Z39.18 as a guide for all technical reports. AFRL uses this subset of the ANSI standard to highlight important guidance addressed in the ANSI standard as outlined below. Full component descriptions are available in the ANSI NISO Z39.18.


COMPONENTS OF A TECHNICAL REPORT



POC

Inclusion Status

^ Front Matter – numbered sequentially with Roman numerals beginning with Table of Contents

Cover or Title

Government WUM (Contractor has a placeholder version)

Required

Notice and Signature Page

Government WUM

Required

Notice to Accompany the Dissemination of Export-Controlled Technical Data

Government WUM

Required, if applicable

SF298, Report Documentation Page (Contains Abstract)

Report Author

Required

^ Table of Contents

Report Author

Required

List(s) of Figures and Tables

Report Author

Conditional (include when there are more than 5 figures and/or tables)

Foreword

Report Author

Optional

Preface

Report Author

Optional

Acknowledgements

Report Author

Optional




Body – numbered sequentially beginning with the Arabic numeral 1

Summary

Report Author

Required

Introduction

Report Author

Required

Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures

Report Author

Required

Results and Discussion

Report Author

Required

Conclusions

Report Author

Required

Recommendations

Report Author

Conditional (include when purpose of report is to suggest a course of action

References

Report Author

Conditional (use if references are provided)




^ Back Matter – numbering continues sequentially from body of report

Appendices

Report Author

Conditional (Include when needed to supplement Results and Discussion)

Bibliography

Report Author

Conditional

List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms

Report Author

Conditional (include if used in any other component of the report)

Glossary of Terminology

Report Author

Conditional (Include if report incorporates terms unfamiliar to the intended audience)

Index

Report Author

Optional

Distribution List

Report Author/Government WUM

Conditional (Some technology directorates control access)

Back Cover

Report Author

Required for classified reports only

^ FORMAT REQUIREMENTS:

1.0 TYPE (FONT) AND HEADS (CHAPTER TITLES)

The preferred type (font) is 12-point Times New Roman or Arial. The following is an example (format and spacing) of heads:



1.0 FIRST-ORDER HEAD IS ALL CAPS, FLUSH LEFT AND BOLDED


^ 1. 1 Second-Order Head is Bolded, Same Font Size as Text, Caps and Lower Case, Flush with Left Margin


Insert one blank line between head and text then begin copy.


1.1.1 Third-Order Head is Flush Left, Boldface, Caps and Lower Case Letters, Followed by a Period. Then continue the copy.







2.0 SPACING


Final reports should be single spaced. It isn’t necessary to double-space between paragraphs if the first line of each paragraph is indented.


3.0 MARGINS


Leave one-inch left, right, and top margins. Page number should be centered and located one-half inch (1/2”) from bottom of page. This is accomplished in page setup, Margins - bottom - 1”, Layout – Footer .7”. Leave enough room at the bottom of each page to include applicable

restrictive statements.


4.0 NUMBERING


Page numbers are centered at bottom of page. Figure numbers are centered below Figure, with caption centered either on the line below Figure number or on the same line as Figure number. Table numbers are centered above Table on the same line as Table caption, and Equations are numbered on right margin across from Equation.


Number Pages, Figures, Tables, and Equations sequentially, not by section.


^ 5.0 PRESENTATION STYLES


5.1 All figures, tables, equations, and line drawings shall be crisp and easy to read. Figure letters and numbers (callouts) should be in at least an 8-point type (handwriting on figures is not acceptable). Figures and tables in the table of contents are numbered, worded, spelled and punctuated exactly as they are in the report.

^ 5.2 Style for Equations:

E = MC2 (1)

det = Le x det x n(D,î) • D2dD (2)


5.3 Style for Figure Captions

Callouts (labels) should be in Upper and Lower case type, not all caps, bolded, no periods.




Sample Representation Only

(border not required)




Figure 1. Figure Caption May be on Same Line as Figure Number


5.3.1 The figure caption describes the content without giving background information, results, or comments about the figure. Reference to Figures and Tables must appear in text before actual Figure or Table appears in report. Where possible, integrate Figures and Tables into text and place Figure/Table as soon after the first mention of it as possible, before beginning a new subject. There should be two blank lines between Figures or Tables and text.


^ 5.4 Style for Table Captions (authors should use the style listed in para 5.3 above)


Table 1. Title Line and Number All in One Line, Centered or Flush Left, Bolded, (No Periods)




Sample Representation Only

(border not required)





^ 6.0 FRONT MATTER


The Cover Page is followed by the appropriate Notice Page(s), after which is the SF298. Then there should be the three sections (with page numbers listed in lower-case Roman numerals, beginning with Roman numeral i), Table of Contents, followed by List of Figures, and List of Tables.


^ 6.1 Instructions for Standard Form 298


Contractor/Author shall complete Blocks 1– 5b, 6-8, 12-15 of the SF 298 and submit per CDRL requirements.


6.2 Table of Contents


Start pagination of Table of Contents with lower-case Roman numeral i. Start listing contents that are in front matter, e.g. List of Figures, List of Tables, Foreword, Preface, then body of text, then back matter. Appendices should be numbered sequentially from the last page of the report. If there’s only one Appendix, just call it an Appendix. Example (border not required):


^ TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Page

List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………… iv

List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………………… v

1.0 SUMMARY 1

2.0 INTRODUCTION 3

^ 3.0 METHODS, ASSUMPTIONS, AND PROCEDURES 4

3.1 High Symmetry Hypervalent Structures (OF6) 7

3.2 Azide-like Structures 9

3.2.1 N(N3)3, HN(N3)2, N(N3)2- and N(N3)4+ 12

^ 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 15

5.0 CONCLUSIONS 35

6.0 REFERENCES 37

APPENDIX A - Publications and Presentations 40

APPENDIX B - Abstracts 51

LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS 59

i


6.3 List of Figures


Continue pagination with lower-case Roman numerals. List all Figures found in text (not Figs. in Appendix, if any, those will be listed separately in front of the Appendix). Example (border not required):


^ LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page


1 Overall View of Propulsion Vehicle……………………………………………………. 3

2 Motor Configuration……………………………………………………………………. 6

3 Apparatus Used to Make Nozzle Tubes………………………………………………... 7


6.4 List of Tables


Continue pagination with lower-case Roman numerals. List all Tables found in text (not Tables in Appendix, if any, those will be listed separately in front of the Appendix). Example (border not required):


^ LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 Some of the Upper-Stage Propulsion Options………………………………………… 19

2 Results of Test Firing #1………………………………………………………………. 25

3 Results of Test Firing #2……………………………………………………………… 26


7.0 BODY


Next, start body of text with Summary and begin pagination with Page 1 (Arabic numerals). This may be accomplished by inserting a Section Break and start the pagination with 1. Follow with Introduction, Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, then References, to be followed by the appropriate Back Matter.


7.1 References


References should be listed numerically, in the order they appear in the text. The Reference page should be at the end of the report (not at the end of each section).


For works that are generally referred to throughout the report, without citing specific references from the work, create a Bibliography (in alphabetical order). Personal communications, unpublished speeches, or any other information not available for reference by the reader should not be included in the References – footnote your citation instead. References must be available to readers of the report.


References are prepared according to the accepted practice of the discipline of the primary author/creator of the report. The examples below are a suggested format.


^ 7.1.1 Papers / Journal Articles / Conference Presentations or Proceedings


Author’s last name, then first

Titles of papers are in quotation marks

Journal names or Conference names are in italics

Volume is bolded

Date follows comma (not within parenthesis)

Page numbers (pp.) are last.


Examples:

Author(s), “Title of Article,” Journal Name (italics)., 19, 628, Jun 1993 pp. ­­­_-_.

Chidambaram, N., Dash, S., and Kenzakowski, D., “Scalar Variance Transport in the Turbulence Modeling of Propulsive Jets,” ^ Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 79-84, 2001.


Author(s), “Title of Article,” Paper No. (if AIAA or CPIA paper, etc.), Name of Conference, Location, Date.

Chai, A.H., Cao, Z.T., Chen, H. P., "Monte Carlo Method Study of Terahertz Pulse Propagation in Biological Tissue," Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE, EMBS 27th Annual Conference, Shanghai China, (2005).


7.1.2 URLs The URL or other path information appears instead of the volume and number cited for a conventional journal. It is frequently useful to the reader to know the date when the material was accessed. In such cases, “Accessed [date]” would be appropriate wording.


Virillio, Paul, "Speed and Information: Cyberspace Alarm!" CTHEORY, URL: http://www.freedonia.com/ctheory/, last modified September 19, 1995. Accessed November 17, 1999.


^ 7.1.3 Technical Reports

Author’s last name, then first

Titles of reports are in italics

Next is report number

Name and address of performing agency/organization

Date is last.


Example:

Author(s), Title, AFRL-PR-ED-TR-20XX-XXXX, Company, Inc., City, ST, Jan 2006.

Gaitonde, Datta, Advances in High-Fidelity Multiphysics Simulation, AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2008-3019, Wright-Patterson AFB: AFRL Air Vehicles Directorate, 2008.


Gaitonde, Datta, Advances in High-Fidelity Multiphysics Simulation, AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2008-3019; ADB123456, Wright-Patterson AFB: AFRL Air Vehicles Directorate, 2008.


7.1.4 Books

Author’s last name, then first

Title of book can be Bolded or Underlined

Publisher’s name and address

Date of publication

Page numbers last


Example:

Author(s), Book Title, Harper & Rowe, New York, NY, 1993, pp. 36-38, 77, 98-101.

Wylie, C.R., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 7th ed, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.



  1. ^ BACK MATTER


Pagination continues from the body. Include conditional and optional back matter in the order listed in the components table on page 2: Appendices, Bibliography, List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms, Glossary, Index, Distribution List, and Back Cover.


8.1 Appendices


If there is only one appendix, titled Appendix, all tables and figures in that appendix are prefixed with A-, the “A” representing the word, Appendix.


Each appendix should be referred to in the body text. Any references cited in an appendix must be listed as the last page of the appendix. Appendix page numbering is a sequential continuation of the Arabic text page numbering.


Number figures, tables, equations, and references in an appendix with the letter of the appendix, followed by a hyphen and a sequential number, starting at 1, e.g., Figure A-1. An Appendix Figure; Table A-1. An Appendix Table; and for reference citations, [A-1].


^ 8.2 Symbols, Abbreviations and Acronyms

When first introduced in the report (title or text), completely write out abbreviations and acronyms, followed by the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses, and subsequently use only the acronym/abbreviation in the body text ; i.e. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR).


Create an acronym list that lists and defines all acronyms and symbols that appear in your report. List all terms alphabetically, beginning with those starting with capital letters, followed by lower case (e.g., H2, HEDM, hcp). Follow alphabetical entries with Greek or special symbols. Capitalize definitions only if they are proper names (e.g. Department of Defense).


Example (border not required):


^ LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


CAT computerized axial tomography

COMSAT Communication Satellites

DMP-128 a Polaroid™ photopolymer

DoD Department of Defense

dcg dichromated gelatin

H2 hydrogen

HEDM High Energy Density Matter

 angle of attack


The words “Figure,” “Reference,” and “Equation” should be written out in text, but abbreviated when used within parentheses. Months are abbreviated to three letters without punctuation (e.g., Jun, Jul, Aug). Units of measurement are abbreviated (e.g., 12 cm, 50 l, 20 lb, 1 atm, 30 sec, 200 psig) without punctuation – except for “in.” (inches), which may be followed by a period to distinguish it from the preposition – and are generally singular.


For a complete list of abbreviations, see Chapter 9 of the GPO Style Manual http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/browse.html.

9.0 Instructions for Submittal

Follow your Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) for submission instructions. If your CDRL requires delivery of the final technical report on CD-ROM, ensure it is marked as follows:

CD-ROMs shall have the following items legibly printed on top of the disk:

1. Contract Number and Program Name.

2. CDRL numbers referenced and Title of Data Items.

3. Date.

4. Company Logo/ Nomenclature.

5. Distribution Statement, export control warning notice (when applicable).





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