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Chapter 12


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90a. ^ Psychological Defense Mechanisms

90b Unconscious defenses are illustrated in this two-part transparency.


92. Criteria for Abnormality

Four criteria for abnormality are identified and defined.


93. Orientation of Psychologists

This pie chart presents the results of a survey of 422 practicing clinical and counseling psychologists who were asked to state their theoretical orientation.


94. Where People Turn for Help

This transparency lists the sources of support in people’s lives.


95. Duration of Therapy and Improvement

The strength of the relationship between reported improvement and duration of therapy, as found in the Consumer Reports study.


96. Major Perspectives on Therapy

Insight, behavior, cognitive, group, and biological therapies are represented.

^ Handout 12-1a


Mental Health Questionnaire


Instructions: Think of a normal adult male. Check each item below that describes a "mature, healthy, socially competent adult male.”


_____ not at all aggressive _____ easily influenced


_____ conceited about appearance _____ very objective

_____ very ambitious _____ very self-confident


_____ almost always acts as a leader _____ has difficulty making decisions


_____ very independent _____ dependent


_____ does not hide emotions at all _____ likes math and science very much


_____ sneaky _____ very direct


_____ very active _____ very passive


_____ very logical _____ knows the way of the world


_____ not at all competitive _____ excitable in a minor crisis


_____ feelings easily hurt _____ very adventurous


_____ not at all emotional _____ very submissive


_____ very strong need for security _____ not uncomfortable with being aggressive


Adapted from Anonymous, 1981, "Sex role stereotypes and mental health," in L. T. Benjamin, Jr. & K. D. Lowman (Eds.), ^ Activities handbook for the teaching of psychology (pp. 141-142). Copyright 1981 by the American Psychological Association.

Handout 12-1b


Mental Health Questionnaire


Instructions: Think of a normal adult female. Check each item below that describes a "mature, healthy, socially competent adult female.”


_____ not at all aggressive _____ easily influenced


_____ conceited about appearance _____ very objective

_____ very ambitious _____ very self-confident


_____ almost always acts as a leader _____ has difficulty making decisions


_____ very independent _____ dependent


_____ does not hide emotions at all _____ likes math and science very much


_____ sneaky _____ very direct


_____ very active _____ very passive


_____ very logical _____ knows the way of the world


_____ not at all competitive _____ excitable in a minor crisis


_____ feelings easily hurt _____ very adventurous


_____ not at all emotional _____ very submissive


_____ very strong need for security _____ not uncomfortable with being aggressive


Adapted from Anonymous, 1981, "Sex role stereotypes and mental health," in L. T. Benjamin, Jr. & K. D. Lowman (Eds.), ^ Activities handbook for the teaching of psychology (pp. 141-142). Copyright 1981 by the American Psychological Association.

Handout 12-1c


Mental Health Questionnaire


Instructions: Think of a normal average adult. Check each item below that describes a "mature, healthy, socially competent adult.”


_____ not at all aggressive _____ easily influenced


_____ conceited about appearance _____ very objective

_____ very ambitious _____ very self-confident


_____ almost always acts as a leader _____ has difficulty making decisions


_____ very independent _____ dependent


_____ does not hide emotions at all _____ likes math and science very much


_____ sneaky _____ very direct


_____ very active _____ very passive


_____ very logical _____ knows the way of the world


_____ not at all competitive _____ excitable in a minor crisis


_____ feelings easily hurt _____ very adventurous


_____ not at all emotional _____ very submissive


_____ very strong need for security _____ not uncomfortable with being aggressive


Adapted from Anonymous, 1981, "Sex role stereotypes and mental health," in L. T. Benjamin, Jr. & K. D. Lowman (Eds.), ^ Activities handbook for the teaching of psychology (pp. 141-142). Copyright 1981 by the American Psychological Association.

Handout 12-2


Obsessive-Compulsive Test


Instructions: Read each of the statements below and ask yourself if they apply to you. For each question, mark whether these statements apply to you using this scale:


1--none or a little of the time

2--some of the time

3--a good part of the time

4--most or all of the time


1 2 3 4 I prefer things to be done my way.

1 2 3 4 I am critical of people who don't live up to my standards or expectations.

1 2 3 4 I stick to my principles, no matter what.

1 2 3 4 I am upset by changes in the environment or in the behavior of people.

1 2 3 4 I am meticulous and fussy about my possessions.

1 2 3 4 I get upset if I don't finish a task.

1 2 3 4 I insist on full value for everything I purchase.

1 2 3 4 I like everything I do to be perfect.

1 2 3 4 I follow an exact routine for everyday tasks.

1 2 3 4 I do things precisely to the last detail.

1 2 3 4 I get tense when my day's schedule is upset.

1 2 3 4 I plan my time so that I won't be late.

1 2 3 4 It bothers me when my surroundings are not clean and tidy.

1 2 3 4 I make lists for my activities.

1 2 3 4 I think that I worry about minor aches and pains.

1 2 3 4 I like to be prepared for any emergency.

1 2 3 4 I am strict about fulfilling every one of my obligations.

1 2 3 4 I think that I expect worthy moral standards in others.

1 2 3 4 I am badly shaken when someone takes advantage of me.

1 2 3 4 I get upset when people do not replace things exactly as I left them.

1 2 3 4 I keep used or old things because they might be useful.

1 2 3 4 I think that I am sexually inhibited.

1 2 3 4 I find myself working rather than relaxing.

1 2 3 4 I prefer being a private person.

1 2 3 4 I like to budget myself carefully and live on a cash-and-serve basis.


Adapted from R. M. Gardner, ^ Exercises for general psychology. Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Copyright 1980.

Handout 12-3


Sexual Behavior Questionnaire


Instructions: Please rate whether or not each of the following activities represents normal sexual behavior by placing either a Y (yes) or N (no) in the blank.


1. Watching X-rated movies several times a week.

2. Having sex with more than one person at the same time.

3. Preferring oral sex over intercourse.

4. Having intercourse with a member of the same sex.

5. Fantasizing about having sex with a member of the same sex.

6. Fantasizing about a person other than one's partner during sexual intercourse

7. Masturbating in front of a partner.

8. Having sex somewhere other than a bed (e.g., floor, shower, kitchen, outdoors).

9. Never engaging in masturbation.

10. Becoming excited by exposing oneself in public.

11. Being celibate.

12. Being unable to achieve orgasm.

13. Enjoying being physically restrained during sex (e.g., bondage).

14. Becoming aroused by voyeurism (e.g., Peeping Toms).

15. Playing with food (e.g., fruit and whipped cream) during sex.

16. Dressing in the clothing of the other sex.

17. Preferring that one's partner initiates sex.

18. Inflicting pain during sex.

19. Receiving pain during sex.

20. Using sex toys (e.g., a vibrator) during sex.

21. Having rape fantasies.

22. Masturbating after marriage.

23. Not being aroused by a nude member of the other sex.

24. Being aroused by receiving an obscene phone call.

25. Being aroused by making an obscene phone call.

26. Engaging in sex with animals.

27. Deriving sexual pleasure from seeing or touching dead bodies.

28. Becoming aroused by being urinated on.

29. Becoming aroused by soiling the clothing of the other sex.

30. Becoming aroused by viewing or touching feces.


Reprinted with permission from M. E. Kite, Defining normal sexual behavior: A classroom exercise, Teaching of Psychology, 17, 118-119. Copyright 1990 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Handout 12-4


Diagnosing Mental Disorders


Instructions: For each of the following case studies, play the role of a clinician and make the most accurate diagnosis possible from the given information. Write your response in the blank space beneath each description.


1. If you interacted with Scott briefly, you might think that he is normal. However, once he told you about the government's plot against him and how he was going to be rescued by some alien friends, you would start to suspect that he is disordered.


2. Matthew, although a good-looking guy, is so preoccupied with what he thinks is his large, unsightly nose that he is unable to realistically evaluate his own looks and often talks with his hands in front of his face. He will likely have plastic surgery some day.


3. As a baby, Charlie resisted being held and showed no interest in human stimulation. Usually passive, he sometimes played with his wind-up toys but did not respond to his name being called and showed outbursts of temper if someone moved even one of his little cars from where he had placed it.


4. Shannon's moods seem to swing abruptly, and she often seems unable to control her impulses. She has had many sexual encounters and often complains of boredom, though she is seldom alone and often caught up in very intense, stormy relationships. Her friends are on edge around her because of her Jekyll-Hyde behavior.


5. Emmit, who has just suffered a serious knee injury, cannot undergo an MRI because he has an irrational fear of narrow, enclosed places.


6. Frank awoke one morning and suddenly realized that he had another name and a family in another state. He had no idea how he came to be living his present life.


7. Although Karina was not personally injured in the earthquake, the experience was a terrifying one and her house was badly damaged. She has frequent nightmares about earthquakes, and even when awake she sometimes gets flashes as if she's reliving the experience. The slightest noise or movement around her causes her heart to pound rapidly.


8. Roger loves to go to the mall on Saturdays, when it is most crowded, because there are lots of opportunities for him to rub up against women without them knowing it. Few activities make Roger as sexually aroused as this one.


9. Although Elaine is a kind, considerate person, she has trouble making decisions by herself. She leans heavily on her friends and family for advice, even for seemingly trivial decisions.


10. While teaching her class one day, Theresa suddenly begins having difficulty breathing. Her heart starts pounding wildly, and she feels weak and dizzy. She feels as if she's having a heart attack and is honestly afraid that she's going to die in the next minute or two. (Assume that Theresa is not having a heart attack).


11. Although Jack is enjoying watching the football game, he feels oddly detached, as though he is watching himself and his actions from outside of his own body. Because this has happened several times recently, Jack is startled for fear that he will totally lose control of his thoughts and behavior.


12. Sarah has an unrealistic fear of shopping in crowded stores and walking through crowded streets. She has begun to spend more and more time home alone in order to avoid the panicky feeling she gets when she goes out in public.


13. Sam's friends are starting to worry about him. Normally energetic and fun-loving, Sam has become withdrawn and sullen. He has lost weight, is constantly tired, and hasn't been showing up to lacrosse practice or to his fraternity meetings. In his conversations with others, he expresses feelings of doubt and unworthiness, and seems to be entertaining suicidal thoughts.


14. Because Amy feels "dirty" a lot of the time, she spends much of her day at the sink, washing and rewashing her hands hundreds of times until they are red and raw.


15. Joan has seen several specialists and undergone numerous diagnostic tests to determine the cause of her recurring headaches and episodes of dizziness. The doctors are perplexed and can seem to find no physiological cause for Joan's symptoms.




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